The Role of Emotions in Mediating Aggressive Behavior and in Moderating the Observational Learning of Aggression - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Role of Emotions in Mediating Aggressive Behavior and in Moderating the Observational Learning of Aggression PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3bab16-YmE0Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Role of Emotions in Mediating Aggressive Behavior and in Moderating the Observational Learning of Aggression

Description:

RCGD Lecture of 12/1/97. Acknowledgements A Longitudinal Developmental Structural Model The Relation between Observing Violence and Behaving Violently: A PREVIEW 1 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:142
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 84
Provided by: rcgdIsrU1
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Role of Emotions in Mediating Aggressive Behavior and in Moderating the Observational Learning of Aggression


1
(No Transcript)
2
Acknowledgements
  • A Longitudinal Developmental Structural Model

3
Nancy Huesmann Reed BA, 1962
Penny Graham Huesmann BA, 1963
1943
1953
1964
Louis Huesmann, BA, 1933 Ruth Rowell Huesmann,
BA, 1936
1963
Herb Simon
Penny H.
Charlie Butter
Len Eron
Bob Abelson
Amos Tversky
2004
Eric Dubow
Graham Huesmann, PhD, 2005 Kimberly Huesmann,
PhD, 2005
1969
4
The Relation between Observing Violence and
Behaving Violently A PREVIEW
  • 1) Observing Others Behaving Aggressively
    Stimulates Aggressive Behavior in Children and
    Adults in the Short Run
  • 2) Repeated Observations of Others Behaving
    Aggressively Changes Children So They Behave More
    Aggressively in the Long Run including after They
    Grow Up To Be Adults!

5
Why does observing violence increase the risk of
violent behavior?A PREVIEW
  • Situational Stimulating Processes (short term)
  • 1) By priming aggressive schemas, scripts, and
    beliefs.
  • 2) By increasing arousal which may be
    misattributed to something else
  • 3) Because viewers copy (mimic") behaviors they
    see
  • Observational Learning Processes (long term)
  • 1) Through the encoding ("imitation") of schemas,
    scripts, and beliefs promoting aggression.
  • 2) By desensitizing viewers emotionally to
    violence

6
Aggression
  • Definition
  • An act intended to harm another person
  • Some Key Facts
  • Serious aggressive behavior seldom occurs unless
    there is a convergence of multiple predisposing
    personal factors (genetic, physiological,
    learned) with multiple precipitating situational
    factors (frustration, provocation, deprivation,
    alcohol). No single factor by itself explains a
    lot of the variation between people.

7
Provocation?
8
Frustration?
9
Escalating Arguments?
10
Indirect Aggression
11
Aggression
  • Definition
  • An act intended to harm another person
  • Some Key Facts
  • Serious aggressive behavior seldom occurs unless
    there is a convergence of multiple predisposing
    personal factors (genetic, physiological,
    learned) with multiple precipitating situational
    factors (frustration, provocation, deprivation,
    alcohol). No single factor by itself explains a
    lot of the variation between people.
  • Individual differences in aggressiveness appear
    early in childhood (by age 3) and are pronounced
    by middle childhood.
  • On the average, the more aggressive child grows
    up to be the more aggressive adult even into late
    middle age

12
(No Transcript)
13
Age 8 Aggression Predicts Male's Age 48
Aggression Toward Spouse(CCLS, Huesmann, Dubow
Boxer, 2002)
F(2, 159) .43, ns
F(2, 216) 4.79, p lt .009
Age 48 Agg. Toward Spouse
Age 8 Peer-Nominated Aggression
14
Age 8 Aggression Predicts Female's Age 48
Hitting of Child as Punishment(CCLS, Huesmann,
Dubow Boxer, 2002)
F(2, 142) 3.31, p lt .05
F(2, 167) 1.54, ns
Age 48 Child Pun. (Hitting)
Age 8 Peer-Nominated Aggression
15
What are the consequences of the fact that adult
aggressiveness is affected to a great extent by
childhood aggressiveness?
  • Anything that makes a child more aggressive (even
    in not very serious ways) is increasing the risk
    that child will behave more aggressively as an
    adolescent and adult.

