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Coastal Ocean

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Coastal wetlands are coastal watersheds that drain to the ocean or to an estuary or bay. Traditional Hawaiian Uses of Wetlands Seaweeds limu Hooks and Lures Fishing ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Coastal Ocean


1
Coastal Ocean
Coastal wetlands are coastal watersheds that
drain to the ocean or to an estuary or bay.
2
Coastal Ocean
  • Intertidal Zone
  • Estuaries
  • Muddy bottom and sandy bottom communities
  • Salt marshes and seagrass beds
  • Mangroves
  • Coral reefs

3
Intertidal Zonation
Zonation is a vertical banding of the organisms
living on the rocky coastline. These distinct
bands occur in part from many complex physical
and biological factors that effect marine
organisms.
4
Which tidal cycle has the greatest effect on
marine organisms living in the intertidal zone?
5
Tidal Zones on a Rocky Ocean Shore
Splash Fringe Level

High Tide Level
Mid Tide Level
Low Tide Level
Low Fringe Level
6
Mostly shelled orgs
Spray or Splash Zone
High Tide Zone
Middle Tide Zone
Many soft bodied orgs and algae
Low Tide Zone
7
Big Island
8
periwinkles
ulva
opihi
Mussels starfish
9
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10
What are some stresses that affect the organisms
residing in the intertidal zone?
11
  • Biotic factors affecting organisms living in the
    intertidal zone
  • Competition for space and food
  • Predation
  • Reproduction
  • Substrate settlement preference
  • Osmoregulation

12
  • Abiotic factors affecting organisms living in the
    intertidal zone
  • Salinity
  • Temperature
  • Air and light exposure
  • Tidal flow
  • Waves and current action
  • Substrate
  • Wind direction and strength
  • Dissolved O2
  • Storms
  • Natural Disasters

13
What are some adaptations to living in the
intertidal zone?
14
Estuaries are among the most productive marine
ecosystems with high biomass of benthic algae,
seagrass and phytoplankton
15
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16
  • Wetlands in Hawaii
  • At one time contained an estimated 59,000 acres
    of wetlands
  • Over the last 200 years Hawaii has lost
    approximately 12 of its original wetland acres.
  • The exact effect of the loss or degradation of
    Hawaii's wetlands on local fisheries is unclear.
  • It is estimated that only 1 of the Pacific
    island recreational and commercial species are
    estuarine-dependent.
  • Economically important estuarine fish mullet,
    milkfish, shrimp, and the nehu, a tropical
    anchovy used as live bait in the pole-and-line
    skipjack tuna fishery.

17
Oahu Watershed
18
Traditional Hawaiian Uses of Wetlands
19
Seaweedslimu
20
Hooks andLures
21
Octopus Lure
22
Fishing Shrineskoa
23
Hawaiian Fish Pondsloko ia
24
Ahupuaa
Ranges from the tip of the mtn to the reef area
  • Upland
  • Plains
  • Ocean

25
TheAhupuaa
26
Estuaries
  • Estuaries are partially enclosed coastal bodies
    of water
  • Examples of estuaries include
  • River mouths
  • Bays
  • Inlets
  • Gulfs
  • Sounds
  • Formed by a rise in sea level after the last Ice
    Age

27
Classifying estuaries by origin
  • Coastal plain
  • Fjord
  • Bar-built
  • Tectonic

28
Examples of estuaries
Puuloa
29
Examples of estuaries
Fjord estuary (Norway)
Tectonic estuary (San Francisco, CA)
30
Classifying estuaries by water mixing
  • Vertically mixed
  • Slightly stratified
  • Highly stratified
  • Salt wedge

31
Coastal wetlands
  • Coastal wetlands are saturated areas that border
    coastal environments
  • Brackish water conditions
  • Two most important types of coastal wetlands
  • Salt marshes (mid-latitudes)
  • Mangrove swamps (low latitudes)

32
Coastal wetlands Salt marshes and mangrove swamps
33
Muddy bottom and sandy bottom communities
  • Infauna 
  • live within the sediment, mostly soft bottom 
  • mostly clams and worms (polychaetes) 
  • burrow tubes for food scavenging and oxygen
    supply
  • Primary producers algae, mostly benthic diatoms
    and dinoflagellates
  • cyanobacteria mats on mudflats
  • mud more productive than sand
  • macro- and meiobenthos, often detrivores, living
    of deposits from seagrasses and marshes
  • birds important grazers

34
Muddy bottom and sandy bottom communities
35
Muddy bottom and sandy bottom communities
  • 32,000 polychaetes in sand/m2
  • vs
  • 50-500 earth worms in soil/m2
  • Ecological Role
  • clean sediments
  • aerate soil

36
Salt marshes
  • Found from the Arctic to Southern Australia
  • Salt marshes grow in muds and sands that are
    sheltered by barrier islands.
  • Flood and ebb currents transport saltwater,
    nutrients, plankton and sediments in and out of
    the marsh.

