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POLITICAL BEHAVIOR

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Title: POLITICAL BEHAVIOR


1
POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
  • An Inter-disciplinary Study

2
POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
  • Politics in micro and macro levels of social life
  • Individual strategies for cooperation, conflict
    resolution, pursuing interests, even strategies
    towards family members and relatives
  • As the social surrounding grows bigger,
    individuals choices, attitudes and behaviors
    become more political in its true meaning

3
THE INDIVIDUAL
  • The political orientations, self-identifications,
    ideals, principles and ideologies of the
    individual towards the social surrounding
    constitute an important theme of our subject
    (political behavior).
  • The discipline of political psychology

4
THE GROUP
  • Individuals self-identification with a political
    group via membership to or orientation (indirect
    support...etc) towards a political party,
    political organization or movement.
  • The discipline of political sociology

5
WHEN DISCIPLINES COINCIDE
  • The political choices and behaviors of the
    individual may not always present a stable and
    continuous character
  • May go through changes, developments and
    transformations in time depending on many
    different situations and factors.

6
WHEN DISCIPLINES COINCIDE
  • Apart from these, the political behavior of the
    individual may present a double or
    multi-character way

7
DETERMINANTS OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
  • The family
  • Family traditions in politics
  • The orientation and education by the family
    elders
  • Charism of a family elder who is taken by the
    child as a model or idol
  • Another interdisciplinary contribution in terms
    of a ne problematic the genetics of political
    behavior.

8
MORE BIOLOGY, MORE SOCIOLOGY
  • Age groups and differing intensivities in the
    political sphere
  • Youth and popular culture
  • Aged people and political participation as a
    citizenship duty
  • The gender side

9
FACTORS WITHIN THE SOCIAL SURROUNDING
  • Education sphere teachers and school-mates as
    political orientators
  • Class belonging and political behavior
  • Mass media and public opinion
  • The neighborhood effect

10
FACTORS WITHIN THE SOCIAL SURROUNDING
  • Ethnicity, ethnic identities, racism, xenophobia
  • Crime, terror and prejudicial behavior
  • Immigrants and political behavior
  • Religious affiliation
  • Kinship ties and political behavior
  • Clientalism and politics

11
POLITICAL FACTORS
  • Leader charism and political choice
  • Political propaganda and its influence

12
MOST VISIBLE MEASUREMENT OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
  • Elections and voting
  • Election campaigns
  • Electoral Systems

13
PART I
  • THE INFLUENCE OF GENETICS ON POLITICAL
    ORIENTATION AND BEHAVIOR

14
GENETICSSOCIAL SCIENCES
  • The increase in the use of genetic explanations
    for human characteristics and conditions over the
    last few decades
  • The academic search for the influence of genetic
    factors to explain the differences and varieties
    in humans psychological and behavioral
    characteristics such as violence, tolerance,
    intelligence and sexual orientation (straightgay)

15
MAIN PROBLEMATICS
  • Can people be born with political
    predispositions?
  • Does political orientation have a hereditary
    characteristic?
  • Is it genes or the early childhood experiences
    within the family which are more influential on
    the development of political attitudes?

16
MAIN PROBLEMATICS
  • Which factor is the most influential one on
    political orientation
  • Genes?
  • Socialisation within the family?
  • or the social environment? (friends, education,
    business environment...)

17
THE NATURE vs. NURTURE DEBATE
  • Recent studies claiming that genetics is highly
    influential on the formation of political
    orientations, attitudes and behavior
  • Academic response to these studies and claims,
    emphasizing the importance of the environment
    (political attitudes as learned elements, rather
    than genetically transmitted ones)

18
A TURNING POINT WITHIN OUR SUBJECT
  • The Bell Curve, Richard Herrnstein and Charles
    Murray (1994)
  • The authors argued that intelligence largely
    determined success in life, and intelligence was
    largely genetic in origin.

