Members of the original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. Top row, left to right: Thomas B. Marsh (no picture available), David W. Patten (no picture available), Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball. Middle row: Orson Hyde, William E. Mc’Lellin, Parley P. Pratt, - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Members of the original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. Top row, left to right: Thomas B. Marsh (no picture available), David W. Patten (no picture available), Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball. Middle row: Orson Hyde, William E. Mc’Lellin, Parley P. Pratt,


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Title: Members of the original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. Top row, left to right: Thomas B. Marsh (no picture available), David W. Patten (no picture available), Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball. Middle row: Orson Hyde, William E. Mc’Lellin, Parley P. Pratt,

Members of the original Quorum of the Twelve
Apostles. Top row, left to right Thomas B. Marsh
(no picture available), David W. Patten (no
picture available), Brigham Young, Heber C.
Kimball. Middle row Orson Hyde, William E.
McLellin, Parley P. Pratt, Luke S. Johnson.
Bottom row William B. Smith, Orson Pratt,
John F. Boynton, Lyman E. Johnson (1835).
Original plans
More original plans
More plans
Kirtland Temple Side View
Kirtland Temple rear view. The central panel of
the lower windows (the arched window) is the
window of the Holy of Holies of the temple. It
was inside this window that Jehovah, Moses,
Elias, and Elijah appeared to Joseph Smith and
Oliver Cowdery (110). The most upper room (third
floor) open into the fifth room where the vision
of the Celestial Kingdom was given (137).
Kirtland Temple Front View
Melchizedek Pulpits Located on the west end of
the first floor.
Melchizedek Pulpits and Veil
On April 3, 1836, Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery
dropped the veil that separated the pulpits from
the rest of the room and offered prayer.  In
response to that prayer, one of the most
important events of the restoration took place. 
First, Jesus Christ, calling himself Jehovah,
appeared.  After his appearance, Moses, Elias,
and Elijah appeared committing the necessary keys
to perform temple ordinances (DC 110).
Across the front of the pulpits is a folding
sacrament table shaped like an oxen yoke. The
Melchizedek Priesthood pulpits represent the line
of authority in the Melchizedek Priesthood.
  • P.E.M. Presidency Elders Melchizedek
    Elders (bottom row)
  • M.H.P. Melchizedek High Priesthood
  • High Priests (second row from bottom)
  • P.M.H. Presiding Melchizedek High
  • Quorum of the Twelve
  • (third row from bottom)
  • M.P.C. Melchizedek Presiding Council
  • First Presidency (top row)

This is an inside view of the translating room,
presidents office. Hebrew School was held here
in Jan. and March of 1836. Anointing heads with
oil was done here.
  • Doctrine and Covenants 137 (vision of the
    celestial kingdom) was received in that room.
  • Joseph also beheld the Twelve Apostles of the
    Lamb who were then on the earth, who held the
    keys of this last ministry, in foreign lands,
    standing together in a circle, much fatigued,
    with their clothes tattered and feet swollen,
    with their eyes cast downward, and Jesus standing
    in their midst, and they did not behold Him. The
    Savior looked upon them and wept.

  • Joseph beheld Elder McLellin in the south,
    standing upon a hill, surrounded by a vast
    multitude, preaching to them, and a lame man
    standing before him supported by his crutches he
    threw them down at his word and leaped as a hart,
    by the mighty power of God. Also, I saw Elder
    Brigham Young standing in a strange land, in the
    far south and west, in a desert place, upon a
    rock in the midst of about a dozen men of color,
    who appeared hostile. He was preaching to them
    in their own tongue, and the angel of God
    standing above his head, with a drawn sword in
    his hand, protecting him, but he did not see it.
    And I finally saw the Twelve in the celestial
    kingdom of God. I also beheld the redemption of
    Zion, and many things which the tongue of man
    cannot describe in full (HC, 2380-381).

The third level was divided into five rooms.
Windows on both the north and south sides of each
room. The fifth or last room on the west side
was the translating room.
Glorious Days in Kirtland
  • The Egyptian Mummies
  • Joseph purchased them in July of 1835 from a man
    named Michael Chandler.
  • The mummies came from tomb 22 in the Valley of
    the Kings in Egypt (King Tutts tomb is 62).
  • The scroll of Abraham was never translated in
    its entirety.
  • The scroll of Joseph was never translated
    because Joseph said the people were not ready for
  • It was purchased for somewhere in the range of
    2,000- 2,400 dollars.

First Two Stakes of the Church
  • 1. Kirtland Stake - Joseph Smith Jr.
  • 2. Liberty Stake - David Whitmer
  • Oliver Cowdery served as assistant to the
    President of the Church.
  • Keep in mind that the men on the High Council
    were viewed like todays General Authorities.

The Steve Young Story
  • 22,000 cars passed through the street every day
    that separated the different Church Historical
    sites in Kirtland.
  • President Kimball was almost hit by a car while
    crossing the street during a visit.
  • Karl Anderson was asked by the Brethren to try
    and convince the City Council to change the
    roadway so it would be safer.
  • The council met on the subject, but voted it down.

  • Later that same month Steve Young and Joe
    Montana were pictured in the May 31st, 1993
    Sports Illustrated.
  • Steve Young just happened to be wearing his
    lucky Kirtland t-shirt that read Kirtland,
    City of Faith and Beauty.
  • In the article Steve Young mentioned that he
    wore the t-shirt under his shoulder pads for all
    of his games and that it was his lucky t-shirt.
  • Some of the locals in Kirtland saw the picture
    and were pretty excited about it.
  • By chance (?) Steve Young was scheduled to play
    an exhibition football game in Ohio later that
    month and was asked by the Brethren to pitch
    the idea again of changing the street so it would
    be safer. Amazingly, this time it passed 7-0.
  • The Church paid for all the work that was done.

