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Fat Soluble Vitamins and Health


Fat Soluble Vitamins and Health Overdoses and Toxicity of Vitamin E Doses greater than 800-1500iu/day may increase mortality due to all causes. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fat Soluble Vitamins and Health

Fat Soluble Vitamins and Health
Vitamin A D E K
  • These fat soluble vitamins work as a family
  • They reside in membranes

Vitamin A
  • First identified as an essential growth factor
    found in animal fats and fish oils
  • Plant carotenoids also have vitamin a activity

Vitamin A in the Body
  • Vitamin A is used in two forms.
  • Retinal in the eye.
  • Retinoic acid in other tissues.
  • Retinyl Palmitate as a vitamin A storage form.
  • Beta Carotene from vegetables and fruits consists
    of two vitamin A molecules joined at the tail.
  • Enzymes allow symmetric cleavage to yield two
    molecules of vitamin A.

Vitamin A Eye
  • Eye uses vitamin a as retinal

Vitamin A Retinoic Acid
  • Hormone like growth factor
  • Used by epithelial cells

Vitamin A Function
  • Gene Transcription
  • Interact with nuclear receptors including
    receptors of thyroid, vitamin d, and insulin
  • Vision health and function
  • Maintenance of healthy tissue especially mucus
    membranes and skin
  • Immune function
  • Hormone production and balance
  • Cholesterol metabolism
  • Fertility and fetal tissue development
  • Cardiovascular health
  • Antioxidant

Vitamin A Deficiencies
  • Fetal abnormalities of eyes, lungs, gut, and
  • Night blindness, clouding and malformation of
    cornea, corneal degradation, and dry eyes.
  • Weak immunity, direct and dysfunctional mucus
  • Keratinization of epithelial tissues, eyes,
    lungs, urogenital, and GI.
  • Skin disorders, acne, eczema, psoriasis.
  • Infertility
  • Diabetes, hormone imbalances of thyroid, adrenal,
    sex hormones.
  • Weak teeth and bones

Vitamin A Excess/Toxicity
  • Anorexia, nausea/vomit, and diarrhea.
  • Headache, blurred vision, decrease coordination,
    and insomnia.
  • Dry hair, skin, and mucus membranes.
  • Weak teeth and bones.
  • Birth defects
  • Dosing greater than 1.75 mil iu, or chronic use
    greater than 2.8K iu/d.
  • Liver and kidney disease, smokers, and
  • Synthetic vitamin a, accutane, retin A.

Toxicity of Vitamin A in Arctic Animals
  • Their Livers are Loaded with Toxic Levels of
    Vitamin A

Vitamin A Dosing
  • RDA AI (Recommended Dietary Allowance, Adequate
  • Age 1-3 years. 1,000 iu/day
  • Age 4-8 years..1,320 iu/day
  • Age 9-13 years. 2,000 iu/day
  • Age 14-18 years females 2,300 iu/day
  • Age 14-18 years pregnant. 2,500 iu/day
  • Age 14-18 years lactating4,000 iu/day
  • Age 14-18 years male 3,000 iu/day
  • Age 19 years female 2,300 iu/day
  • Age 19 years pregnant.. 2,600 iu/day
  • Age 19 years lactating 4,300 iu/day
  • Age 19 years male. 3,000 iu/day

Vitamin A Levels
  • Quest Diagnostic Labs levels
  • 38-98 mcg/L

Vitamin D
  • Finally in the press and on the minds of a
    greater number of even conventional
  • More like a hormone than a vitamin.

Forms of Vitamin D
  • D2 ergocalciferol produced by invertebrates,
    yeast, fungus, plants.
  • D3 cholecalciferol produced in the skin of
    vertebrates via ultraviolet B (UVB). Small
    amounts occur naturally in fatty fish, eggs, and
  • Free

Vitamin D Production
  • Provitamin D3 is a precursor of cholesterol found
    in the skin.
  • UVB converts it to vitamin D3.
  • D3 is transferred from blood to liver where it is
    transformed to 25 hydroxy D3 (calcidiol).
  • 25 hydroxy D3 is transferred to the kidneys for
    transformation to 1,25 hydroxy D3 (calcitriol)
    the active form of vitamin D.
  • 1,25 hydroxy D3 is also produced by the Immune
    system for immune activation and modulation.

