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MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration

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MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration Chapter 3 Networking with Windows Server 2008 * * Summary (continued) IPv4 IP ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration


1
MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008
Network Infrastructure Configuration
  • Chapter 3
  • Networking with Windows Server 2008

2
Objectives
  • Identify the basic components of a network
  • Describe the features of Internet Protocol
    version 4 (IPv4) and Internet Protocol version 6
    (IPv6)
  • Configure clients for IPv4 and IPv6
  • Upgrade a network from IPv4 to IPv6
  • Troubleshoot Transmission Control
    Protocol/Internet Protocol on networks

3
Introduction to Networking
  • Basics of networking
  • A network is a group of two or more nodes
  • Networking is the practice of
  • Designing, implementing, and managing a
    collection of computers and devices or a network
  • Types of networks
  • Network scale
  • Connection methodology
  • Network architecture
  • Network topology
  • Network protocol

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7
Introduction to Networking (continued)
  • Network scale
  • How networks occupy geographic space
  • Most common types of networks
  • Local area networks (LANs)
  • Wide area networks (WANs)
  • Connection methodology
  • Defines the type of hardware technology used for
    connecting network nodes

8
Introduction to Networking (continued)
  • Network topology
  • Categorizes networks based on the physical and
    logical relationship among devices
  • Network protocol
  • Allows network nodes to communicate with each
    other

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11
Basic Network Components
  • Network interface cards (NICs)
  • Hardware cards installed in computers so that
    they can connect to a physical network
  • Repeater
  • Hardware device that receives a signal and then
    resends it at a higher level or power
  • Hubs
  • Have multiple ports to which nodes connect

12
Basic Network Components (continued)
  • Bandwidth
  • Describes the amount of data that can travel from
    one network point to another within a specified
    time
  • Network bridges
  • Connect one or more network segments
  • Switches
  • Work at Layer 2 of the OSI model and forward
    frames between ports based on MAC addresses

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15
Basic Network Components (continued)
  • Routers
  • Responsible for forwarding packets between
    subnets, or networks with differing IP addressing
    schemes
  • Use dynamic routing protocols and preconfigured
    static routes to deliver packets
  • Always connected to at least two networks

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17
Network Addressing with TCP/IP
  • IPv4
  • The industry standard for network addressing in
    public and private networks
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • Set of rules to exchange messages with other
    Internet points at the information packet level
  • Guarantees the delivery of packets

18
Network Layers and the OSI Model
  • Physical layer
  • Responsible for bit-level transmission between
    network nodes
  • Data Link layer
  • Responsible for communications between adjacent
    network nodes
  • Network layer
  • Responsible for establishing paths for data
    transfer through the network

19
Network Layers and the OSI Model (continued)
  • Transport layer
  • Responsible for delivering messages between
    networked hosts
  • Session layer
  • Responsible for establishing process-to-process
    communications between networked hosts
  • Presentation layer
  • Responsible for defining the syntax that two
    network hosts use to communicate
  • Application layer
  • Responsible for providing user services

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21
Anatomy of an IPv4 Address
  • IPv4
  • Based on an addressing scheme that uses unique
    32-bit (4-byte) addresses
  • Binary numbers
  • Represented by either a 1 or a 0

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24
Anatomy of an IPv4 Address (continued)
  • Activity 3-1 Converting Decimal Numbers to
    Binary Numbers
  • Time Required 15 minutes
  • Objective Practice decimal-to-binary conversion

25
Subnetting
  • The process of creating multiple smaller
    networks, or subnets, from an IP network address
  • Subnet mask
  • Can determine the network and host ID portions of
    an IP address

26
Subnetting (continued)
  • Activity 3-2 Using the Windows Calculator to
    Convert Decimal Numbers to Binary
  • Time Required 5 minutes
  • Objective Use the Windows Calculator to perform
    decimal-to-binary number conversions

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29
Subnetting (continued)
  • Special-use IPv4 addresses
  • Defined by Request for Comment (RFC) 3330
  • Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR)
  • Uses variable length subnet masks to provide
    individualized network addressing
  • Supernetting
  • Allows you to combine two or more subnetworks
    into a larger supernetwork