Newel K. Whitney Store and Home
Newel K. Whitney Store
The Kirtland Temple
  • DC 108-109
  • Dedicatory prayers are always read (Some members
    left the Church over it).
  • The dedicatory prayer was pronounced by Joseph
    Smith in the afternoon.
  • Joseph announced that Peter the Apostle had been
    in their midst to accept the dedication.

  • Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Warren Cowdery and
    Elder W. Parrish, and myself assisted in writing
    a prayer for the dedication of the house (Oliver
    Cowderys Journal).
  • The Kirtland Temple cost 70,000 dollars and
    took three years to build at great sacrifice to
    the people.

  • The Church still owed 13,000 dollars on the
    Kirtland Temple and took collections at the door
    on the day of the dedication.
  • They raised 1,000 dollars on the day.
  • Frazier Eaton donated 700 dollars and was not
    allowed in the Temple because he arrived late and
    no seating was available.
  • Frazier felt like his substantial donation
    guaranteed him a saved seat for the dedication.
  • He left the Church because of it.

  • The Kirtland Temple was dedicated on March 27th,
  • It was never intended to be a full endowment
  • The First Presidency provided the ushering at
    the dedicatory service.
  • The Spirit of God was sung by the Saints and
    it is still sung at every Temple dedicatory
    session today.

  • The Service lasted 7 hours and no one left.
  • About 800 Saints were turned away and went to
    the school house and conducted a meeting of their
  • The Sacrament was passed. Frederick G. Williams
    saw the Savior, Peter attended and sat by Joseph
    Smith Sr.
  • Joseph blessed the congregation, and the meeting
    concluded with the Hosanna Shout.
  • That evening 416 bearers of the priesthood
    gathered and witnessed more marvelous

  • Of these days in Kirtland Elder Heber C. Kimball
    in his Journal said
  • The Church was in a state of poverty and
    distress, in consequence of which it appeared
    almost impossible that the commandments could be
    fulfilled relative to the Kirtland Temple at the
    same time our enemies were raging and threatening
    destruction upon us, and we had to guard
    ourselves night after night, and for weeks were
    not permitted to take off our clothes, and were
    obliged to lay with our fire locks in our arms
    (Times and Seasons, vol. vi, 771).

Why Temples?
  • DC 1095
  • That the Son of Man might have a place to
    manifest himself to his people.
  • DC 1096-9
  • A House of learning!
  • DC 10910-14
  • When dedicating a building, we present if
    officially as our gift to the Lord. This means
    tomorrow morning when anyone enters this
    building, they come here as guests of the Lord.
    It then belongs to him (Boyd K. Packer).

  • DC 10935-37 Thy Lords Acceptance
  • DC 10944 Thy will be done
  • DC 10979-80 Hosanna
  • The word hosanna as we know it, originated from
    two Hebrew words found in Psalm 11825, and
    roughly means, save us, we beseech thee.

DC 110
  • After this meeting, Fast days began and were
    held on the first Thursday of every month. It
    was an all day event.
  • The Kirtland Temple was used for many meetings
    besides the performance of sacred ordinances.
  • Active and worthy Saints as well as less active
    Saints were invited to attend the meetings held.
  • Children were also allowed to enter the Temple.

  • On April 3rd, 1836, the Jews were expecting
    Elijah to come and he came. It was Easter Sunday
    --- Passover Sunday.
  • President Joseph Fielding Smith noted an
    interesting aspect of Elijahs return to the
    earth on April 3rd 1836.
  • Edersheim in his work, the Temple says To
    this day, in every Jewish home, at a certain part
    of the Paschal service (i.e., when they drink the
    third cup)- the door is opened to admit Elijah
    the prophet as forerunner of the Messiah, while
    appropriate passages are at the same time read
    which foretell the destruction of all heathen
    nations. It is a remarkable coincidence that, in
    instituting his own Supper, the Lord Jesus
    connected the symbols, not of judgment, but of
    his dying love, with his third cup.

  • It was, I am informed, on the third day of
    April, 1836, that the Jews in their homes at the
    Paschal feast, opened their doors for Elijah to
    enter. On that very day Elijah did enter not
    in the home of the Jews to partake of the
    Passover with them but he appeared in the house
    of the Lord in Kirtland, and there bestowed his
    keys to bring to pass the very things for which
    these Jews, assembled in their homes, were
    seeking (Doctrine of Salvation, 2100-01).

  • DC 1101-10
  • The Lords Acceptance
  • Although we do not normally think of the Lord as
    bestowing keys on this occasion, as did the other
    heavenly visitors, Orson Pratt informs us that He
    did indeed give keys of instruction and counsel
    and authority to his servants.
  • Moses
  • The main object was to build unto the Lord a
    house whereby He could reveal unto His people the
    ordinances of His house and the glories of His
    kingdom, and teach the people the way of
    salvation for there are certain ordinances and
    principles that, when they are taught and
    practiced, must be done in a place or house built
    for that purpose (Temple Ordinances).

  • Elias
  • The gospel of Abraham was one of Celestial
    Marriage. This power and commission is what
    Elias restored (Mormon Doctrine, 219-20).
  • A man called Elias apparently lived in mortality
    in the days of Abraham, who committed the
    dispensation of the gospel of Abraham to Joseph
    Smith and Oliver Cowdery in the Kirtland Temple
    on April 3rd, 1836. We have no specific
    information as to the details of his mortal life
    of ministry (Bible Dictionary, 663).
  • Elijah
  • Elijah restored the sealing power that comes
    with the fullness of the Melchizedek Priesthood
    (Teachings, 330).