Vitamin D Function
  • Vitamin D has receptors throughout the body.
  • Brain
  • Genes
  • Immune System
  • Membranes
  • Bones
  • Skin
  • Heart and vasculature
  • Lungs
  • Intestines
  • Liver
  • Hormone sensitive tissues, breast, ovaries,
  • antioxidant

Vitamin D and Genes
  • Vitamin D modulates gene expression by modulating
    gene of transcription proteins.
  • Vitamin D receptor is a part of Nuclear Receptor
    superfamily of steroid/thyroid hormone receptors
    (works closely with hormones).
  • Vitamin D receptor is found in cells of most

Vitamin D Calcium Metabolism
  • Vitamin D helps orchestrate calcium/phosphorus
    levels and ratios along with vitamin A and K, and
    parathyroid hormone.
  • Calcium flux across a membrane is more than bone
  • Calcium flux is also an integral part of muscle
    function, cardiovascular function, clotting,
    energy production and cell signaling.

Vitamin D Cell Function
  • Vitamin D is involved in cell proliferation,
    differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell
  • Shares many functions as vitamin A.

Vitamin D Immune
  • Vitamin D as calcitriol is synthesized by immune
    cells for local activity against invaders
  • D3 increases natural killer cell function, a
    major soldier in fighting cancers, viruses,
    fungus and yeast.
  • D3 increases phagocytic activity of macrophages.
  • D3 increases macrophage production of
    cathelicidin, an antimicrobial peptide.
  • D3 is required for proper function of HLA.DRB1 a
    major histocompatability gene needed to
    distinguish self from nonself (autoimmunity).

Vitamin D Bones
  • D3 increases calcium absorption across the gut
  • D3 increases calcium transport to bones.
  • D3 interacts with vitamin A and K as well as
    parathyroid hormone to regulate
    calcium/phosphorus levels and ratios.
  • D3 modulates osteoclast/osteoblast activity at
    the bone.
  • D3 speaks with other hormones via the super
    family of hormone receptors.

Vitamin D Deficiency
  • Bones, rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, bad
  • Auto immunity, rheumatoid arthritis, jra, lupus,
    MS, parkinsons, dementias including Alzheimer,
    autoimmune thyroid (graves, hashimotos).
  • Cancers breast, prostate, lung, colon, pancreas
  • Cardiovascular disease, hypertension.
  • Insulin resistance/diabetes.
  • Infections , flu, pneumonias, colds.
  • Mood disorders, depression, seasonal affect.
  • Hair and skin health.

Multiple Sclerosis
Vitamin D Deficiency Causes
  • Lack of outdoor activity.
  • Sunblock use (carotenoids are plants sunblock,
    they do concentrate in the skin).
  • Malabsorption.
  • Liver disease.
  • Kidney disease.
  • Age decreases conversion.
  • Obesity decreases production.
  • Synthetic D2 supplementation, decreases D3 amount
    and increases 1,25 OH D3 degradation.

Vitamin D Toxicity
  • Not established thought to b 50,000iu/day.
  • Symptoms reflect those of high calcium.
  • Anorexia, nausea/vomit, cramps GI and
  • Polydipsia/uria, renal failure.
  • Weakness, nervousness.
  • Itch
  • Pregnancy can result in retardation, facial

Vitamin D3 Dosing
  • AI infant and children 200iu/day.
  • AI adults 600-800iu/day.
  • CHM 4,000- 6,000iu/day (monitored).

  • Whole body minimum erythema dosing (minimum
    amount to redden but not burn the skin) is
    equivalent to 10,000-25,0000iu dosing of vitamin
  • Sunlight is preferred, but difficult for
  • Tanning bulbs can be used to approximate
    sunlight, but the ballasts control the amount of
  • Use electronic or high frequency ballasts are
    preferred to old magnetic or choke ballast.

Vitamin E
  • Vitamin E is a generic name given to a family of
    essential fat soluble antioxidants 4 tocopherols
    (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta), and 4 groups of
  • D Alpha tocopherol has the greatest activity.
  • They reside in membranes where they work to
    protect against oxidation of these delicate fats
    by free radicals produced by the energy producing
    machinery of our cells.

Vitamin D Levels
  • QDL 20-100 ng/ml for 25 OH D3 (best for
    evaluating stores)
  • Usual levels 10-55.
  • CHM levels as low as single digits in the home
    bound, summer levels 30s, nonsummer 20s.
  • When used as a medication experts on the average
    desire higher levels of 80-100.
  • Require close monitoring by a professional.

Vitamin E Function
  • Principally as the resident antioxidant in
    membranes loaded with delicate double bond fats.
  • Enhance immune function.
  • Regulates platelet function.
  • Aids in red blood cell formation.
  • Involved in vitamin K use.
  • ? Function as a signaling molecule?