19
THE BELL CURVE
  • The authors also argued that IQs of Black
    Americans were lower on average than IQs of the
    Whites.
  • So, differences in life chances between Blacks
    and Whites were driven by genes, with
    intelligence as the mediating factor
  • Authors even recommended the welfare and
    reproductive policies of the US be changed in
    order to decrease the number of children born to
    lower class (and lower IQ) women

20
THE BELL CURVE
  • The book led to great debates among academics,
    media and even politicians, either supporting or
    condemning these propositions
  • A social-Darwinist approach
  • Those who are in favour of such an approach where
    survival of the fittest is welcomed, tend to be
    conservatives in ideological terms (Hofstadter,
    1944)

21
THE CONSERVATIVELIBERAL DEBATE
  • Does political ideology play a role in
    determining how people feel about genetic
    explanations for human characteristics?
  • Do conservative and liberal people have different
    attitudes towards the genetic explanations of
    human characteristics?

22
ASSUMPTIONS
  • Conservatives are more likely to endorse genetic
    explanations for human characteristics related to
    socioeconomic inequality
  • Liberals are more likely to endorse environmental
    explanations for those characteristics

23
ASSUMPTIONS ON CONSERVATIVES
  • The idea of genetic influence on human
    characteristics is in accordance with the
    conservative principles
  • Historical background
  • The Feudal and Monarchic Ages Monarchs and the
    nobility with an hereditary character
  • No social mobility between seperate classes and
    life-long membership to the class one is born into

24
ASSUMPTIONS ON CONSERVATIVES
  • Theological Background
  • Middle-Age scolastical thought Accepting the
    consequences of your destiny which is labeled on
    you even before birth and not challenging the
    conditions brought forth by this destiny (Gods
    Plan)

25
ASSUMPTIONS ON THE LIBERALS
  • Liberal Principles equality, humans as valuable
    beings, freedom of choice
  • It is the social environment that influences the
    attitudes and behaviors of an individual,
    regarding the fact that he/she is free make the
    choices that is most fit for him/her

26
ONE EXCEPTION
  • Do genes have an influence on determining sexual
    orientation?
  • Conservatives are more likely to reject the role
    of genes and instead to favor the influence of
    the environment. Because, conservative thought
    can not allow the possibility that God created
    human beings in those sexual orientations such as
    gays and lesbians (the Creator would not create
    people with such defections ? , rather people
    choose to become homosexual under the influence
    of environmental factors)

27
THE INFLUENCE OF IDEOLOGY
  • The responses of people towards genetical
    explanations of human nature change according to
    different ideological orientations
  • This situation is closely linked to the
    conservative/liberal conceptions of state
    intervention on certain grounds

28
IDEOLOGY AND STATE INTERVENTION- The US MODEL
  • Political conservatism in the US is associated
    with a desire for small government and a lcak of
    government intervention in the lives of the
    citizens WHEREAS
  • Political liberalism in the US is associated with
    a desire for government intervention to adress
    societal problems (poverty, immigrant policy,
    welfare state policies...etc)

29
CONSERVATIVE ATTITUDE
  • If socio-economic differences are primarily
    driven by inequalities of genetic endowment, then
    government policies and programs would not be
    effective to remedy them. So, support for a
    small, limited government (conservatism) is the
    most practical position

30
CONSERVATIVE ATTITUDE
  • American Conservatives (as well as those in
    Western Europe) criticise most welfare policies
    of the state as of being in the advantage of the
    immigrants, minorities, people of lower
    classes...etc. So, financial funding of these
    policies is a burden on the true! citizens of the
    country

31
LIBERAL ATTITUDE
  • Welfare policies should exist to protect the
    disadvantaged masses in order to remedy
    inequalities of opportunities and access to
    public services. State intervention is welcomed
    by the American liberals on this issue.
  • If socio-economic inequalities result from
    environmental factors, then environmental support
    such as education and social aids would help to
    remedy these inequalities

32
POLITICAL TRADITION
  • Many theorists (Rousseau,Marx...) argued that
    government has a moral obligation to remedy
    systematic inequalities brought about by societal
    forces.
  • Others like Plato, Aristotle and E. Burke argued
    that the inequalities created by nature (God)
    should be allowed to flourish, not be got rid of
  • (the underlying principle of natural selection)

33
EXCEPTION OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION MATTER
  • Conservatives in favour of a government control
    on homosexual orientations
  • Liberals in favour of a limited government
    staying out of the citizens bedrooms ?