16
Huesmanns (1988 1998) Information Processing
Model for Social Problem Solving
  • Enduring psychological structures
  • Characteristic Emotional Reactions
  • Enduring tendencies to respond with particular
    emotions to particular situations or thoughts,
    e.g. tendencies to react with rage to provocation
    or to react with anxiety and disgust to blood,
    gore, and violence
  • Social Cognitions
  • World schemas
  • Schemas about what kind of place the world is
    socially, what is usual and unusual, and why
    people do what they do, e.g. is the world a
    mean place, is everyone out to get me?
  • Scripts for social behavior
  • A script is a program for behavior laying out the
    sequence of events that one believes are likely
    to happen and the behaviors that one believes are
    possible or appropriate for a particular
    situation, e.g. how should I behave if someone
    insults me, and how will they behave in response,
    and what will be the outcome of that?
  • Normative beliefs
  • Beliefs about what is moral or OK or wrong for
    oneself to do, e.g. is it O.K. for me to hit
    another person if they swear at me?

17
Information Processing Model for Social Problem
Solving (Huesmann, 1988 1998 Dodge et al.,
1980 Anderson et al., 1996)
Situational Cues
Emotional State

Schemas about the World
Make Attributions
Revised Emotional State
Scripts
Retrieve a Script
Bad Script Good Script
Normative Beliefs
Evaluate Script Likely Outcomes
Modify Schemas, Scripts Beliefs
BEHAVE
Emotional Outcome
Evaluate Outcomes
Situational Outcomes
18
Information Processing Model for Social Problem
Solving (Huesmann, 1988 1998 Dodge et al.,
1980 Anderson et al., 1996)
Situational Cues
Emotional State

Schemas about the World
Make Attributions
Revised Emotional State
Scripts
Retrieve a Script
Bad Script Good Script
Normative Beliefs
Evaluate Script Likely Outcomes
Modify Schemas, Scripts Beliefs
BEHAVE
Emotional Outcome
Evaluate Outcomes
Situational Outcomes
19
Information Processing Model for Social Problem
Solving (Huesmann, 1988 1998 Dodge et al.,
1980 Anderson et al., 1996)
Situational Cues
Emotional State

Schemas about the World
Make Attributions
Revised Emotional State
Scripts
Retrieve a Script
Bad Script Good Script
Normative Beliefs
Evaluate Script Likely Outcomes
Modify Schemas, Scripts Beliefs
BEHAVE
Emotional Outcome
Evaluate Outcomes
Situational Outcomes
20
Information Processing Model for Social Problem
Solving (Huesmann, 1988 1998 Dodge et al.,
1980 Anderson et al., 1996)
Situational Cues
Emotional State

Schemas about the World
Make Attributions
Revised Emotional State
Scripts
Retrieve a Script
Bad Script Good Script
Normative Beliefs
Evaluate Script Likely Outcomes
Modify Schemas, Scripts Beliefs
BEHAVE
Emotional Outcome
Evaluate Outcomes
Situational Outcomes
21
Information Processing Model for Social Problem
Solving (Huesmann, 1988 1998 Dodge et al.,
1980 Anderson et al., 1996)
Situational Cues
Emotional State

Schemas about the World
Make Attributions
Revised Emotional State
Scripts
Retrieve a Script
Bad Script Good Script
Normative Beliefs
Evaluate Script Likely Outcomes
Modify Schemas, Scripts Beliefs
BEHAVE
Emotional Outcome
Evaluate Outcomes
Situational Outcomes
22
Information Processing Model for Social Problem
Solving (Huesmann, 1988 1998 Dodge et al.,
1980 Anderson et al., 1996)
Situational Cues
Emotional State