Vitamin E Sources
Vitamin E Deficiencies
  • Cardiovascular disease (majority of vitamin E
    found in LDL fraction of cholesterol)
  • Cancer
  • Alzheimers
  • Cataracts

Vitamin E Levels and Dosing
  • QDL 5.7-19.9 mg/L
  • AI 22.5 iu/day
  • Average intake 11.4iu/day females 15iu/day
  • Optimum 100-400iu/day

Overdoses and Toxicity of Vitamin E
  • Doses greater than 800-1500iu/day may increase
    mortality due to all causes.
  • Possible mechanisms, altered beta oxidation
    reducing the ability to burn fat for energy, or
    inability to burn dangerous fats?
  • Bleeding may be a possibility especially in those
    deficient in vitamin K.

Vitamin K
  • Essential FSV involved in post translational
    modification of proteins involved in clotting and
    bone metabolism.
  • K1(phylloquinone, phytomenadione, phytonadione)
    found in vegetables, avocados, and kiwi.
  • K2 (menaquinone, menatetrenone) produced by GI
    flora, found in eggs, meats, dairy, and
    natto(fermented soy beans).

Vitamin K Function
  • Blood clotting regulation.
  • Bone metabolism.
  • Calcium/phosphorus levels and ratios modulation.
  • Modulation of activities of other FSV.
  • Antioxidant.
  • Antiemetic pregnancy hyperemesis

Vitamin K Deficiencies
  • Bleeding.
  • Osteopenia/osteoporosis.
  • Calcification of atherosclerotic plaques.
  • ?Cancers? (decrease cirrhosis to liver cancer)
  • Medications, warfarin, aspirin, dilantin,
    cholestyramine, and antibiotics.
  • Liver and gall bladder disease.
  • Malabsorption (inflammatory bowel, cystic

Vitamin K Levels and Dosing
  • QDL 80-1160 pg/ml
  • US DRI AI females 90mcg/d, pregnancy 65mcg/d,
    males 120mcg/d.
  • Ideal per Dr. Cees Vermeer 45-185 mcg K2/d

Vitamin K Levels and Dosing
  • QDL 80-1160 pg/ml
  • US DRI AI females 90mcg/d, pregnancy 65mcg/d,
    males 120mcg/d.
  • Ideal per Dr. Cees Vermeer 45-185 mcg K2/d

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
  • Omega 3 Fats, flax seed oil, small amounts
    converted to EPA and DHA, fish oils, long chain
    fats with multiple double bonds.
  • Omega 6 Fats, sunflower, safflower, walnut, hemp
    etc., small amounts converted to GLA, found in
    evening primrose, borage, and black currant.

  • Local hormones made from EFAs in membrane
  • PGE1 (healing PG)promotes blood flow, decreases
    inflammation, promotes repair, decreases blood
    clotting, decreases membrane leakiness
  • PGE2 (inflammatory PG)promotes inflammation,
    clotting, membrane leakiness, vasoconstriction
  • PGE3 from the omega 3 fats reduces the release of
    inflammatory arachadonic acid from the cell
  • Lay a strong foundation with omega 63 ratios of
    21 to 41.

Prostaglandin Cascade
Prostaglandin Flow
  • Omega 3 fats modulates the release of
    inflammatory arachadonic acid (PGE2) from the
    membrane via prostaglandin E3 (PGE3). This
    decreases inflammation but does not promote
  • Omega 6 fats can be gated to flow toward the
    inflammatory PGE2 pathway, or toward the healing
    PGE1 pathway. The gate is controlled by sugar,
    infection, toxin, and allergen. The less bad
    guys the more peace, prosperity, and healing
    takes place. The more bad guys the more war is

Take Home Message
  • Eat a great organic diet, rich in multicolored
    fruits and vegetables, complex nonprocessed nuts,
    seeds, grains, beans, and lentils, clean proteins
    from animals and fish. Balance 2 tablespoons of
    EFA/d. Take Vitamin A 5,000 -10,000 iu/wk,
    Vitamin D 4,000iu/d, Vitamin E 100iu/d, Vitamin K
    100-200mcg/wk, Evening Primrose 1 caps
    40mgGLA/wk, EPA 800mg/month, plenty of organic
    butter and olive oil daily. Replace carbohydrates
    with oils to regulate insulin. These are general
    guidelines for the healthy members of the
    population I take care of. For individual needs
    especially for addressing illness please see a
    nutritionally trained professional.

Do Not Forget the Fluff!!
  • Laughter
  • Joy
  • Community
  • Tranquility
  • Love

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