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Title: BAROQUE MUSIC


1
BAROQUE MUSIC
2
Baroque
  • DATES
  • BAROQUE

The Baroque period stretches roughly from 1600 to
1750 (coincides with the death of J.S. Bach.)
From the Portuguese word barroco meaning an
ornamented piece of jewellery. First used to
describe the highly decorative style of
architecture at the time.
3
Fingerprints of musical style
  • Early Baroque composers favour a light,
    homophonic musical texture melody plus simple
    chordal accompaniment but before long, there is
    a return to polyphonic (contrapuntal) textures.
  • The basso continuo, or figured bass, becomes the
    musical foundation for most types of piece
    providing a purposeful bass-line (sometimes a
    walking bass) making the music move steadily
    onwards.
  • The same musical mood is usually kept throughout
    an entire piece.
  • The violin family takes over from the viols the
    orchestra begins to take shape, with the string
    section as a firm basis always with keyboard
    continuo (harpsichord or organ) filling out the
    harmonies above the figured bass and decorating
    the musical texture.

4
Fingerprints 2
  • The system of modes falls out of use by the end
    of the 17th century music is now based on major
    and minor scales.
  • Typical forms used by Baroque composers binary,
    ternary (including the da capo aria), rondeau,
    variations (including the ground bass, chaconne,
    passacaglia), ritornello form, fugue.
  • Main types of Baroque music
  • vocal chorale, recitative and aria, opera,
    oratorio, cantata
  • instrumental Italian overture, French
    overture, toccata, prelude, chorale prelude,
    dance suite, trio sonatas (sonata da camera,
    sonata da chiesa), concerto grosso, solo
    concerto.
  • Often, energetic rhythms drive the music forward
    melodies are frequently long and flowing, and
    decorated with ornaments (eg appoggiaturas,
    trills) contrasts (particularly in concertos),
    of instrumental timbres, of few instruments
    against many, of loud contrasted against soft
    (terraced dynamics, sometimes echo effects),
    and blocks of sound of different timbres (eg
    strings and wind alternately, then together).

5
Instruments-Harpsichord
  • A harpsichord is the general term for a family of
    European keyboard instruments, including the
    large instrument nowadays called a harpsichord,
    but also the smaller virginals and the spinet.
  • All these instruments generate sound by plucking
    a string rather than striking one, as in a piano
    or clavichord. The harpsichord family is thought
    to have originated when a keyboard was affixed to
    the end of a psaltery, providing a mechanical
    means to pluck the strings.

6
Baroque Orchestra
  • Typical features include
  • Strings to which composers would add 1 or 2
    flutes (or recorders), oboes, bassoons, perhaps
    horns, occasionally trumpets and kettle drums.
  • Organ or harpsichord continuo to build up chords
    on a bass line (figured bass),
  • Effects of contrast- dynamics and textures.
  • Ribbons of sound- oboes and trumpets against
    strings, or
  • Blocks of sound- contrasting groups- strings then
    wind then tutti (all) resulting in terraced
    dynamics rather than crescendo or diminuendo.

7
Baroque Orchestra
  • The Baroque Orchestra is the earliest example of
    a true orchestra which came into existence in the
    mid-late 1600s. Its origins were in France where
    Jean-Baptiste Lully added oboes (hautboys) and
    transverse flutes to his vingt-quatre violons du
    Roy. As well as violins and woodwind, the baroque
    orchestra would have still contained continuo
    instruments such as the harpsichord or theorbo
    (lute). The new-fangled instrumentation and
    orchestration soon spread to the rest of Europe
    and soon became the standard solo instrumental
    grouping.

8
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9
Typical forms used by Baroque composers
  • Binary (AB)
  • Ternary (including the da capo aria) (ABA)
  • Rondo (ABACADA)
  • Variations (including the ground bass, chaconne,
    passacaglia)
  • Ritornello form
  • Fugue

10
Main types of Baroque music
  • VOCAL OPERA, ORATORIO, chorale, recitative and
    aria, cantata
  • INSTRUMENTAL CONCERTO GROSSO, SOLO CONCERTO,
    FUGUE, Italian overture, French overture,
    toccata, prelude, chorale prelude, dance suite,
    trio sonatas (sonata da camera, sonata da
    chiesa),

11
OPERA
  • Opera refers to a dramatic art form, originating
    in Italy, in which the emotional content or
    primary entertainment is conveyed to the audience
    as much through music, both vocal and
    instrumental, as it is through the lyrics. From
    the beginning of the form (about 1600), there has
    been contention whether the music is paramount,
    or the words
  • The drama is presented using the primary elements
    of theatre such as scenery, costumes, and acting.
    However, the words of the opera, or libretto, are
    customarily sung rather than spoken. The singers
    are accompanied by a musical ensemble ranging
    from a small instrumental ensemble to a full
    symphonic orchestra.

