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AUTISM

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AUTISM Overview What is Autism? Is there more than one type of Autism? What causes Autism? How is Autism diagnosed? What are the characteristics of Autism? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AUTISM


1
AUTISM
2
Overview
  • What is Autism?
  • Is there more than one type of Autism?
  • What causes Autism?
  • How is Autism diagnosed?
  • What are the characteristics of Autism?
  • What are the most effective approaches to
    treating Autism? Is there a cure?

3
WHAT IS AUTISM?
  • Very complex, often baffling developmental
    disability
  • First described by Leo Kanner in 1943 as early
    infantile autism
  • Auto children are locked within themselves.
  • For next 30 years, considered to be an emotional
    disturbance

4
WHAT IS AUTISM?
  • Today, autism is a severe form of a broader group
    of disorders
  • These are referred to as pervasive developmental
    disorders
  • Typically appears during the first 3 years of life

5
WHAT IS AUTISM?
  • Very likely neurological in origin not
    emotional, not the refrigerator mom
  • Prevalence figures vary widely earlier 5/10,000,
    but recent data say as high as 1/1000 or even
    1/500.
  • 4 times more prevalent in boys
  • No known racial, ethnic, or social boundaries
  • No relation to family income, lifestyle

6
WHAT IS AUTISM?
  • Autism impacts normal development of the brain in
    areas of social interaction and communication
    skills.
  • Difficult to communicate with others and relate
    to the outside world.
  • Occasionally, aggressive and/or self-injurious
    behavior may be present.

7
WHAT IS AUTISM?
  • May exhibit repeated body movements (hand
    flapping, rocking).
  • Unusual responses to people
  • Attachment to objects
  • Resistance to change in routine
  • Sensory sensitivities

8
WHAT ARE THE TYPES?
  • Actually, the umbrella heading is Pervasive
    Developmental Disorder (PDD).
  • Autism is one of the 5 PDDs.
  • All have commonalities in communication and
    social deficits
  • Differ in terms of severity

9
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10
1. Autistic Disorder
  • Impairments in social interaction, communication,
    and imaginative play.
  • Apparent before age 3.
  • Also includes stereotyped behaviors, interests,
    and activities

11
2. Aspergers Disorder
  • Impairments in social interactions, and presence
    of restricted interests and activities
  • No clinically significant general delay in
    language
  • Average to above average intelligence

12
3. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not
Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)
  • Often referred to as atypical autism
  • Used when a child does not meet the criteria for
    a specific diagnosis, but there is severe and
    pervasive impairment in specified behaviors

13
4. Retts Disorder
  • Progressive disorder which, to date, has only
    occurred in girls.
  • Period of normal development and then the loss of
    previously acquired skills
  • Also loss of purposeful use of hands, which is
    replaced by repetitive hand movements
  • Beginning at age of 1-4 years

14
5. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
  • Normal development for at least the first 2 years
  • Then significant loss of previously acquired
    skills

15
Conclusions on Types
  • Autism is a spectrum disorder
  • This means that symptoms and characteristics can
    present themselves in wide variety of
    combinations, from mild to severe
  • Autistic individuals can be very different from
    each other
  • Autism is still commonly used to refer to any
    of the 5 PDDs

16
What causes (and doesnt cause) autism?
  • Good agreement in general that autism is caused
    by abnormalities in brain development,
    neurochemistry and genetic factors
  • Some of the research indicates a variety of
    things including Exposure to heavy metals
    Environmental issues Lyme Disease, etc.
  • Yet there is no proof that any one of these areas
    is truly responsible for Autism.
  • Another scenario is that there have always been
    many children with Autism, but the diagnosis
    hasn't been there like it is now.
  • Bettlelheims theory of psychogenesis?

17
How is Autism Diagnosed?
  • No definitive medical test
  • Team uses interviews, observation, and specific
    checklists developed for this purpose.
  • Team might include neurologist, psychologist,
    developmental pediatrician, speech/language
    therapist, learning consultant, etc.
  • Must rule out MR, hearing impairment, behavior
    disorders, or eccentric habits

18
CHARACTERISTICS
  • 1. Communication/Language
  • 2. Social Interaction
  • 3. Behaviors
  • 4. Sensory and movement disorders
  • 5. Resistance to change (predictability)
  • 6. Intellectual functioning

19
1. Communication/language
  • Broad range of abilities, from no verbal
    communication to quite complex skills
  • Two common impairments
  • A. Delayed language
  • B. Echolalia

20
A. Delayed language
  • 50 of autistic individuals will eventually have
    useful speech (?)
  • Pronoun reversal You want white icing on
    chocolate cake.
  • Difficulty in conversing easily with others
  • Difficulty in shifting topics
  • Look away poor eye contact
  • Facilitated communication?