34
POLITICAL SOCIALISATION
  • Leaving behind the genetic side of the story, an
    analysis of the process namely political
    socialisation is necessary for determining the
    factors influential on the formation of political
    behaviors of the individuals
  • Man is both a social animal and a political animal

35
POLITICAL SOCIALISATION
  • The process of adopting the political beliefs,
    values and attitudes
  • The environment as a tutor
  • Life-long learning gaining political knowledge
    and experience at any age
  • A multi-level process
  • Different factors and conditions at each level

36
CHILDHOOD PERIOD
  • The development of a self-consciousness
  • The development of personality
  • Development of intelligence
  • Development of certain attitudes and reactions
    both at emotional and cognitive sides, towards
    different conditions

37
TEENHOOD PERIOD
  • A transitionary period from childhood to
    adulthood
  • Pyschological, biological and social changes
  • A process whereby the individuals social,
    cognitive and political development is carried
    out on the road to adulthood

38
TEENHOOD PERIOD
  • The ego-centric condition of teens
  • Aiming to ensure the acceptance of their beliefs,
    ideas or judgements by others, mostly via debates
    or arguements
  • Ups downs the inconsistency in supporting
    ideals and beliefs
  • The long-run outcome of teen ego-centrism
    idealism

39
TEENHOOD SOCIALISATION
  • The ultimate function of socialisation is to
    ensure the adoption of social roles consistent
    with the social norms
  • The transmission of social norms, values and
    beliefs
  • Four different possible reactions of teens
    towards this transmission process

40
FIRST TYPE OF REACTION
  • The teen adopts the cultural patterns
    transmitted from the social environment and
    becomes an obedient and adaptable member of the
    society

41
SECOND TYPE OF REACTION
  • The teen challenges all cultural effects from the
    social environment. Seeks new values and aims.
    Shows disloyalty towards the agents of authority
    or status quo parents, teachers...etc
  • Such teens are more likely to become
    influenced by non-mainstream or radical political
    ideologies

42
THIRD TYPE OF REACTION
  • The teen shows little or no interest in the
    cultural transmissions from the social
    environment. Can not fully comprehend the common
    values and aims shared by the members of society.
    Dislikes the social order, but also finds
    him/herself too weak to alter or cure the social
    order. Thus mostly develops an anti-social or
    passive-defensive personality

43
FOURTH TYPE OF REACTION
  • The teen establishes realist, constructive and
    positive realionships and makes rational choices
    on adapting the new knowledge acquired from the
    social environment, thus becomes a model
    citizen

44
CONFLICTS WITH PARENTS
  • In search of his/her own self, the teen is
    generally motivated towards being freed from the
    influence of the parents and this generally leads
    to conflictual situations
  • This conflictual attitude may also be directed
    towards elder members of the extended
    family,teachers, neighbors...
  • The individualisation of the teen becoming a
    personality

45
THE DILEMMA OF TEEN SOCIALISATION
  • The teen, while aiming to acquire social
    acceptance and admiration by developing an unique
    identity and, at the same time, by being
    integrated to the bundle of norms, values and
    beliefs dominant in the social environment

46
THE IDOL FACTOR
  • Patterns of roles, attitudes and beliefs of an
    idol or model, mostly an elder within the social
    environment (a relative, a neighbor, a
    teacher...), being adopted by the teen during the
    process of developing a personality, and the
    process of political socialisation and
    orientation as well

47
POLITICAL SOCIALISATION
  • The individual establishes emotional and
    cognitive relations with the political structure
    via elements such as national flag,state,
    nation...etc during childhood
  • These relationships are based on mostly
    elementary and material systems of thought