12
ORATORIO
  • An oratorio is a large musical composition for
    orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. It differs
    from an opera in that it does not have scenery,
    costumes, or acting. Oratorio closely mirrored
    opera in all ages in musical style and form,
    except that choruses were more prominent in
    oratorio than in opera. The peak period for
    composition of oratorios was the 17th and 18th
    centuries.
  • Most oratorios from the common practice period to
    the present day have biblical themes, but a
    number of composers, notably George Frideric
    Handel, wrote secular oratorios based on themes
    from Greek and Roman mythology. Whether religious
    or secular, the theme of an oratorio is meant to
    be weighty, and can include such topics as the
    creation of the world, the life of Jesus, or the
    career of a classical hero or biblical prophet.

13
CONCERTO GROSSO
  • The concerto grosso (plural concerti grossi)
    (Italian for big concert) was a popular form of
    baroque music using an ensemble and usually
    having four to six movements in which the musical
    material is passed between a small group of
    soloists (the concertino- little ensemble) and
    full orchestra (the ripieno- filling).
  • Other major composers of concerti grossi were
    Georg Friedrich Händel, who expanded the ripieno
    to include wind instruments. Several of the
    Brandenburg Concerti of Johann Sebastian Bach
    also loosely follow the concerto grosso form,
    notably the 2nd Concerto, which has a concertino
    of recorder, oboe, trumpet, and solo violin.

14
SOLO CONCERTO
  • In classical music, the word concerto (pl.
    concerti or concertos from the Italian concerto,
    which means concert) is a label for a piece in
    which a small musical group and a large musical
    group are given distinct roles, with the smaller
    group to the fore.
  • The most common kind of concerto pairs a solo
    instrument with a full orchestra. The term also
    implies the musical form of a piece, as most
    pieces called "concerto" have three movements, of
    which the first is typically in sonata form and
    the last typically a rondo.
  • The term apparently arose in the beginning of the
    17th century, and came to describe chiefly
    compositions which bring unequal instrumental or
    vocal forces into opposition.

15
Ritornello form
  • In both types of concerto, movements are built
    up in ritornello form.
  • The music starts off with the ritornello (little
    return) played by the ripieno group (tutti
    meaning all) with the soloist(s) joining in.
    This is the main theme and it returns at various
    points throughout the movement. It may reappear
    in full or in shortened form.

16
Ritornello structure
  • Between appearances of the ritornello there are
    contrasting sections of music called episodes.

17
FUGUE
  • In music, a fugue is a type of contrapuntal
    composition. It begins with a theme stated by one
    of the voices playing alone. A second voice then
    enters and plays the same theme, while the first
    voice continues on with a contrapuntal
    accompaniment. The remaining voices enter one by
    one, each beginning by stating the same theme.
    The remainder of the fugue develops the material
    further using all of the voices and, usually,
    multiple statements of the theme.
  • Middle and late Baroque composers such as
    Dieterich Buxtehude (16371707) and Johann
    Pachelbel (16531706) contributed greatly to the
    development of the fugue, and the form reached
    ultimate maturity in the works of Johann
    Sebastian Bach (16851750).

18
IDENTIFY THE FORM
  • 1)
  • 2)
  • 3)
  • 4)
  • 5)

CONCERTO GROSSO
ORATORIO
FUGUE
OPERA
SOLO CONCERTO
19
What is ornamentation?
  • In music, ornaments are musical flourishes that
    are not necessary to the overall melodic (or
    harmonic) line, but serve to decorate or
    "ornament" that line. They are performed as "fast
    notes" around a central note. The amount of
    ornamentation in a piece of music can vary from
    quite extensive to relatively little or even
    none.
  • In the baroque period, it was common for
    performers to improvise ornamentation on a given
    melodic line. A singer performing a da capo aria,
    for instance, would sing the melody relatively
    unornamented the first time, but decorate it with
    additional flourishes the second time.