Schemas about the World
Make Attributions
Revised Emotional State
Scripts
Retrieve a Script
Bad Script Good Script
Normative Beliefs
Evaluate Script Likely Outcomes
Modify Schemas, Scripts Beliefs
BEHAVE
Emotional Outcome
Evaluate Outcomes
Situational Outcomes
23
Information Processing Model for Social Problem
Solving (Huesmann, 1988 1998 Dodge et al.,
1980 Anderson et al., 1996)
Situational Cues
Emotional State

Schemas about the World
Make Attributions
Revised Emotional State
Scripts
Retrieve a Script
Bad Script Good Script
Normative Beliefs
Evaluate Script Likely Outcomes
Modify Schemas, Scripts Beliefs
BEHAVE
Emotional Outcome
Evaluate Outcomes
Situational Outcomes
24
Information Processing Model for Social Problem
Solving (Huesmann, 1988 1998 Dodge et al.,
1980 Anderson et al., 1996)
Situational Cues
Emotional State

Schemas about the World
Make Attributions
Revised Emotional State
Scripts
Retrieve a Script
Bad Script Good Script
Normative Beliefs
Evaluate Script Likely Outcomes
Modify Schemas, Scripts Beliefs
BEHAVE
Emotional Outcome
Evaluate Outcomes
Situational Outcomes
25
Information Processing Model for Social Problem
Solving (Huesmann, 1988 1998 Dodge et al.,
1980 Anderson et al., 1996)
Situational Cues
Emotional State

Schemas about the World
Make Attributions
Revised Emotional State
Scripts
Retrieve a Script
Bad Script Good Script
Normative Beliefs
Evaluate Script Likely Outcomes
Modify Schemas, Scripts Beliefs
BEHAVE
Emotional Outcome
Evaluate Outcomes
Situational Outcomes
26
Information Processing Model for Social Problem
Solving (Huesmann, 1988 1998 Dodge et al.,
1980 Anderson et al., 1996)
Situational Cues
Emotional State

Schemas about the World
Make Attributions
Revised Emotional State
Scripts
Retrieve a Script
Bad Script Good Script
Normative Beliefs
Evaluate Script Likely Outcomes
Modify Schemas, Scripts Beliefs
BEHAVE
Emotional Outcome
Evaluate Outcomes
Situational Outcomes
27
Information Processing Model for Social Problem
Solving (Huesmann, 1988 1998 Dodge et al.,
1980 Anderson et al., 1996)
Situational Cues
Emotional State

Schemas about the World
Make Attributions
Revised Emotional State
Scripts
Retrieve a Script
Bad Script Good Script
Normative Beliefs
Evaluate Script Likely Outcomes
Modify Schemas, Scripts Beliefs
BEHAVE
Emotional Outcome
Evaluate Outcomes
Situational Outcomes
28
Information Processing Model for Social Problem
Solving (Huesmann, 1988 1998 Dodge et al.,
1980 Anderson et al., 1996)
Situational Cues
Emotional State

Schemas about the World
Make Attributions
Revised Emotional State
Scripts
Retrieve a Script
Bad Script Good Script
Normative Beliefs
Evaluate Script Likely Outcomes
Modify Schemas, Scripts Beliefs
BEHAVE
Emotional Outcome
Evaluate Outcomes
Situational Outcomes
29
Given this model, why would a tendency to behave
aggressively or non-aggressively remain even
partially stable throughout life?
  • I. Because the social cognitions, emotional
    reactions, and decision processes represented in
    the model, once established, remain relatively
    constant throughout life.
  • Established by genetic, physiological, or other
    personal predisposing factors
  • Established through learning
  • Conditioning
  • Observational learning
  • II. Because the persons environment and
    situational stimulations remain relatively
    constant throughout life

30
Given this model, what happens when a person
views another person behaving in a particular way?
  • Short term processes
  • Emotions associated with the behavior and with
    attributions about the behavior are aroused,
    e.g., observed injustice arouses anger.
  • The emotional activation stimulated by the
    observation may be misattributed to other
    sources, e.g., a later frustration, increasing
    the risk for later aggression. (excitation
    transfer).
  • Specific observed behaviors may be immediately
    mimicked.
  • World schemas, behavioral scripts, and normative
    beliefs associated with the behavior are primed,
    e.g., guns prime aggressive cognitions.