48
POLITICAL SOCIALISATION
  • During teenhood, the ability to think abstractly
    is gained. So, the teen can from now on perceive
    political matters not only on material, but also
    presumptive grounds.
  • Combining the theoretical outcomes of both
    material and abstract thought, the teen will find
    his/her place within the political system

49
POLITICAL SOCIALISATION
  • Life-long learning in the political arena in
    addition to the family an school, new sources of
    political knowledge will be available to the
    teen friends, NGOs, means of mass
    communication...etc.
  • This increase at the cognitive level of the teen
    will contribute to the development of political
    beliefs and attitudes

50
POLITICAL SOCIALISATION
  • The tendency of teens towards non-mainstream or
    radical political movements generally depends on
    personal and social motives developing a
    self-identity and the social acceptance and
    admiration gained by means of performing the
    social roles assigned by this identity.

51
ADULTHOOD PERIOD
  • Age factor
  • New social roles and statues such as being
    married, having a job, having children...
  • Another change of roles in terms of
    socialisation the adult, while he/she was a
    socialised element, turns into a socialising
    factor for the children, youth...etc in the new
    social environments

52
RE-SOCIALISATION
  • Another type of socialisation mostly observed
    since the early periods of adulthood
  • Transformations in terms of belief, ideological
    orientation, attitudes...etc which may alter the
    previously dominant factors of political behavior
    due to the relationships, experiences and
    knowledge established and gained during adulthood

53
RE-SOCIALISATION
  • While the society influences the individual in
    terms of gaining these beliefs, attitudes...,the
    individual also influences the society in a
    similar way
  • But, it is mostly a dynamic process, not a stable
    one, changing according to the environment
  • Traditional vs. Modern societies (Duverger)

54
THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
  • According to Rosenberg, individuals go through a
    three-dimensional development process
  • Contiguous
  • Linear
  • Systematic

55
CHANGING SOCIAL CONDITIONS DURING ADULTHOOD
  • Changing social conditions and the adoption of
    new social roles may alter the determinants of
    political behavior and lead to transformations
  • Idealism vs. Realism

56
INSTITUTIONS OF POLITICAL SOCIALISATON
  • The family as the primary institution
  • The monopoly of the family in determining the
    early tendencies towards political orientation
    (both at emotional and cognitive levels)
  • First impressions of the child on political
    figures and matters are developed within the
    family environment

57
THE FAMILY
  • Direct influence of the family (direct political
    socialisation)
  • Indirect influence of the family (indirect
    political socialisation)
  • Transmission of political attitudes, ideologies,
    party identification and class consciousness
  • Family traditions in politics

58
THE ATTITUDES OF THE PARENTS
  • Parents applying authoritarian or democratic ways
    of raising their children
  • Differing influences and outcomes of differing
    raising methods
  • Idols or models within the family and political
    orientation

59
THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT
  • Teachers as new symbols of authority outside the
    family environment
  • School mates
  • Cognitive developments during education
    (accumulation of knowledge)
  • School as an ideological state apparatus

60
MASS COMMUNICATION MEANS
  • Radio, TV, newspapers, internet...
  • Mass media as cognitive sources of political
    behavior
  • Social roles presented via media,especially TV
  • Media as a means of political propaganda

61
THE FRIENDS FACTOR
  • Friendship ties and relations within friend
    groups constituting an environment whereby
    determinants of political behavior are
    influenced, altered and developed
  • Friends both as cognitive and emotional sources

62
THE COMMUNITY EFFECT
  • Various communities we belong to or feel a
    belonging to
  • Variety of communities where and whom we work,
    live, socialize and worship...(city community,
    church community, work community...)