  • Three-fold Mission of the Church
  • 1. Perfect the Saints - Gospel of Abraham
  • (Elias) - Endowment
  • 2. Missionary Work - Gathering of Israel
  • (Moses) - Aaronic Priesthood
  • 3. Redeem the Dead - Sealing Power
  • (Elijah) - Calling and Election

DC 11011-16
  • All of this brings us to a most interesting
    comparison between the activities that took place
    at the Kirtland Temple pulpits during the visions
    we have discussed and those that transpired on
    the Mount of Transfiguration (Matthew 171-9,
    Mark 92-9, Luke 928-36).

  • The location was a secluded and high mountain.
  • The Savior was engaged in prayer.
  • The Saviors clothing was white.
  • The angels who appeared on the holy mountain
    were the very same ones that visited the Kirtland
  • A cloud appeared that veiled the Father and
    through which his voice was heard.

  • The Father gave his Son honor and glory, which
    may have reference to the keys of the priesthood
    (DC 12434, 95).
  • The Savior received the More Sure Word of
  • A vision was seen of the earth in its
    paradisiacal state.
  • A charge was given by the Savior not to reveal
    what had been experienced.
  • If one considers that the Kirtland Temple
    pulpits somewhat resemble a miniature mountain,
    then the parallels are even more striking.

John Tanner and His Generosity
  • According to todays standards John Tanner would
    be considered a multi-millionaire.
  • Jared and Simeon Carter taught and baptized him.
  • It took John Tanner two years to liquidate all
    of his assets and join the Church.
  • In 1834 the Church was 2,000 dollars in debt
    for the Temple property and John Tanner gladly
    paid it.

  • Shortly after he had bailed the church out with
    2,000 dollars for the temple property, the
    Prophet again, needed more money for the Church.
  • John Tanner gave him 15,000 dollars. Joseph
    gave him a note stating that the Church would pay
    him back in full.
  • Ten years later on the streets of Nauvoo, Joseph
    came upon across John Tanner. He was embarrassed
    and apologized for not having paid back the money
    he owed.
  • John Tanner said, you owe me nothing. He then
    took the promissory note Joseph had given him in
    Kirtland and burned it in the fire.

  • Joseph began to weep and asked if he could give
    him a blessing. John accepted his request and
    Joseph placed his hands on his head and blessed
    him saying, Because of your faith and obedience,
    there will never come a time when your family
    will want for temporal things.
  • John Tanner was a faithful man and was blessed
    with many descendants (N. Eldon Tanner and O.C.
    Tanner, to name a few).
  • My mother comes from the Tanner line!

Many Manifestations
  • In a fifteen week period starting in January
    1836, there were more revelations given than any
    other similar time frame in the History of the
  • Jan. 21, 1836, Joseph received section 137, a
    vision of the Celestial Kingdom. He said he saw
    resurrected beings, mortals, and departed
  • On Jan. 22, 1836 many people saw visions and
    experienced the gift of tongues. Angels mingled
    their voices with those of mortals. It lasted
    for over an hour and a half.
  • On Jan. 28, 1836 Roger Orton saw six angels, one
    was riding a beautiful white horse outside of the
    temple with the assignment to keep the legions of
    evil spirits away.

  • Several non-members of the Church saw the temple
    with a beautiful glow. Some saw angels walking
    back and forth along the roof acting as sentinels
    to ward off evil spirits hovering in the air,
    trying to get in to the temple.
  • Zebedee Coltrin saw the Savior in the Kirtland
    Temple in all of His glory. In his journal he
    wrote that he had viewed the crucifixion of
    Christ. He said that they wrapped a white sheet
    around his waist and then drove into his hands
    metal spikes similar to railroad spikes today.

  • Others have had that same vision (Orson F.
    Whitney and David B. Haight).
  • On March 27th 1836, (Sunday and also the
    dedication), an angel walked down the aisle and
    up to the stand and took a seat next to Frederick
    G. Williams.
  • The angel was the Apostle Peter. He was the one
    sent to accept the dedication of the Kirtland

  • David Whitmer saw three other angels at the
    dedication though they were not identified.
  • Jesus Christ came later.
  • During the Priesthood meeting that night angels
    came down through the ceiling and the temple was
    filled with the hosts of heaven. This was the
    same evening that a strange light rested upon the
    outside of the temple which people could see from
    a distance and knew that it was filled with the
    glory of God.
  • Even those outside the temple could hear the
    heavenly choirs.

The Kirtland Dedication Program
  • Started at 900 a.m.
  • They sang Ere Long the Veil will Rend in
  • Sidney Rigdon offered the invocation.
  • They sang O Happy Souls who Pray.
  • Sidney Rigdon read and preached from Matt.
  • Sidney Rigdon delivered a discourse lasting two
    and a half hours.
  • Joseph said it was eloquent.

  • They sang Now Let Us Rejoice.
  • They took a twenty minute intermission.
  • All the Church officers were sustained. It was
    unanimous to the affirmative.
  • Joseph read the dedicatory prayer.
  • They sang The Spirit of God Like a Fire is

  • It is interesting that Sidney carried the bulk
    of the meeting. We need to remember that he was
    a gifted man (The Lord would not have allowed him
    to do that had he been out of harmony).
  • On March 30th, 1836 many saw angels and the
  • John the Beloved was in attendance and Joseph
    stood up at the end of the meeting and apologized
    to him for failing to recognize him earlier.
  • Joseph was so familiar with these men that he
    sometimes forgot to recognize them in the
    presence of others.
  • On April 6th, 1836 Joseph saw angels
    administering unto many.
  • It was a day of Pentecost.
  • It is not hard to understand why it has been
    called the Glorious Days of Kirtland?