31
Guns as Cues to Aggression (Berkowitz LePage,
1967)
SHOCKS GIVEN
32
Given this model, what happens when the same
behaviors are observed repeatedly?
  • Long term observational learning
  • Behaviors and behavioral scripts that are
    observed may be encoded into the childs mind and
    then used later (Direct Imitation).
  • World schemas and normative beliefs inferred from
    the observed behaviors may be encoded into the
    childs mind and influence behavior later
    (Inferential Imitation)
  • Emotions aroused in the child by the observations
    will habituate with repeated observations,
    (Desensitization).

33
Imitation
Imitation is often thought of as a low level,
cognitively undemanding, even childish form of
behavior. But recent work across a variety of
sciences argues that imitation is a rare ability
fundamentally linked to characteristically human
forms of intelligence, in particular to language,
culture, and the ability to understand other
minds. Susan Hurley and Nick Chater (2004)
34
Imitation
  • Appears to be innate occurs automatically in
    very young primate infants (Meltzoff Moore,
    1977).
  • Specific "mirror neurons" seem to organize
    imitation in primate brains (Galese et al., 1996)
  • Hierarchies of scripts, schemas, and beliefs
    evolve out of encodings of observed elements
    (Huesmann, 1998)

35
Empirical Question
  • So is there any evidence that social cognitions
    related to aggression predict aggression and
    become "resistant" to change as the child grows
    older?

36
The Chicago Metropolitan Area Child Study
(Guerra, Huesmann, Tolan, et al.)
  • A longitudinal study of 4,458 children in 8
    cohorts who were assessed up to 6 times in grades
    1 to 6 between 1991 and 1997
  • Children growing up in high poverty, high risk
    neighborhoods
  • Children were assessed on their aggressive
    behaviors, their exposure to neighborhood
    violence, their fantasy rehearsal of aggressive
    scripts, and their normative beliefs about the
    acceptability of aggression at each point in
    time.

37
Normative Beliefs about Aggression Crystallize in
Middle Childhood and then Predict Aggression
(Huesmann Guerra, JPSP, 1997)
.51
.60
AGG 8
AGG 11
AGG 6
AGG 9
.16
ns
ns
.23
.20
ns
AGG 6
AGG 9
AGG n aggression at age n NB n normative
beliefs approving of aggression at age n
38
Empirical Question
  • Does observation of violence in the "Real" world
    lead to subsequent increases in aggression and
    aggressive cognitions?