30
Public and Private Addresses
  • Public addresses
  • Issued IP addresses that are available from the
    Internet
  • Centrally registered and maintained through
    ICANN, ISPs, and domain registration
    organizations
  • Private IP addresses
  • Not available or routable on the Internet
  • Used by administrators deploying internal
    networks

31
Introduction to IPv6
  • IPv6
  • The future of IP on the Internet and on public
    and private networks
  • Advantages
  • Improved security
  • Improved autoconfiguration
  • Simplified routing
  • Addressing with IPv6
  • IPv6 uses source and destination addresses that
    are 128 bits, or 16 bytes, in length

32
Introduction to IPv6 (continued)
  • Address structure
  • IPv6 rules for shortening addresses
  • Any leading digit of 0 (zero) can be dropped from
    any group
  • Two or more groups of zeroes can be replaced by
    two colons (can be done only once per address)

33
Introduction to IPv6 (continued)
  • Activity 3-3 Simplifying IPv6 Addresses
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Transcribe IPv6 addresses using rules
    for simplification

34
Introduction to IPv6 (continued)
  • IPv6 addresses
  • Can be written with CIDR notation for subnetting
    an address
  • For example, the following address represents a
    48-bit network address
  • 10755ab12/48

35
IPv6 Address Types
  • IPv6 addresses fall into the following types
  • Link-local addresses
  • Unique local addresses
  • Global addresses
  • Multicast addresses
  • Special addresses

36
IPv6 Address Types (continued)
  • Activity 3-4 Using IPconfig to Determine
    Link-Local Addresses
  • Time Required 5 minutes
  • Objective Use IPconfig to determine a link-local
    address

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38
Configuring Clients for IPv4 and IPv6
  • DHCP
  • Automates the allocation of IP addresses through
    a server-based role
  • APIPA addresses
  • Allow clients on the same subnet to communicate
    without DHCP or manual configuration
  • Alternate configuration
  • Used to set a static IP address in your IP
    configuration that will be used if DHCP is not
    available

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40
Configuring Clients for IPv4 and IPv6 (continued)
  • Activity 3-6 Manually Configuring DHCP with an
    Alternate IP Address Configuration
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Configure a client to use DHCP and an
    alternate IP configuration

41
Configuring Clients for IPv4 and IPv6 (continued)
  • Manually configuring IP addresses
  • Often referred to as static configuration or a
    static IP addresses
  • Static IP addresses
  • Commonly used on servers where a dynamic IP
    address would affect network resources

42
Configuring Clients for IPv4 and IPv6 (continued)
  • Activity 3-7 Manually Configuring a Static IP
    Address Using Network Connections
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Configure a client with manual IP
    addressing

43
Configuring Clients for IPv4 and IPv6 (continued)
  • Activity 3-8 Manually Configuring an IP Address
    Using netsh
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Configure a client with manual IP
    addressing using netsh

44
Configuring Clients for IPv4 and IPv6 (continued)
  • Almost all computers automatically configure IPv6
    settings
  • Configuration methods
  • Stateless and stateful
  • DHCPv6
  • Main function is to provide clients with
    secondary network configuration information
  • Neighbor Discovery
  • Protocol used by IPv6 clients for router
    discovery on a network

45
Manual Configuration Through the GUI
  • Activity 3-9 Manually Configure a Static IP
    Address Using Network Connections
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Configure a client with manual IP
    addressing

46
Manual Configuration with Netsh
  • Netsh
  • Can be used to manually configure your Windows
    Server 2008 server with a static IP address
  • Syntax to add an IPv6 address
  • netsh interface ipv6 add address interface
    address

47
Manual Configuration with Netsh (continued)
  • Activity 3-10 Manually Configuring an IP Address
    Using netsh
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Configure a client with manual IP
    addressing using netsh

48
Upgrading Your Network to IPv6
  • Dual-Layer IP stack
  • TCP/IP stack in Windows Server 2008 uses
    dual-layer architecture
  • IPv6 over IPv4
  • Tunnels that can be created
  • Router-to-router
  • Host-to-router and router-to-host
  • Host-to-host