20
Trill
  • The trill is a musical ornament consisting of a
    rapid alternation between two adjacent notes of a
    scale (compare tremolo).
  • In modern musical notation a trill is generally
    indicated with the letters tr above the trilled
    note. This has sometimes been followed by a
    squiggly line, and sometimes in the past, the
    squiggly line on its own was used. The following
    two notations are equivalent

21
Trill
  • The usual way of executing a trill is to rapidly
    alternate between the note indicated and the note
    directly above it in the given scale

22
Acciaccatura
  • From the Italian word acciaccare, "to crush" The
    acciaccatura, is perhaps best thought of as a
    shorter, less melodically significant type of
    ornament. It is written using a grace note (often
    a quaver, or eighth note), with an oblique stroke
    through the stem

23
Acciaccatura
The exact interpretation of this will vary
according to the tempo of the piece, but the
following is possible
Main types of ornaments - ACCIACCATURA
24
TURN
A short figure consisting of the note above the
one indicated, the note itself, the note below
the one indicated, and the note itself again. It
is indicated by a mirrored S-shape lying on its
side above the staff. An inverted turn (the note
below the one indicated, the note itself, the
note above it, and the note itself again) is
usually indicated by putting a short vertical
line through the normal turn sign, though
sometimes the sign itself is turned upside
down. If the turn symbol is placed directly above
a note, it is performed exactly as outlined
above. If it is placed between two notes,
however, the note before the symbol is played,
then the turn, and then the following note. So
the following turns
25
TURN
might be played like this
26
MORDENT
The mordent is thought of as a rapid single
alternation between an indicated note, the note
above (called the upper mordent) or below (called
the lower mordent or mordent) the indicated note,
and the indicated note again. The upper mordent
is indicated by a short squiggle the lower
mordent is the same with a short vertical line
through it
27
MORDENT
As with the trill, the exact speed with which the
mordent is performed will vary according to the
tempo of the piece, but at moderate tempi the
above might be executed as follows
28
APPOGGIATURA
From the Italian word appoggiare, "to lean upon"
The appoggiatura is important melodically and
often suspend the principal note by taking away
the time-value of the appoggiatura prefixed to it
The added note (the unessential note) is one
degree higher or lower than the principal note.
The appoggiatura is written as a grace note
prefixed to a principal note and printed in small
character, usually without the oblique stroke
29
APPOGGIATURA
This would be played as follows
30
Baroque composers
Vivaldi
J.S. Bach
A.Scarlatti
Handel
D. Scarlatti
Telemann
Purcell
Couperin
Monteverdi
Rameau
Corelli
Lully
31
J.S. Bach 1685-1750
  • J.S. Bach was born in Eisenach, Germany. He came
    from a long family history of professional
    musicians including church organists and
    composers.
  • Johann Sebastian Bach was a prolific German
    composer and organist whose sacred and secular
    works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments
    drew together the strands of the baroque genre
    and brought it to its ultimate maturity.
  • Although he introduced no new forms, he enriched
    the prevailing German style with a robust
    contrapuntal technique, a control of harmonic and
    motivic organisation from the smallest to the
    largest scales, and the adaptation of rhythms and
    textures from abroad, particularly Italy and
    France.
  • Many people consider him to be the greatest
    Baroque composer, and one of the greatest
    composers of all time. He was one of the leading
    figures, along with the likes of George Frideric
    Handel, in the transition from baroque to
    Classical music

Mass in B minor Brandenburg Concertos St Matthew
Passion St John Passion Suites (English,
French) 48 Preludes and Fugues Christmas
Oratorio Solo Concertos Organ Works Cantatas
32
G.F. Handel 1685-1759
  • He was a German/British Baroque composer who
    was a leading composer of concerti grossi, operas
    and oratorios.
  • Born in Germany as Georg Friedrich Händel he
    lived most of his adult life in England, becoming
    a subject of the British crown in 1727.
  • His most famous piece is Messiah, an oratorio
    set to texts from the King James Bible other
    well-known works are Water Music and Music for
    the Royal Fireworks. He deeply influenced many of
    the composers who came after him, including
    Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, and his work helped
    lead the transition from the Baroque to the
    Classical era.