39
The Average One-Year Lagged Relation between
Exposure to Neighborhood Violence and Aggression
calculated from a Three Level (Time, Person,
School) HLM Growth Curve Model for Grades 1 to 6
N1417
N1368
Agg T1
Agg T
Expos Viol T
Expos Viol T1
.53
.39
.10
.04
Expos Viol T
Agg T
40
The Average One-Year Lagged Relation between
Exposure to Neighborhood Violence and Aggressive
Normative Beliefs calculated separately for
Grades 1-3 and Grades 4-6
Grade 1 to 3 N 337
Grade 4 to 6 N 408
Norm Beliefs T1
Norm Beliefs T
Norm Beliefs T
Norm Beliefs T1
.25
.36
.13
-.01
Expos Viol T
Expos Viol T
41
The Average One-Year Lagged Relation between
Exposure to Neighborhood Violence and Aggressive
Fantasy calculated separately for Grades 1-3 and
Grades 4-6
Grade 1 to 3 N 341
Grade 4 to 6 N 413
Agg Fant T1
Agg Fant T
Agg Fant T
Agg Fant T1
.25
.32
.16
-.00
Expos Viol T
Expos Viol T
42
The Mediating Role of Aggressive Fantasy and
Normative Beliefs in Linking 4th-grd Exposure to
Neighborhood Violence to 6th-grd Aggression
Control Sub-Sample (N 320)
Complete Sample (N 1,318)
Agg Fant 5
Agg Fant 5
.25
.05
.26
.05
Expos Viol 4-5
Agg 6
Expos Viol 4-5
Agg 6
.12
.18
.18
.18
.25
.21
Norm Beliefs 5
Norm Beliefs 5
GFI .966 Total effect of Expos on Agg
.234 Mediated effect through Agg Fant .013
6 Mediated effect through Norm Bel .037 16
GFI.961 Total effect of Expos on Agg
.170 Mediated effect through Agg Fant .012
7 Mediated effect through Norm Bel .043 25
43
Substantive Conclusions
  • Repeated exposure of children to violence in
    their neighborhood predicts subsequent increased
    aggressive behavior by them and aggressive
    cognitions for them, but only during later middle
    childhood.
  • Aggressive behavior and aggressive cognitions in
    children generally DO NOT predict subsequent
    increased exposure to neighborhood violence
  • Children's social cognitions do mediate some of
    the effect of exposure to violence on aggression
    in the later grades where social cognitions have
    become more stable

44
Empirical Question
  • Does observation of violence in the "Reel" world
    lead to subsequent increases in aggression and
    aggressive cognitions?

45
(No Transcript)
46
The most violent ghetto isnt in South Central
L.A. or Southeast Washington D.C. its on TV.
About 350 characters appear each night on
prime-time TV, but studies show an average of 7
of these people are murdered every night. If this
rate applied in reality, then in just 50 days
everyone in the United States would be killed and
the last left could turn off the TV. Michael
Medved, Film Critic
47
Media Violence is Attractive
Movie violence is like eating salt. The more you
eat, the more you need to eat to taste it. That's
why death counts have quadrupled and blast power
is increasing by the megaton. Alan J. Pakula
Director, All the President's Men
48
Short Term Imitation and Priming Studies
  • Do exposures to scenes of violence cause
    increases in aggression in the short run? Does
    priming play a role?

49
Violence Viewing Causes Aggression at Peers
(Bjorkqvist, 1985)
  • Nursery school children

AGGRESSION AT PEERS
50
The Effect of Priming (Josephson, 1987)
51
Emotion Studies
  • Do emotional responses to the observation of
    violence habituate?
  • Do people who show less negative emotional
    arousal (e.g., anxiety) when viewing violence
    behave more aggressively ?

52
Moise-Titus Huesmann (1999)
53
Moise-Titus Huesmann (1999)
54
Moise-Titus Huesmann (1999)
.20
.74
.90
X25.24 (df10), p.87 RMSE.0279
non-sig. paths
55
The Negative Emotional Reactions of Aggressive
Adult Males Habituate More Rapidly than for
Non-aggressivesKirwil Huesmann (2003)
56
Mean SCL During Watching Film with Unprovoked
Violence by Policemen and Male Students (Kirwil
Huesmann, 2004)
57
Conclusions
  • Adults who display "low anxious arousal" in
    response to observing scenes of violence
  • 1) score higher on trait aggression
  • 2) display beliefs more supportive of aggression
  • 3) behave more aggressively immediately
    afterwards
  • Adults who display low anxious arousal in
    response to observing scenes of violence
  • 1) seem to watch more violence on TV
  • 2) or seem to have jobs that expose them to real
    violence
  • These findings are consistent with the model that
    feeling bad about a script for aggression makes
    it less likely that a person will follow that
    script.

