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'Generations to come, it may be, will scarcely believe that such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth'

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Title: 'Generations to come, it may be, will scarcely believe that such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth'


1
'Generations to come, it may be, will scarcely
believe that such a one as this ever in flesh and
blood walked upon this earth' - Einstein, 1944

One of the greatest men that ever walked on the
face of this earth. Mahatma Gandhi. The man
largely responsible for India's freedom through
Ahimsa from the imperial British rule after
approximately 190 years.

2
GANDHIS IDEALS
TRUTH
SATYAGRAHA
AHIMSA
SWARAJ
3
TRUTH
  • 'BEING TRUE' MEANS KEEPING ONE'S IDEALS, SOUL,
    AND THOUGHT INTACT OF ANY PROVOCATIONS AND IN ANY
    CIRCUMSTANCES
  • WHAT THEN IS TRUTH?
  • THAT IT IS WHAT THE VOICE WITHIN TELLS YOU.
  • HUMAN MIND IS NOT THE SAME FOR ALL, IT FOLLOWS
    THAT WHAT MAY BE TRUTH FOR ONE MAY BE UNTRUTH FOR
    ANOTHER,

4
SATYAGRAHA
  • (SATYA) IMPLIES TRUTH
  • (AGRAHA) FIRMNESS
  • ITS ROOT MEANING IS HOLDING ON TO TRUTH, HENCE
    TRUTH-FORCE.
  • GANDHI ALSO CALLED IT LOVE-FORCE OR SOUL-FORCE.
  • GANDHI ADVOCATED SELF-SUFFERING AS A MEANS OF
    PROTEST AGAINST ANY WRONG.

5
AHIMSA
  • LITERALLY SPEAKING, AHINSA MEANS NON-VIOLENCE.
  • BUT IT HAS MUCH HIGHER, INFINITELY HIGHER
    MEANING.
  • NOT TO OFFEND ANYBODY BY ACTION OR THOUGHT
    INCLUDING OWN ENEMY
  • WHO FOLLOWS THIS DOCTRINE, THERE ARE NO ENEMIES.

6
Swaraj
  • If India got freedom from the British by brute
    force, political liberation would be achieved.
    This is one meaning of swaraj or self-rule, a
    mere absence of external rule.
  • but there is another deeper meaning which in
    Gandhi's eyes was more important.
  • Another side of Swaraj was a development and
    liberation of self through "self-restraint,
    self-regulation, and self-dependence".
  • Gandhi's Swaraj included spiritual freedom.
  • For the Indian masses, Gandhi also presented
    Swaraj as "a movement of self-purification."

7
Swaraj
  • He meant that to achieve spiritual liberation,
    the evils in Indian Society - Hindu-Muslim
    clashes, untouchability, and unequal distribution
    of wealth - would have to be conquered and
    eliminated.
  • Swaraj was the banner under which Gandhi and his
    contemporary Indian leaders appealed to the minds
    of the Indian people.

8
Swaraj
  • There is another idea that is linked in Gandhi's
    thought to Swaraj and that is Swadeshi, which has
    a range of meaning such as self-sufficiency,
    self-reliance and even patriotism.
  • Specific expressions of swadeshi during the
    freedom struggle included production of khadi to
    boycott of foreign cloth.
  • He also emphasized on the importance of change
    with time and introducing new ideas while moving
    on path of development.

9
Swaraj
  • The Swaraj which was achieved at independence in
    1947 was not true swaraj, in a number of
    respects.
  • The greatest disaster was partition of two
    nations on religious basis.
  • People who had been neighbours and friends became
    enemies.
  • And enmity increased with passage of time to a
    explosive situation

10
True Swaraj
  • It would be characterised by a relatively
  • strong base of nearly self-sufficiency through
    small scale local production activities,
  • self-governing villages containing independent,
    well-educated individuals.
  • All adults would elect a small body (panchayat)
    to deal with disputes and crime, and also
    relevant political and economic matters.
  • Higher education, certain industries and services
    which are desirable but are unable to be provided
    at village level would be provided by the larger
    units.