49
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50
ISATAP
  • Allows IPv6 routers and hosts to communicate
    across IPv4 networks
  • Requires a router that supports ISATAP
  • Interface ID is separated into two parts
  • First 32 bits are either 05efe for a private
    address or 2005efe for a public address
  • Last 32 bits are the IPv4 address

51
6to4
  • Uses tunneling of IPv6 packets over an IPv4
    network
  • Stores the IPv4 address of the ISATAP router in
    bits 17 to 48
  • Encapsulates only the IPv4 routers IP address,
    not the destination client

52
Teredo
  • Allows IPv6 hosts to communicate over IPv4
    networks that use NAT
  • Works only with NAT implementations that support
    UDP port translation
  • Should always be implemented with a client-based
    stateful firewall

53
Using Netsh to Configure Transition Technologies
  • To determine the current state of ISATAP
  • netsh interface isatap show state
  • To enable ISATAP
  • netsh interface isatap set state enabled
  • If ISATAP is enabled and needs to be disabled
  • netsh interface isatap set state disabled

54
Using Netsh to Configure Transition Technologies
(continued)
  • Activity 3-11 Manually Configuring Clients to
    Use ISATAP
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Configure a Windows Server 2008 client

55
Enabling Teredo
  • To determine the current state of Teredo
  • netsh interface ipv6 show teredo
  • To enable Teredo for workgroup clients
  • netsh interface ipv6 set teredo client
  • To enable Teredo for Active Directory clients
  • netsh interface ipv6 set teredo enterpriseclient
  • To view the Teredo status after enabling Teredo
  • netsh interface teredo show state

56
Enabling Teredo (continued)
  • Activity 3-12 Manually Configuring Clients to
    Use Teredo
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Configure a Windows Server 2008 client
    to use Teredo

57
Disabling IPv6
  • For a specific network adapter
  • You can disable IPv6 using the Network
    Connections window and by editing the Registry
  • To use the Registry to disable all of IPv6 on a
    computer, create the following Registry key
  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Servi
    ces\TCPIP6\Parameters\ DisabledComponents

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59
Troubleshooting TCP/IP Networking
  • Ipconfig
  • Displays the current IP configuration on your
    local client
  • Provides basic IP information
  • Ipconfig /all command
  • A good way to start troubleshooting clients that
    have problems accessing network resources

60
Troubleshooting TCP/IP Networking (continued)
  • Ping
  • Utility that determines whether a target host is
    on and responding to communication
  • Works by sending an ICMP echo request packet to
    the target
  • By default, sends a 32-byte packet four times
    before exiting

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62
Troubleshooting TCP/IP Networking (continued)
  • Pathping
  • Used to map the hops a packet must make to reach
    a target
  • Tracert
  • Command-line tool for tracing the route between
    two nodes
  • Netstat
  • Command-line tool for displaying network
    connection information such as routing tables

63
Troubleshooting TCP/IP Networking (continued)
  • Activity 3-13 Using Command-Line Utilities for
    Troubleshooting
  • Time Required 20 minutes
  • Objective Perform troubleshooting tasks using
    command-line utilities

64
Network Troubleshooting Methodology
  • Effective troubleshooting
  • Requires a logical and systematic approach that
    rules out possible areas of failure and allows
    you to narrow the search for the root cause of
    the failure

65
Summary
  • Network
  • Can be described according to its scale,
    methodology, architecture, topology, and protocol
  • Networks
  • Have many components necessary for transmission
    of data including NICs, switches, and routers
  • Routers
  • Use IP addresses to route traffic between
    networks
  • IPv4
  • Current industry standard for network addressing

66
Summary (continued)
  • IPv4 IP addresses
  • 32-bit numbers split into four octets separated
    by decimal points
  • IPv6
  • Future standard for network addressing
  • IPv6 addresses
  • 128-bit numbers split into eight groups of four
    hexadecimal numbers
  • Subnetting
  • Divides a larger network into smaller networks

67
Summary (continued)
  • Private IP addresses as defined by RFC 1918
  • Include three IP ranges that are not publicly
    routable
  • Two types of IPv4 addressing exist classful and
    classless
  • When deploying IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, you can
  • Manually configure static IP addresses, or
  • You can use automatic allocation
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