58
Longitudinal Studies
  • What happens to children who are exposed
    repeatedly to media violence as they grow up?

59
Columbia Country Longitudinal Study 1960
2000(Huesmann, Eron, Lefkowitz Walder,
Developmental Psychology, 1984 Huesmann, Eron,
Dubow Boxer, in press)
  • Assessed 856 children (and their parents) who
    were almost entire population of Columbia County,
    New York in 1960
  • Assessed them again in 1970 at age 18, in 1982 at
    age 30, and in 2000 at age 48. Assessed their
    children in 1982 and 2000
  • Collected data on 524 of the original subjects
    and 735 of their children in 2000
  • Have complete (4 waves) data on 285 of the
    original participants

60
TV Viol Exposure at Age 8 vs Aggression at Age
18 for 184 Boys (Eron, Huesmann, Lefkowitz
Walder, American Psychologist, 1972)
61
Path Coefficients from Age 8 to 18 for 184 Boys
.050
TV Violence Age 18
TV Violence Age 8
R.002
.241
.210
.000
Aggression Age 18
Aggression Age 8
R.447
.329
62
Males Violent Crimes by Age 30 Relate To Their
Age 8 TV Violence Viewing (Huesmann, J Social
Issues, 1987)
Mean Violence Rating of Crimes for which
Arrested by Age 30 (1982)
Low Med
High
TV Violence Viewing at Age 8 (1960)
63
Age 48 Aggressive Cognitions and Behavior
Correlate with Childhood TV Violence Viewing 40
Years Earlier for MALES
  • Correlation between age 8 TV violence viewing
    and age 48 Normative Beliefs Approving of
    Aggression .26
  • Correlation between age 8 TV violence viewing and
    age 48 arrests in NY State .33

64
Oak Park Longitudinal Study (1977-1995)(Huesmann,
Moise, Podolski Eron, Developmental
Psychology, 2003)
  • Sample of 748 children who were almost the entire
    1st and 3rd grade populations of Oak Park,
    Illinois in 1977
  • Assessed 1st grade cohort in 1st, 2nd, 3rd grades
    and then 15 years later at age 22-24
  • Assessed 3rd grad cohort in 3rd, 4th, and 5th
    grades and then 15 years later at age 24-26

65
Oak Park Study Aggression at Ages 21to 25
Is Predicted by TV Violence Viewing at Ages 6 to
10
Child TV Violence Viewing
66
USAMALES
Parents Education
Parents Education
.079
-.134
.002
.112
Child TV Violence Viewing
Adult TV Violence Viewing
-.050
.026
.188
-.050
Cohort
Cohort
.116
.304
.037
-.150
Adult Composite Aggression
.135
Child Aggression
.183
-.214
-.341
-.094
.049
Early Achievement
?2 (6) 2.20, p90 RMS.0241
67
USAFEMALES
Parents Education
-.176
-.017
-.145
.156
Child TV Violence Viewing
Adult TV Violence Viewing
.135
.118
.168
-.246
Cohort
.215
.302
.123
.068
Adult Composite Aggression
.299
Child Aggression
.191
-.207
-.389
-.204
.167
Early Achievement
?2 (6) 2.20, p90 RMS.0241
68
Differences in Frequency of Spouse Abuse and
Serious Physical Aggression in Past 12 Months for
High Childhood Violence Viewers Compared to Other
Children MALES FEMALES Hi
Viol Other Hi Viol Other Viewers Viewe
rs Sig. Viewers Viewers Sig. (N
31) (N122) (N 36) (N 140)
Spouse Abuse Pushed, Grabbed
41.7 22.2 p lt .05 34.6 21.2 n. s. or
Shoved Spouse Thrown Something
20.8 14.8 n. s. 38.5 16.5 p lt .02 at
Spouse Serious Physical Aggression
Respond by Shoving 68.8 50.4 P lt
.05 68.6 43.2 p lt .01 the Person
Punch, Beat, or Choke 21.9 16.9 n.
s. 17.1 3.6 p lt .01 Another Adult
69
Differences in Frequency of Crimes and Traffic
Violations in Past 12 Months for High Childhood
Violence Viewers Compared to Other
Children MALES FEMALES Hi Viol Other Hi
Viol Other Viewers Viewers Sig. Viewers Viewer
s Sig. (N 31) (N122) (N 36) (N 140)
Criminal Behavior Self-reported A
Crime 62.5 53.4 n. s. 48.6 25.9 p lt .01
in Last Year State Reported
Convict. 10.7 3.1 p lt .03 00.0 00.0 n.
s. Driving Behavior Self-reported
Moving 87.5 76.3 n. s. 80.0 57.6 p lt .01
Traffic Violations State-reported
Moving 60.0 39.4 p lt .01 28.9 28.4 n. s.
Traffic Violations
70
Theoretical Moderators of theObservational
Learning of Aggression
  • Identification with the model
  • Aggressor or Victim?
  • Perception of 'reality' of observed behavioral
    script