Oratorios- Messiah Acis and Galatea 14
Operas-incl. Lotario Ariodante, Alcina and
Rodelinda. Water Music Royal Fireworks 18 Organ
Concertos 12 Concerto Grossi Sonatas and Suites.
33
Monteverdi 1567-1643
  • His work marks the transition from Renaissance to
    Baroque music. During his long life he produced
    work that can be classified in both categories,
    and he was one of the most significant
    revolutionaries that brought about the change in
    style. Monteverdi wrote the earliest dramatically
    viable opera, Orfeo, and was fortunate enough to
    enjoy fame during his lifetime.

Operas- Orfeo, Arianna Motets Madrigals Vespers
34
Alessandro Scarlatti 1659-1725
  • Italian composer who had written his first opera
    by the age of 12.
  • He was especially famous for his operas and
    chamber cantatas. He is considered the founder of
    the Neapolitan school of opera. He was the father
    of two other Baroque composers, Domenico
    Scarlatti and Pietro Filippo Scarlatti.
  • The first composer to strongly differentiate
    between the singing styles of aria and recitative
    and used advanced harmonic procedures for the
    time.
  • Credited with popularising the Da Capo Aria form.

Opera- Pompeo Cantatas- over 600 6 Concerto
Grossi Oratorios
35
Domenico Scarlatti 1685-1757
  • He was an Italian composer and harpsichordist.
    He was extremely influential in the development
    of keyboard music, especially in Spain, Portugal
    and England, through his individual style.
  • A harpsichord virtuoso from a young age, he
    revolutionised keyboard technique. First to use
    rapid arpeggios, repetition of the same note and
    the crossing of hands.
  • He wrote a lot of works with a Moorish/ Arabic
    flavour as the result of living in Portugal and
    Spain for long periods of his life.

Over 500 harpsichord sonatas. 14
Sinfonias Harpsichord Concerto
36
Telemann 1681-1767
  • He was a German composer, and organist.
    Self-taught in music, he studied law at the
    University of Leipzig. The most prolific composer
    of his era, he was a contemporary of Johann
    Sebastian Bach and a friend of George Frideric
    Handel. While in the present day Bach is
    generally thought of as the greater composer,
    Telemann was widely renowned for his musical
    abilities during his lifetime.
  • Telemann traveled widely, absorbing various
    musical styles and incorporating them into his
    own compositions. He is known for writing
    concertos for unusual combinations of
    instruments, such as multiple violas or trumpets.
  • He held a series of important musical positions,
    culminating in that of music director of the five
    largest churches in Hamburg, from 1720 until his
    death in 1767. He was succeeded by his godson
    Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach.

Opera- Pimpone (46) St Luke Passion St Mark
Passion St Matthew Passion 1043 Cantatas Over 25
Solo Concertos Over 600 Suites
37
Corelli 1653- 1713
  • Italian composer, teacher and violinist.
  • His playing and composing were an influence on
    Bach and he taught Vivaldi.
  • He is known as The father of Concerto Grosso
    for his work in defining the style.
  • Despite being influential he was not a prolific
    composer.

12 Concerto Grossi 5 sets (of 12) Trio Sonatas
38
Purcell 1659-1695
  • English composer and organist.
  • He is generally considered to be one of England's
    greatest composers indeed, he has often been
    called England's finest native composer. Purcell
    incorporated Italian and French stylistic
    elements but devised a peculiarly English style
    of Baroque music
  • Composed an enormous amount of theatrical music
    for plays including The Fairy Queen, a masque for
    A Midsummer's Night Dream, King Arthur and Indian
    Queen.
  • One of his favourite styles of writing was the
    Ground Bass.

Opera- Dido and Aeneas 15 Fantasies Trio
Sonatas Anthems- My heart is inditing for James 2
Coronation
39
Vivaldi 1678-1741
  • Italian priest, composer and violinist.
  • He is one of the composers credited with helping
    the Baroque style evolve into the Classical style
    by his use of harmonic contrasts and innovative
    melodies and themes.
  • Bach was deeply influenced by his concertos and
    arias and transcribed many of Vivaldi's works for
    harpsichord.
  • He was an extremely prolific composer.

Over 500 Concertos 46 Operas 73 Sonatas Oratorios
and sacred music The Four Seasons
40
Lully 1632-1687
  • Italian born French composer, guitarist,
    violinist and dancer.
  • Spent most of his working life in the service of
    Louis 14th where he composed ballets and later
    operas. He transformed the often stately court
    dances into lively, rhythmic affairs and added
    many instruments to the orchestra of the time.
  • He favoured variation forms such as Passacaglias
    and Chaconnes.