37
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38
He'eia Wetlands
39
Wetland Birds
Black crowned night heron
Sanderling
Rudy Turnstone
Hawaiian Coot
Hawaiian Stilt
Pacific Golden Plover
Hawaiian Duck
Northern Pintail Duck
Wanderling tattler
40
Wetland Fish
Mullet
Oopu akupa
Tilapia
Milkfish
41
Wetland Inverts
Anchialine ponds
Opae ula
42
Wetland Plants
aki'aki
akulikuli
mangrove
bullrush
43
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44
Waikiki Diamond Head
1934
45
The value of coastal wetlands
  • Highly productive food factory
  • Serves as fish nurseries
  • Acts as a giant sponge
  • The salt marsh absorbs large volumes of water,
    thus minimizing the impacts of flooding and
    erosion and recharging groundwater.
  • Filters polluted runoff from land
  • absorbing toxins and in some cases metabolizing
    them into harmless substances
  • Problem
  • wetlands viewed as worthless land

46
Of the original 215 million acres of wetlands in
the U.S. (excluding Alaska and Hawaii) , about
106 million acres remain.
distribution of wetlands in the U.S. in the 1780s
distribution of wetlands in the U.S. in the 1900s
47
Current distribution of wetlands and deepwater
habitats
48
Major Causes of Wetlands Loss and
Degradation Human Actions
  • Drainage
  • Dredging and stream channelization
  • Deposition of fill material
  • Diking and damming
  • Tilling for crop production
  • Levees
  • Logging
  • Mining
  • Construction
  • Runoff
  • Air and water pollutants
  • Changing nutrient levels
  • Releasing toxic chemicals
  • Introducing non-native species to the ecosystem
  • Grazing by domestic animals

49
  • Natural Threats
  • Erosion
  • Subsidence
  • Sea level rise
  • Droughts
  • Hurricanes and other storms

50
Mangrove Habitat
51
Mangrove Distribution
  • There are approximately 40 species of mangroves
    distributed worldwide

52
  • Prop roots
  • help support the tree
  • Pneumatophores
  • respiratory function take in O2
  • push nutrients to the upper soil layer

53
Ecological Role of Mangroves
  • Stabilize sediment
  • Accumulate detrital or other foreign material
  • Habitat for epiphytes
  • Fish and invertebrate nursery
  • Nesting/roosting sites for birds
  • Limited role as a direct food source
  • Major contributor to detrital food chain
  • Protect shoreline from erosion during tropical
    storms

54
Mangrove Use
  • fish and shrimp cultivation
  • food for people
  • firewood and boat building material
  • tanning material
  • finest honey

Shrimp farm surrounded by degraded mangroves,
Vietnam
55
Seagrass beds
57 species worldwide
56
Seagrass- true vascular plants
Classification
Angiosperms
Gymnosperms
57
Seagrasses
  • True marine angiosperm
  • Evolved from shoreline Lillie-like plants100 mya
  • Vascular plants reinvaded the seas 3 different
    times (algae is nonvascular i.e., no need for
    roots to transport water and nutrients)
  • Can grow and reproduce while completely submerged
    under water

Distribution 12 genera of seagrasses (5 in the
high latitude and 7 in the low latitude)
58
Halophila hawaiiana- only form of seagrass in
Hawaii
59
Development of Seagrass Beds
  • Develop in
  • intertidal and shallow subtidal areas on sands
    and muds
  • marine inlets and bays
  • lagoons and channels, which are sheltered from
    significant wave action

60
Ecological roles
  • Help stabilize the sediment
  • Prevents resuspension of sediments in water
    (water is clearer)
  • Binds substratum, reduces turbidity, and reduces
    erosion
  • Sediment accumulation slows velocity of incoming
    water
  • Food for many organisms
  • Refuge for many organisms

61
Threats to Seagrass Beds
  • Seagrass productivity is highly dependent on a
    number of factors
  • salinity
  • water temperature
  • turbidity
  • This ecosystem is particularly sensitive to
    degradation due to
  • agricultural pollution-run-off of herbicides
  • industrial pollution
  • domestic pollution

62
Coral Reef Communities
63
  • Hermatypic corals
  • possess zooxanthellae
  • are reef builders

Light Clear water Warm temperature 18-32oC Low
nutrients Low productivity in water
  • Ahermatypic corals
  • no zooxanthellae
  • rely on tentacular feeding
  • can live in aphotic zone

64
Hawaiian Coral Zonation
0 m
High light levels Moderate wave energy
6 m
Cauliflower coral (Pocillopora meandrina)
Moderate light levels Occasional storm wave energy
Lobe coral (Porites lobata)
13 m
Low light levels Low wave energy
Finger coral (Porites compressa)
25 m
Very low light, Primarily downwelling No wave
energy
Plate coral (Porites rus)
65
Inquiry
  • What are some biotic and abiotic factors
    effecting animals and plants living on the coast?
  • A mangrove is a _____________.
  • Mangroves are primarily found in _____ latitude.
  • Where do estuaries form?
  • What is a Ahupuaa?
  • Why are mangroves, estuaries, salt marshes so
    productive?
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