Hebrew School
  • In January 1836, at the Kirtland Temple, the
    Hebrew School was started.
  • Joseph indicated that the members of the Church
    needed to meet the learned on their ground.
  • Joseph had a gift for Hebrew and learned a lot
    on his own.

  • Orson Pratt was also very good at it.
  • There were eventually four Hebrew Schools with
    forty students per school.
  • Joshua Seixas was hired to teach the class. He
    was a brilliant man who knew many languages. We
    dont know if he ever joined the Church or not.
  • Brigham Young had a hard time learning Hebrew.

The Spirit of God Like A Fire is Burning
  • The following two verses were taken out of the
    original hymn written by William W. Phelps for
    the temple dedication
  • Well wash and be washd, and with oil be
  • Withal not omitting the washing of feet
  • For he that receiveth his penny appointed,
  • Must surely be clean at the harvest of wheat.
  • Well sing and well shout, etc.

  • Old Israel that fled from the world for his
  • Must come with the cloud and the pillar, amain
  • AMoses, and Aaron, and Joshua lead him,
  • And feed him on manna from heaven again.
  • Well sing and well shout, etc.

Other Interesting things that took place in
  • Lorenzo Young was called out of the congregation
    to serve on the Kirtland High Council. He
    declined the calling and was never called to
    another calling while Joseph was alive.
  • Lorenzo Young did go on the exodus to Salt Lake
    City and would serve in many capacities of the
  • Martin Harris made the comment that he knew more
    about the Book of Mormon than Joseph Smith ever
  • Joseph was called to a hearing (Church
    Discipline) because of Sylvester Smith and his
    accusations from Zions Camp.

Other Interesting things that took place in
  • In 1834 Joseph received Lectures on Faith
    (School of the Elders).
  • On Feb. 7th, 1835 Brigham and Joseph Young sang
    to Joseph at Josephs request. After they
    finished Joseph told Brigham Young that he would
    be called as one of the Twelve the next week and
    that Joseph Young would preside over the 70s.
    This was the same time period in which Joseph
    received a revelation about the status of those
    who died from cholera in Zions Camp and the
    reward they would received in heaven (almost a
    year later).

  • Church government began to unfold during the
    Kirtland period.
  • On Feb. 14th, 1835 the calling of the Twelve
    took place. They were called right out of the
  • Seniority among the Twelve was determined by
  • The three witnesses had been called to choose
    the twelve. They had six years to prepare for it
    (DC 1837).

Thomas B. Marsh
  • DC 319, 12 Govern Your House!
  • The wife of Thomas B. Marsh (President of the
    Twelve Apostles) and Sister Harris concluded they
    would exchange milk in order to make a little
    larger cheese than they otherwise could. To be
    sure to have justice done, it was agreed that
    they should not save the strippings, but that the
    milk and strippings should all go together (the
    strippings were the part of the milk richest in

  • Mrs. Harris, it appeared, was faithful to the
    agreement and carried to Mrs. Marsh the milk and
    strippings, but Mrs. Marsh, wishing to make some
    extra good cheese, saved a pint of strippings
    from each cow and sent Mrs. Harris the milk
    without the strippings.
  • Mrs. Harris learned that Mrs. Marsh had saved
    the strippings, and it became a matter to be
    settled by the Teachers. They examined the
    matter and it was proved that Mrs. Marsh had
    saved the strippings

  • An appeal was taken from the Teachers to the
    Bishop, and a regular Church trial was held.
  • President Marsh did not consider that the Bishop
    had done him and his lady justice, for they (the
    Bishops court) decided that the strippings were
    wrongfully saved, and that Sister Marsh had
    violated her covenant.
  • Marsh immediately took an appeal to the High
    Council, but the High Council confirmed the
    Bishops decision (Mrs. Harriss husband George,
    was on the High Council).

  • Marsh not satisfied, made an appeal to the First
    Presidency of the Church.
  • Joseph and his counselors sat upon the case and
    they supported the decision of the High Council.
  • This little affair kicked up a considerable
    breeze, and Thomas B. Marsh then declared that he
    would sustain the character of his wife, even if
    he had to go to hell for it.
  • Heber C. Kimball wished him well on his way.
  • Thomas B. Marsh would later sign a document that
    brought mobs against the Saints which caused
    deaths to the Saints and much suffering.

  • The then President of the Twelve Apostles, the
    man who should have been the first to do justice
    and cause reparation to be made for wrong,
    committed by any member of his family, took that
    position (JD 3283-84).
  • David W. Patton returned after his death from
    the Spirit World and asked Thomas, How could you
    have forgotten so soon?
  • Thomas B. Marsh and David W. Patton had made a
    covenant to keep each other in line while in

President Gordon B. Hinckley
  • Pres. Hinckley repeated the story in General
    Conference and then commented
  • The man who should have settled this little
    quarrel, but who, rather, pursued it, literally
    went through hell for it. He lost his standing
    in the Church. He lost his testimony of the
    gospel. For nineteen years he walked in poverty
    and darkness and bitterness, experiencing
    illness, and loneliness. He grew old before his
    time. Finally, like the prodigal son in the
    parable of the Savior, he recognized his
    foolishness and painfully made his way to this
    valley (Salt Lake), and asked Brigham Young to
    forgive him and permit his re-baptism into the

  • He had been the first President of the Council
    of the Twelve, loved, respected, and honored in
    the days of Kirtland, and the early days of Far
    West. Now he asked only that he might be
    ordained a deacon and become a doorkeeper in the
    house of the Lord (C.R. April, 1984, 111).