71
Oak Park Study Aggression at Ages 21 to 25
Is Predicted by Perceiving that TV Violence
"Tells About Life Just Like It Really Is" at Ages
6 to 10
Child Percep of Realism of TV Viol
72
Oak Park Study Aggression at Ages 21 to 25
Is Predicted by Identification with Aggressive
TV Characters at Ages 6 to 10
Child Ident w Same Sex Agg TV Character
73
ID w/ aggressive characters increases effect of
childhood violence viewing on young adult males'
aggression
74
Perceiving violent shows as true to life
increases effect of childhood violence viewing on
young adult males aggression
Std Regression Coeff Predicting Age 23 Aggression
75
Normative Beliefs as Mediators
  • TV Viol--gt Agg Norm Beliefs --gt Aggression

76
USA Females N176
.09
Childhood TV Violence Viewing
Adult TV Violence Viewing
.19
.07
.26
Adult Normative Beliefs Approving of Aggression
.26
.12
-.05
Adult Aggression
Childhood Aggression
.10
Chi-square (1) 3.74 p .06 RMSE .033
plt.10 Plt.05 Plt.01
77
USA Males N153
-.04
Childhood TV Violence Viewing
Adult TV Violence Viewing
.18
.09
.02
Adult Normative Beliefs Approving of Aggression
.30
.13
-.11
Childhood Aggression
Adult Aggression
.19
Chi-square (1) 0.07 p .80 RMSE .005
plt.10 Plt.05 Plt.01
78
The Relation between Observing Violence and
Behaving Violently SUMMARY
  • 1) Observing Others Behaving Aggressively
    Stimulates Aggressive Behavior in Children and
    Adults in the Short Run
  • 2) Repeated Observations of Others Behaving
    Aggressively Changes Children So They Behave More
    Aggressively in the Long Run including after They
    Grow Up To Be Adults!

79
How does observing violence increase the risk of
violent behavior?SUMMARY
  • Situational Stimulating Processes (short term)
  • 1) By priming aggressive schemas, scripts, and
    beliefs.
  • 2) By increasing arousal which may be
    misattributed to something else
  • 3) Because viewers copy (mimic") behaviors they
    see
  • Observational Learning Processes (long term)
  • 1) Through the encoding ("imitation") of schemas,
    scripts, and beliefs promoting aggression.
  • 2) By desensitizing viewers emotionally to
    violence

80
The average size of the statistical correlation
between violent behavior and a youths exposure
to media violence (Paik Comstock, 1994)
Correlation
81
A COMPARISON of the media violence correlation
with other social risks that have been studied
scientifically
Correlation
82
(No Transcript)
83
Fifty Years of Studies
  • it is clear to me that the causal relationship
    between exposure to televised violence and
    antisocial behavior is sufficient to warrant
    appropriate and immediate remedial action
    there comes a time when the data are sufficient
    to justify action. That time has come.
  • Jesse Steinfeld, Surgeon General of the United
    States
  • March 1972
About PowerShow.com