Opera- Atys Ballets Dance Suites
41
Rameau 1683-1764
  • Composer, organist and harpsichordist
  • He was one of the most important French composers
    and music theorists of the Baroque era. He
    replaced Jean-Baptiste Lully as the dominant
    composer of French opera, and was attacked by
    those who preferred Lully's style.

Operas Ballet Music Pieces de Clavecin (for
harpsichord)
42
Francois Couperin
  • François Couperin (born in Paris November 10,
    1668 died September 12, 1733 in Paris) was an
    esteemed French Baroque composer, organist and
    harpsichordist. François Couperin was known as
    "Couperin le Grand" (Couperin the Great) to
    distinguish him from the other members of the
    musically talented Couperin family because of his
    immense virtuosity on the organ and the
    harpsichord.
  • He was indebted to Corelli whose Trio Sonata form
    he introduced to France.
  • J.S. Bach was an admirer of his harpsichord
    technique and compositions.

Harpsichord and organ works Suites
43
QUIZ
  • TRY YOUR NEW FOUND KNOWLEDGE WITH THIS
    INTERACTIVE QUIZ.
  • JUST CLICK ON THE ANSWER AND FIND OUT IF YOU ARE
    RIGHT.

44
  • Italian composer, teacher and violinist. 1653-
    1713
  • He is known as The father of Concerto Grosso
    for his work in defining the style.

TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S
.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CO
RELLI
12 Concerto Grossi
45
TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S
.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CO
RELLI
1688- 1733 Baroque composer, organist and
harpsichordist. Harpsichord and organ works Suites
46
TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S
.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CO
RELLI
He was an Italian composer and harpsichordist.
1685- 1757
Over 500 harpsichord sonatas. 14
Sinfonias Harpsichord Concerto
  • He wrote a lot of works with a Moorish/ Arabic
    flavour as the result of living in Portugal and
    Spain for long periods of his life.

47

TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S
.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CO
RELLI
1681- 1767
Opera- Pimpone (46) St Luke Passion St Mark
Passion St Matthew Passion 1043 Cantatas Over 25
Solo Concertos Over 600 Suites
48
1659-1695
TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S
.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CO
RELLI
  • Composer and organist.
  • One of his favourite styles of writing was the
    Ground Bass.

Opera- Dido and Aeneas 15 Fantasies Trio
Sonatas Anthems- My heart is inditing for James 2
Coronation
49
1567-1643
TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S
.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CO
RELLI
His work marks the transition from Renaissance to
Baroque music.
Operas- Orfeo, Motets Madrigals Vespers
50
1659-1725
TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S
.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CO
RELLI
  • Italian composer who had written his first opera
    by the age of 12.
  • Credited with popularising the Da Capo Aria form.

Opera- Pompeo Cantatas- over 600 6 Concerto
Grossi Oratorios
51
1632-1687
TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S
.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CO
RELLI
  • Spent most of his working life in the service of
    Louis 14th where he composed ballets and later
    operas. He transformed the often stately court
    dances into lively, rhythmic affairs and added
    many instruments to the orchestra of the time.
  • He favoured variation forms such as Passacaglias
    and Chaconnes.

Opera- Atys Ballets Dance Suites
52
1685-1750
TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S
.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CO
RELLI
Mass in B minor Brandenburg Concertos St Matthew
Passion St John Passion Suites (English,
French) 48 Preludes and Fugues Christmas
Oratorio Solo Concertos Organ Works Cantatas
53
1683-1764
TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S
.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CO
RELLI
  • Composer, organist and harpsichordist

Operas Ballet Music Pieces de Clavecin (for
harpsichord)
54
1685-1759
TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S
.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CO
RELLI
Oratorios- Messiah Acis and Galatea 14
Operas-incl. Lotario Ariodante, Alcina and
Rodelinda. Water Music Royal Fireworks 18 Organ
Concertos 12 Concerto Grossi Sonatas and Suites.
55
1678-1741
TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S
.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CO
RELLI
Over 500 Concertos 46 Operas 73 Sonatas Oratorios
and sacred music The Four Seasons
56
Quiz
  • What is a concerto grosso?
  • What is a solo concerto?
  • What is an oratorio?
  • What is an opera?
  • What is a fugue?
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