Path to Apostasy
  • You that dont know him, have heard of Thomas B.
    Marsh, who was formerly the President of the
    Twelve Apostles, but who apostatized some years
    ago, in Missouri. He is on his way here, a poor,
    decrepit, broken down, old man. He has had a
    paralytic stroke --- one of his arms hangs down.
    He is coming out here as an object of charity,
    destitute, without wife, child, or anything else.
    He has been an apostate some eighteen years.
    Most of you know his history..

  • In meeting with some of the apostates, Thomas B.
    Marsh said to them, You dont know what you are
    about if you want to see the fruits of apostasy,
    look on me
  • Many have said to me, How is it that a man like
    you, who understood so much of the revelations of
    God as recorded in the Book of Doctrine and
    Covenants, could fall away? I told them not to
    feel to secure, but to take heed lest they also
    should fall for I had no scruples in my mind to
    the possibility of men falling away.
  • I can say, in reference to the Quorum of the
    Twelve, to which I belonged, that I did not
    consider myself a whit behind any of them, and I
    suppose that others had the same opinion but,
    let no one feel too secure for, before you think
    of it, your steps will slide. You will not think
    for a moment as you did before you lost the
    Spirit of Christ for when men apostatize, they
    are left to grovel in the dark.

  • I have sought diligently to know the Spirit of
    Christ since I turned my face Zion-ward, and I
    believe I have obtained it. I have frequently
    wanted to know how my apostasy began, and I have
    come to the conclusion that I must have lost the
    spirit of the Lord out of my heart.
  • The next question is, How and when did you lose
    the Spirit?
  • I became jealous of the Prophet, and then I was
    double, and overlooked everything that was right,
    and spent all my time in looking for evil and
    then, when the Devil began to lead me, it was
    easy for the carnal mind to rise up, which is
    anger, jealousy, and wrath. I could feel it
    within me I felt angry and wrathful and the
    Spirit of the Lord was gone, as the scriptures
    say, I was blinded, and I thought I saw a beam in
    brother Josephs eye, but it was nothing but a
    mote, and my own eye was filled with the beam
    (Thomas B. Marsh, J.D., vol. 5, 115, 206-7).

The School of the Elders
  • The School of the Elders started in December,
    1834 to prepare Elders to become full-time
    missionaries. They studied history, geography,
    literature, philosophy, politics, grammar and
  • They were given 7 major lectures.
  • Hiram Page was the teacher.
  • Joseph taught grammar and Hebrew before Joshua
    Seixas became their teacher.

  • We consider that God has created man with a mind
    capable of instruction, and a faculty which may
    be enlarged in proportion to the heed and
    diligence given to the light communicated from
    heaven to the intellect and that the nearer man
    approaches perfection, the clearer are his views,
    and the greater his enjoyments, till he has
    overcome the evils of his life and lost every
    desire for sin and like the ancients, arrives at
    that point of faith where he is wrapped in the
    power and glory of his Maker, and is caught up to
    dwell with Him (Joseph Smith, HC, vol. 2, 8).

The Twelve Apostles called in 1835
  • 1. Thomas B. Marsh, (age 35, apostatized and
    came back).
  • 2. David W. Patton, (age 35, didnt know his
    birth year, martyred).
  • David rode a white mule and had the gift of
    healing. He is the one who President Spencer W.
    Kimball in Miracle of Forgiveness mentioned his
    encounter with Cain. He said that Cain was dark
    and covered with hair and had no clothing on.
    Cain told David that he was seeking death.

  • David asked God if he could die as a martyr.
  • David once threw a heckler at a meeting over 10
    feet in the air into a wood pile after the
    heckler said, I understand Mormons kick out
    devils, is that true? The people in the
    building who saw it said it was true after David
    threw him. He possessed great strength.
  • Later in vision, Joseph Jr. said that David
    Patton was welcomed with great excitement into
    the Spirit World as he had been commissioned to
    teach the John Wesley family.

  • 3. Brigham Young
  • Age 33, faithful to the end! He presided over
    the Church for 33 years, no one has served as
    Prophet longer in this dispensation (June
    1844-1877), he was formally sustained in 1847.
  • 4. Heber C. Kimball
  • Age 33, faithful to the end! Joseph said that
    if he ever needed someone to prophesy it was
    Heber. He once rebuked the wind at the bowery on
    Temple Square and commanded it to be silent, and
    it was done. Moroni visited him two weeks before
    he died and told him the Savior was pleased with
  • 5. Orson Hyde
  • Age 30, faithful. Dedicated the Holy Land,
    learned the German language in eight days,
    learned Hebrew and memorized the Bible in
    English. Later in his life he got a disease that
    caused him to become obese. He was so large that
    he couldnt roll over by himself which caused him
    constant pain.

  • 6. William E. McLellen
  • Age 29, not faithful, became a bitter enemy to
    Joseph and the Church. He was an evil man who
    later sought the blood of Joseph. He tried to
    write a revelation but failed. He was
    excommunicated in 1838 and never returned.
  • 7. Parley P. Pratt
  • Age 27, martyred in Arkansas at the age of 50 in
    May of 1857. He was the second Apostle killed in
    this dispensation.
  • 8. Luke S. Johnson
  • Age 27, faithful. He lost his membership but
    came back. However, Brigham Young would not put
    him back in the Twelve. He died in Tooele, Utah
    while serving as a Bishop. He helped convert his
    friend Ezekiel in the middle of the night.