63
SENSE OF COMMUNITY
  • A feeling that members have a belonging, a
    feeling that members matter to one another and to
    the group, and a shared faith that members needs
    will be met through their commitment together
  • Sense of community changes from individual to
    individual, as well as from group to group
    (diversity of groups and changing levels of
    attachment within communities)

64
COMMUNITY AND POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
  • Social interactions within the community play an
    important role in determining our political
    choices and behavior.
  • There are two types of political behavior
    influenced by community interactions
  • Political discussion
  • Voting behavior

65
POLITICAL DISCUSSION
  • Political discussion as a way of socialisation
  • Political discussion as a social interaction
    which provides information about political
    matters
  • Observing and communicating with other members of
    the community may influence political decisions
  • Political discussion as a by-product of social
    interaction

66
COMMUNITY and VOTING
  • Information gained via community interaction
    influencing voting behavior
  • Collective political behavior developed within
    the community due to common interests,goals...
  • The communal leader factor
  • Politicised communities/political
    communities/political identities

67
COMMUNITY and VOTING
  • Changing voting behavior due to different types
    of elections
  • General elections
  • Local elections
  • Elections on communal affairs

68
PARTY IDENTIFICATION
  • Identifying oneself via membership or support to
    any political party
  • The party becoming a symbolizer or determinant of
    political identity
  • The party as a means of socialisation
  • The party as a means of collective action and
    group consciousness
  • Partisanship extreme form of party identification

69
PARTY IDENTIFICATION
  • According to the general framework of sociology,
    social characteristics (class,ethnicity,gender,rac
    e) anchor political preferences
  • The Marxist view of party identification based on
    class consciousness

70
THE AMERICAN VOTER
  • Published in 1960 by Angus Campbell, Philip
    Converse, Warren Miller and Donald Stokes, it was
    the first comprehensive study on party
    identification.
  • It proposed a social-psychological thery of party
    identification.

71
THE AMERICAN VOTER
  • Party identification is a long-term psychological
    attachment to a party.
  • It develops early in ones life and is influenced
    by institutions of political socialisation such
    as the family
  • Over time, this feeling of attachment turns into
    an emotional and mostly stable one.

72
THE AMERICAN VOTER
  • Since party identification influences peoples
    evaluations of political issues,candidates and
    political events, it plays a fundamental role in
    their choice of vote.
  • Party identification is stable except when
    large-scale political events or stressful
    conditions such as depressions occur (The 2001
    economic depression in Turkey)

73
RESPONSES TO THE AMERICAN VOTER
  • The instrumental view of party identification
  • Party attachment is an information shortcut that
    is continually and updated and adjusted based on
    rational evaluation (Bartels, Franklin and
    Jackson)
  • The influence of rational choice is stressed when
    compared to emotional attachments

74
THE INDIVIDUAL RATIONALITY FRAMEWORK
  • The economic concept of utility maximization
  • Adaptation of this concept to party
    identification
  • The assumption that all individuals can behave
    and choose rationally

75
RATIONAL VOTERS
  • A rational person
  • 1) Can always make a decision when confronted
    with alternatives
  • 2) Ranks all the alternatives according to
    preference, inferiority
  • 3) Always chooses from among the possible
    alternatives
  • 4) Always makes the same choices when confronted
    with the same alternatives

76
SPATIAL MODEL
  • Developed by Anthony Downs
  • Political parties lure voters on an ideological
    continuum (left-right)
  • Issue positions on this continuum placed by the
    parties or candidates are considered by voters
  • A rational voter chooses by calculating which
    candidates or partys issue position is closest
    to his ideal point of utility on the ideological
    continuum

77
SPATIAL MODEL
  • Comparisons of utility
  • Parties over-time ratings (evaluation of past
    activities and policies)

78
VALENCE ISSUES MODEL
  • Developed by Donald Stokes
  • Valence issues involve comparative judgements
    about party performance in certain areas
    (economy, human rightsetc)
  • Changing perception of valence issues from
    individual to individual is an important factor
    in determining partisanship and voting behavior

79
REWARD-PUNISHMENT MODEL
  • Developed by V.O. Key
  • Voters either rewarding or punishing their party
    in the elections due to their satisfaction with
    the partys policies and past activities