21
Elements of Facilitated Communication
  • 1. Physical Support
  • 2. Initial training/introduction
  • 3. Maintaining focus
  • 4. Avoiding competence testing
  • 5. Generalization
  • 6. Fading

22
B. Echolalia
  • Involuntary parrot-like repetition (echoing) of a
    word or phrase just spoken by another person.
  • Common in very young children (Age 3)
  • Immediate or delayed
  • Is there communicative intent with echolalia?

23
2. Social Interaction
  • One of hallmarks of autism is lack of social
    interaction
  • 1. Impaired use of nonverbal behavior
  • 2. Lack of peer relationships
  • 3. Failure to spontaneously share enjoyment,
    interests, etc. with others
  • 4. Lack of reciprocity
  • Theory of mind?

24
3. Behaviors
  • Repetitive behaviors, including obsessions, tics,
    and perseveration
  • Impeding behaviors (impede their learning or the
    learning of others)
  • Will need positive behavior supports
  • A. Self-injurious behavior
  • B. Aggression

25
4. Sensory and movement disorders
  • Very common
  • Over- or under-sensitive to sensory stimuli
  • Abnormal posture and movements of the face, head,
    trunk, and limbs
  • Abnormal eye movements
  • Repeated gestures and mannerisms
  • Movement disorders can be detected very early
    perhaps at birth

26
5. Predictability
  • Change in routine is very stressful
  • May insist on particular furniture arrangement,
    food at meals, TV shows
  • Symmetry is often important
  • Interventions need to focus on preparing students
    for change if possible

27
6. Intellectual functioning
  • Autism occurs in children of all levels of
    intelligence, from those who are gifted to those
    who have mental retardation
  • In general, majority of individuals with autism
    are also identified as having mental retardation
    75 below 70
  • Verbal and reasoning skills are difficult
  • Savant syndrome

28
Interventions
  • 1. Individualization and early intervention are
    the keys
  • 2. Include life skills, functional academics,
    and vocational preparation
  • 3. Positive behavior support
  • 4. Social stories (music therapy?)
  • 5. Lovaas model

Behavioral intervention program developed in the
Psychology Department of UCLA under the direction
of Dr. O. Ivar Lovaas.
29
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30
  • Facts and Statistics
  • 1 in 150 births lt1gt Only 20 years ago the
    statistics were 1 in 10,000.
  • 41 ratio of boys to girls
  • 1 in 98 boys
  • 1 to 1.5 million Americans lt2gt
  • Fastest-growing developmental disability10 - 17
    annual growth
  • 90 billion annual cost lt3gt
  • 90 of costs are in adult services lt3gt
  • Cost lifelong care can be reduced by 2/3 w/ early
    diagnosis/intervention lt3gt
  • In 10 years, the annual cost will be 200-400
    billion lt4gt
  • 1.Based on prevalence statistics from the Centers
    for Disease Control and Prevention (2007).
  • 2.Based on the autism prevalence rate of 2 to 6
    per 1,000 (Centers for Disease Control and
    Prevention, 2001) and 2000 U.S. Census figure
    of 280 million Americans.
  • 3.Jarbrink K, Knapp M, 2001, London School of
    Economics study "The economic impact on autism
    in Britain," 5 (1) 7-22.
  • 4.ASA calculates that the annual cost of autism
    will increase to 200-400 billion in 10 years.
    February 2003

There are more than 500,000 individuals under the
age of 21 with some form of Autism right now in
the United States.
31
  • Facts and Statistics cont.
  • More children will be diagnosed with autism this
    year than cancer, diabetes, Downs Syndrome and
    AIDS combined.
  • Autism receives less than 5 of the research
    funding of most of the more prevalent childhood
    disorders.
  • Incidence vs. Private Funding (2007)
  • Condition Incidence Private
    Funding Pediatric AIDS 1 in
    8,000 394 Million
    Leukemia 1 in 25,000 310 Million
    Muscular Dystrophy 1 in 20,000 175
    Million Juvenile Diabetes
    1 in 500 130 Million
    Autism 1 in 150 42 Million

32
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33
Autism Organizations Oregon Autism Society of
Oregon USA Asperger and Autism Information by
MAAP Services Autism National Committee
(AUTCOM/ANC) Autism Network International (ANI)
Autism Society of America Autism Speaks Center
for the Study of Autism Families for Early
Autism Treatment (FEAT) of Northern
California Society for Auditory Integration
Training
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