  • 9. William Smith
  • Age 23, not faithful.
  • 10. Orson Pratt
  • Age 23, faithful. First to view the Salt Lake
    Valley, and was the first President of the Elders
    Quorum. Brigham Young said once of him, You can
    cut him up into little tiny pieces and every
    piece would cry out saying, Mormonism is true!
    He crossed the ocean 16 times serving missions
    for the Church.
  • 11. John F. Boynton
  • Age 23, not faithful. Great Scientist, invented
    the soda fountain and some small electrical
    appliances. He left the Church in 1837 and said,
    I have never seen a happy moment since I joined
    the Church. He was with Warren Parrish and
    Lyman Johnson when they took 100,000 dollars from
    a bank through fraud. He was excommunicated and
    never returned.

  • 12. Lyman E. Johnson
  • Age 23, not faithful. Excommunicated and never
    returned. He cursed Joseph Smith at the top of
    his lungs until his face went black.
  • The Apostolic Charge was given to the Twelve by
    Oliver Cowdery.
  • In the meridian of times, the Savior himself
    gave that charge.
  • This should give you and idea of the importance
    and the strength of Oliver Cowdery.

Visitors in 1835
  • By the mid-1830's, Joseph was spending hours
    each week with visitors. He said, I have been
    hindered by a multitude of visitors.
  • Joseph created a Tran biblical world unlike
    anything known in Christian churches and had no
    interest in forming alliances with less venturous
  • Matthias
  • Joshua the Jewish Minister came to Kirtland.
    Some speculated that he was the notorious Robert
    Matthias, who had recently stood trial for murder
    in New York and served time for whipping his
    adult daughter. Later he admitted that he was
    Matthias and claimed he was a descendant of the
    apostle Matthias who was chosen to replace Judas.
    He taught that Matthiass spirit was resurrected
    in him.

  • Joseph told Matthias that his doctrine was of
    the Devil and that he was in reality in
    possession of a wicked and depraved spirit.
    Joseph told him to leave and as he reflected in
    his journal, cast our the Devil in bodily
  • Josephs historical role, as he understood it,
    was to give God a voice in a world that had
    stopped listening.

  • Texts --- 1835
  • William E. McLellin, was chosen as an apostle in
    February 1835. He left the church a year later,
    disillusioned by his failure to receive a
    manifestation at the Kirtland temple dedication.
    The journal he kept of a missionary journey with
    the Twelve from may through September 1835 is the
    best account we have of Mormon missionary work in
    the early years.
  • Missionaries had no plan, no pamphlet for
    investigators to study, no standard message. The
    Book of Mormon was the only printed literature
    they carried with them.

  • The 1835 Doctrine Covenants was meant to
    summarize the Churchs major beliefs and provide
    a handbook of its policies.
  • The Lectures on Faith were a perfect example
    of orderly presentation. Given in the fall of
    1834 by Sidney Rigdon and others, with input from
    Joseph Smith, the lectures were included in every
    edition of the Doctrine Covenants from

  • Abraham
  • In 1835 Michael Chandler came to Kirtland with
    four mummies and some rolls of papyrus.
    Chandlers account of the mummies was full of
    contradictions. He claimed he inherited the
    artifacts from his uncle, Antonio Lebolo. Lebolo
    had indeed obtained Egyptian artifacts around
    1829 but never mentioned Chandler. Lebolo sold
    eleven mummies to a Trieste merchant in new York.
    Chandler probably purchased them in New York.

  • Joseph announced that one roll contained the
    writing of Abraham of Ur and the other the
    writings of Joseph of Egypt. He purchased the
    four mummies and the papyri for 2,400, a huge
    sum when money was desperately needed for other
  • Joseph would continue to show the relics until
    his death.
  • The reader was suddenly dropped into Abrahams
    mind and world, and Joseph the translator was
    entirely invisible.

  • The exclusion of black men from the priesthood
    was publicly stated only after his death.
  • Except for a brief lapse in early 1836, Joseph
    advocated taking the gospel to both bond and
    free, ignoring race.
  • Nothing was done during Josephs lifetime to
    withhold priesthood from black members.
  • Joseph knew Elijah Abel, a black man who was
    ordained as a seventy, and was said to have
    entertained him.
  • Blacks come into the worlds slaves, mentally
    and physically, he once said in private
    conversation. Change their situation with the
    whites and they would be like them. He favored a
    policy of national Equalization, though he
    retained the common prejudice against
    intermarriage and blending of races.

  • Translating
  • Now with the Egyptian papyri before them, Joseph
    again let the men with the greatest interest in
    such undertakings Oliver Cowdery, William W.
    Phelps, Warren Parrish, and Frederick G. Williams
    attempt translations. Parrish was told he shall
    see much of my ancient records, and shall know of
    hidden things, and shall be endowed with a
    knowledge of hidden languages.

  • Eventually they pulled their work together into
    a collection they called Grammar Alphabet of
    the Egyptian Language, written in the hands of
    Phelps and Parrish.
  • Of all the men working on the papyri, only
    Joseph produced a coherent text.
  • In 1967, that view of translation suffered a
    blow when eleven scraps of the Abraham papyri,
    long since lost and believed to have been burned
    were discovered in the Metropolitan Museum of Art
    in New York City and given to Latter-day Saint
    leaders in Salt Lake City.

  • Color pictures were printed and scholars went to
    work. The texts were thought to be the Abraham
    papyri because Joseph had published facsimiles
    from the papyri with his translation, and the
    same pictures appeared on the museum fragments.
    The translation of these texts by expert
    Egyptologists would finally prove or disprove
    Josephs claims to miraculous translating powers.
    Would any of the language correspond to the text
    in his book of Abraham?