80
ISSUE PRIORITY MODEL
  • Parties developing policy agendas over certain
    issues and even claim issue ownership
  • This issue ownership becomes widely recognized by
    voters and they vote according to their issue
    priorities

81
ECONOMIC EVALUATION MODELS
  • Voters evaluation of economic conditions
  • Egocentric considerations / sociotropic ones
  • Self interested utility maximizing individuals/
    voters interested in the welfare of the society
    as a whole
  • Past/future-oriented economic evaluations

82
RACE, ETHNICITY AND POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
  • Ethnic identities playing an important role in
    shaping political decisions and actions
  • Us and the others
  • Collective political behavior of politicised
    ethnic groups
  • Ethnic or racial prejudices as determinants of
    political behavior

83
CASE STUDY 2008 US PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS
  • Obamas candidacy for presidency and the racial
    dimension of US politics and social life
  • Support of the race groups for Obama
  • Whites 43
  • Blacks 95
  • Hispanics 67

84
VIEWS ON WHITE SUPPORT FOR OBAMA
  • Supporting Obama in terms of escaping the
    stigmata of racism
  • Obamas self-introduction of being centrist and
    post-racial
  • The economic crisis caused Americans to realize
    that they could not evaluate the candidates on
    the basis of race

85
ATTITUDES OF OTHER RACE GROUPS
  • Black support for Obama the one in a million
    chance to provide Black presence in US
    administration
  • Hispanicsmostly belonging to lower classes and
    falling victim to racial prejudices, Obamas
    presidency is a hope for social and economic
    policies in their advantage

86
RACISM IN THE USA
  • Historical racism and anti-Black sentiments in
    the USA
  • The new racism Symbolic racism
  • The belief that blacks (and Hispanics) get
    special and undeserved treatment from the US
    governments

87
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88
AGE AND POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
  • Several nation-wide studies on the relationship
    between age and political behavior, but all
    lacking a global look on the age phenomenon as a
    whole
  • National studies show that people belonging to
    old age groups are much more eager to vote in the
    elections

89
AGE AND POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
  • Mark Franklin (2004) was the first to examine the
    age phenomenon from a global comparative
    perspective
  • The cohort composition of the electorate
  • Voting as a habit and habituation process
    developing in accordance with age
  • Health problems may constitute barriers against
    old age voter

90
AGE AND POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
  • Old age people generally see voting,as well as a
    habit, as their citizenship duty or as a sign of
    their loyalty to the political system

91
THE THREE TYPES OF EFFECTS
  • Differences between age groups in terms of
    political participation can be determined by
    three types of effects
  • Cohort
  • Life cycle
  • Individual aging

92
COHORT EFFECT
  • Shared experience by a group that was born during
    a certain period
  • Shared socialisation as a political generation
    (i.e. The 68 generation in Turkey)
  • Shared social characteristics in terms of
    education, media, technologyetc

93
LIFE-CYCLE EFFECT
  • Different life stages such as childhood,
    teenhood, adulthoodetc.
  • At each stage, there are demands imposed on the
    individuals from the sociocultural environment
  • Also at each stage, there are differing
    responsibilities (i.e. Parents getting more
    involved in politics since political developments
    are crucial for the future of their children)

94
INDIVIDUAL AGING EFFECT
  • Past voting experiences increase the probability
    of future voting
  • Repetation of the same political behaviors over
    time (voting) make it a more concrete habit
  • The older we are, the more likely we are to
    adhere to the social norm of voting

95
VOTING AS A SOCIAL NORM
  • Voting behavior becoming a social norm in time
    (especially in liberal democracies) and
    adherence to this norm can be observed by the
    elements within the social environment
  • Voting becoming a moral duty that brings social
    gratification for the voter

96
FACTORS INFLUENCING OLD AGE VOTING BEHAVIOR
  • Sense of duty to vote
  • Religiosity
  • Duration of residence
  • Party identification
  • Pension as a main source of income
  • Political interest
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