  • Some Mormons were crushed when the fragments
    turned out to be rather conventional funerary
    texts placed with mummified bodies, in this case
    Hor, to assure continuing life as an immortal
    god. According to the Egyptologists, nothing on
    the fragments resembled Josephs account of

  • Some Mormon scholars, notably Hugh Nibley, doubt
    that the actual texts for Abraham and Joseph have
    been found.
  • His book of Abraham picked up themes found in
    texts like the Book of Jasher and Flavius
    Josephuss Antiquities of the Jews.
  • Dr. Daniel L. M. Peixotto, a professor of
    medicine at Willougby University four miles from
    Kirtland, was hired to teach Hebrew in the School
    of the Prophets. When Peixotto could not come,
    the brethren hired Joshua Seixas, a Jewish
    convert to Christianity then teaching at the
    Western Reserve College.

  • Joseph proudly recorded Seixass comment that
    they were the most forward of any class he had
    ever taught. Joseph was one of ten to meet for
    extra sessions with the professor. Seixas called
    Joseph and indefatigable student. Excited by
    his learning, Joseph resolved to pursue the
    study of languages until he should become the
    master of them, if he were permitted to live long
    enough. The Hebrew classes continued until the
    dedication of the temple in March, when Seixas
    dropped from sight.

  • Every attempt to regularize belief was diffused
    by new revelations. Who could tell what would be
    revealed nextwhat new insights into the
    patriarchal past, what stories of Abraham, Moses,
    or Enoch, what glimpses into heaven?
  • Joseph himself could not predict the course or
    Mormon doctrine. All he could say he summed up
    in a later article of faith We believe all
    that God has revealed, all that he does not
    reveal, and we believe that he will yet reveal
    many great an important things pertaining to the
    kingdom of God.

Strife August December 1835
  • Be assured brethren I am willing to stem the
    torrent of all opposition, in storms in tempests
    in thunders and lightning by sea and by land in
    the wilderness or among false brethren or mobs or
    wherever God in his providence may call us and I
    am determined that neither heights nor depths,
    principalities nor powers, things present or to
    come, nor any other creature shall separate me
    from you (Joseph Smith to the Twelve Apostles,
    January 1836).

  • Josephs journal for September 22, 1835, through
    April 3, 1836 was the most extensive,
    comprehensive, and revealing he ever kept. The
    1835-36 journal contains almost daily entries for
    six months.
  • Like everyone raised in the culture, the Smiths
    had a clannish loyalty to one another and a fiery
    resentment against the slightest derogation of
    their worth. In the culture of honor, one would
    battle to the death in defense of reputation. An
    honorable man who suffered an insult would spare
    nothing to get even.

  • Through the fall of 1835, he engaged in a series
    of small quarrels, domestic disturbances, and
    squabbles. He did not rise above the fray in the
    serene majesty of his calling.
  • While Joseph was sensitive to the spirit of
    others, he may have been tone-deaf to the spirit
    of his own words. Unable to bear criticism, he
    rebuked anyone who challenged him. Benjamin
    Johnson, a great admirer, said, Criticism, even
    by associates, was rarely acceptable, and
    contradiction would rouse in him the lion at
    once, for by no one of his fellow would he be
    superseded or disputed.
  • Joseph admitted sometimes being too harsh from
    the impulse of the moment. Then his affection
    returned. In as much as I have wounded your
    feelings, he implored the Twelve, I ask your
    forgiveness, for I love you and will hold you up
    with all my heart in all righteousness before the
    Lord. A flood of pledges followed.

  • Once people gave way, Joseph forgave and forgot
    the matter. When he could not have his way,
    Joseph sometimes rained down curses on his
  • Once Joseph said that William was as ugly as the
    devil. At this, William rushed Joseph, who had
    pulled off his coat to defend himself. Joseph had
    to be rescued from Williams blows. When he got
    home, he could not sit or stand without help.
    Ashamed at being beaten, Joseph explained why his
    younger brother had won the fight.

  • Joseph had been marred by mobbers who had
    debilitated his body, he reminded William.
  • On the other hand, he warmly welcomed them back
    when they were contrite.
  • In a remarkable passage in his journal, he moved
    from simple gratitude to exaltation of the
    woodcutters who had cut his winters wood in

  • In the name of Jesus Christ I invoke the rich
    benediction of heaven to rest upon them and their
    families, and I ask my heavenly Father to
    preserve their health, and those of their wives
    and children, that they may have strength of body
    to perform their labors in their several
    occupations in life, and the use of activity of
    their limbs, also powers of intellect and
    understanding hearts, that they may treasure up
    wisdom, understanding, and intelligence, above
    measure, and be preserved from plagues,
    pestilence, and famine, and from the power of the
    adversary, and the hands of evil designing men
    and have power over all their enemies and the
    way be prepared before them, that they may
    journey to the land of Zion and be established on
    their inheritances, to enjoy undisturbed peace
    and happiness forever, and ultimately to be
    crowned with everlasting life in the Celestial
    Kingdom of God, which blessings I ask in the name
    of Jesus of Nazareth.

  • Joseph prayed for 800 to 1,000 well-armed men to
    accomplish the work of going back and taking
    Jackson County. David Whitmer was appointed
    Captain of the Lords Host. In September Joseph
    challenged the Kirtland High Council that we go
    next season to live or die in Jackson County.

The Order of Heaven January April 1836
  • The winter and spring months of 1836 were among
    Josephs happiest. For a time, everything went
  • Life in Kirtland
  • How the Smiths paid the bills in those years was
    a mystery. Josephs journal showed no evidence
    of working for money. He opened a store in
    Kirtland, but the store was not profitable. The
    Smiths never lived well, but in their small
    house on the hill neither did they starve.

  • The temple committee was so far in debt it
    appealed constantly for contributions in order to
    pay the workers. Joseph negotiated loan after
    loan until the size of the debt drove him to
    pleading and bargaining with the Lord.
  • Heber C. Kimball later estimated final
    construction cost at between 40,000 and 50,000,
    a huge sum when a laborer was lucky to receive
    400 a year. A large part was paid by one
    wealthy convert, John Tanner, who donated 13,000
    and may have loaned another 30,000.

  • Endowment
  • The elders were meeting in the temple primarily
    to prepare for the endowment of power.
    Spiritual blessings, much like an endowment, were
    received at first session of the school of the
    Prophets in 1833.
  • Oliver Cowdery told the Twelve, when they were
    ordained in February 1835, that they were not to
    go to other nations till they received their
    endowments. Because they had not known Jesus in
    mortality, these modern apostles had to know Him
    by revelation. Never cease striving until you
    have seen God face to face, Cowdery told them.

  • Joseph was preoccupied with the right order of
    everything. Church councils had to follow the
    pattern of the ancients. His history said the
    cornerstones of the Kirtland temple were laid
    after the order of the priesthood, which was to
    divide twenty-four priesthood holders into four
    groups of six and assign each to a corner.

  • Beginning at the Southeast
  • A variant of this assemblage of authorities,
    called the Grand Council, William W. Phelps
    wrote his wife that the Grand Council was one
    of the most interesting meetings he ever saw.
  • Women remained invisible in the organization and
    were absent from most ritual events. Some
    resented it. But in this spiritual season,
    weddings and dinners involving women were turned
    into holy celebrations.

  • During the winter, a small committee under
    Josephs direction worked out rules for temple
  • No going up the stairs during worship.
  • No marring the house with knife or pencil.
  • No children playing in the rooms.
  • Speakers were not to be interrupted by laughter,
    whispering, or menacing gestures.
  • Presiding officers were not to be insulted.

  • Decorum apparently had to be perfect for the
    Saints to receive the outpouring of heaven.
  • Later the Saints removed their shoes and dressed
    in white on entering the temple.
  • In January 1833, Joseph had washed the feet of
    thirteen brethren following the example of Jesus
    Christ in the gospel of John. In 1836, a new kind
    of washing, one for the whole body, was
    instituted, following Old Testament practices.

  • Oliver Cowdery gave a full description of
    washings performed the previous Saturday.
  • Met in the evening with Brother Joseph Smith Jr.
    at his house, in company with Brother John
    Corrill, and after pure water was prepared, call
    upon the Lord and proceeded to wash each others
    bodies, and bathe the same with whiskey, perfumed
    with cinnamon. This we did that we might be clean
    before the Lord for the Sabbath, confessing our
    sins and covenanting to be faithful to God. While
    performing this washing unto the Lord with
    solemnity, our minds were filled with many
    reflections upon the propriety of the same, and
    how the priests anciently used to wash always
    before ministering before the Lord. As we had
    nearly finished the purification. Brother Martin
    Harris came in and was also washed.

  • When the brethren met the following Thursday,
    they added an anointing with oil. While the high
    councils from Kirtland and Missouri waited in two
    adjoining rooms, Joseph and six other men
    attended to the ordinance of anointing our heads
    with holy oil. Joseph Sr. rose and anointed the
    others in order of age.
  • One searches in vain for such rituals among
    Josephs Protestant contemporaries. Joseph drew
    upon ceremonies in Exodus. Later the Saints
    clothed themselves in holy garments like Aaron.

  • After Josephs anointing, he wrote, the heavens
    were opened upon us and I beheld the celestial
    kingdom of God (DC 137). He saw the Twelve
    Apostles in a foreign land standing together in
    a circle much fatigued, with their clothes
    tattered and feet swollen, with their eyes cast
    downward, and Jesus standing in their midst, and
    they did not behold him, the Savior looked upon
    them and wept. All through the night, Joseph
    saw visions Elder McLellin in the south healing
    a lame man, and Brigham Young in a southwest
    desert preaching from a rock to a dozen men of
    color, who, appeared hostile. Young was
    protected by an angel of God standing above his
    head with a drawn sword. Joseph said that many
    of the brethren saw glorious visions also.

  • Washings and anointings were done from oldest to
  • Through January and February, the brethren read
    Hebrew by day, and washed, anointed, prayed, and
    beheld visions by night.
  • Josephs method for bringing his people to
    holiness differed from the approach of
    evangelical preachers. Rather than convicting
    people of their sins, thus humbling them before
    God, Joseph relied upon the power of ritual to
    arouse their spirits.
  • Joseph said nothing about a revelation on
    washings and anointings. The only scriptural
    authorization came from Exodus. Yet Joseph
    assured the brethren that the orders were
    according to the mind of God. He introduced the
    washings, anointings, and sealings as rigorously
    as any commandment.

  • Aftermath
  • After the seven-month suspension, the
    missionaries were to return to the field to
    gather Israel, empowered now by their spiritual
  • The next Sunday, about a thousand people
    attended the morning service and returned in the
    afternoon for the sacraments. At the conclusion,
    Joseph and Cowdery went into one of the pulpits
    and had the veil dropped, cutting them off from
    view of the congregation. In seclusion, they
    experienced one of Josephs most spectacular
    visions, later recorded by Warren Cowdery,
    Josephs clerk and Olivers brother (DC 110).

  • The frequency of announced revelations slowed in
    ensuing years. Doctrine came through sermons. The
    revelation behind the veil suggested that Joseph
    was moving ahead of his followers. He began to
    speak of revelations they could not bear.