11
Moving away from True Swaraj
  • Today most societies are urban,
  • In the foreseeable future it seems unlikely that
    there will be a return to the village as the
    centre of life for most people.
  • The increasing size of private companies whose
    power extends around the globe and whose purpose
    is primarily to perpetuate their own existence is
    one that Gandhi surely would have been highly
    critical of.
  • The environmental impact of economic activity has
    become much greater in the 50 years since
    Gandhi's death,
  • low impact lifestyle is implicit in Gandhi's
    approach.
  • Gandhi's starting point was the individual self
    development to be extended to groups of
    increasing size up to the whole world community.

12
Important quotes
  • Nature provides enough for everybody's needs but
    not for anybody's greed
  • "Recall the face of the poorest and the weakest
    man whom you may have seen and ask yourself if
    the step you contemplate is going to be of any
    use to him.
  • In other words, will it lead to Swaraj for the
    hungry and spiritually starving millions?"

13
Need for body protection
  • Protection of body from the fury of weather
    (Heat, cold, rain) must be need of human being
    from the beginning
  • There must be use of animal hides and skin for
    body covering
  • Conversion of plant fibres into ropes, twisting
    of plant fibres into yarn and interlacement into
    fabric must have come through creative minds of
    human being.
  • These innovations over a period of time led to
    the development of fibre spinning and weaving
    processes for fabric manufacture. Obviously
    through hand spinning and hand weaving
    operations.

14
Rich textile heritage
  • Records indicate that cotton was cultivated in
    India 8000 years ago. And the art of spinning and
    weaving was practiced in India 5000 years ago
  • All the fabrics which were produced before
    industrial revolution in 18th century were hand
    spun and hand woven
  • India has a very rich a tradition of producing
    exclusive hand spun hand woven fabrics even
    today.
  • Such fabrics were named by Mahatma Gandhi as
    khadi fabric during the Swadeshi movement for
    freedom.

15
Industrial Revolution
  • 1771 first cotton mill in England was established
    followed by dozens of similar mills.
  • To keep the mills running cotton was imported
    from India at cheap rates
  • In return England exported woven fabric to India
    at high price
  • As a result no cotton was available for hand
    spinning and weaving in India.
  • millions of spinners and weavers throughout
    India were rendered unemployed.
  • Deprived of the only means to earn their
    livelihood
  • Left free to die of starvation.

16
Swadeshi Movement
  • The unchecked deterioration of Indian economy and
    fast spreading of misery amongst Indian masses,
    specially artisans attracted the attention of
    patriotic leaders
  • In 1876 Dadabhai Naoroji published his famous
    book The poverty of India exposing the
    deprivation of Indian people by Britishers and
    the miserable existence of Indian people at the
    verge of starvation.
  • All the leaders felt that Indias acute poverty
    was the direct result of destruction of cottage
    industries by British regime.
  • The nationalist leaders urged the people to use
    only Indian goods to the exclusion of British
    goods and gave a clarion call for swadeshi.

17
Khadi
  • Mahatma Gandhi is not only the father of nation
    but father of khadi.
  • In 1908 he discovered Charakha (Spinning wheel)
    in London during discussion with fellow Indians
    regarding the social and political conditions in
    India.
  • I saw as in a flash that without spinning wheel
    there was no swaraj (Self rule) I knew at once
    that every one has to spin
  • He had a clear vision of his programme of
    reviving ancient industry for economic gains and
    also as a tool of political awakening and
    achieving freedom.
  • He returned to India in 1915 during which
    swadeshi movement and boycott of foreign goods
    specially cloth was going on.

18
Khadi (continued)
  • In 1919 Gandhi launched the Khadi programme in
    the country.
  • In 1920 Indian national congress decided to
    encourage khadi producing activities.
  • 1925 All India spinners association or charkha
    sangh was established.
  • Gandhi firmly believed that charkha was his best
    gift to the nation contributing to its all sided
    development economic, political, social and moral
  • I may deserve the curse for many mistakes of
    omission and commission but I am confident of
    earning blessings of nation for suggesting a
    revival of charkha, because every revolution of
    wheel spins peace, goodwill and love.

19
After independence
  • The importance of khadi continued even after
    independence in 1947
  • 1948 Government policy on cottage and village
    industries including khadi.
  • 1953 All India Khadi and Village Industries Board
  • 1957 Khadi and Village Industries Commission
    (KVIC)
  • Responsibility to plan, organize and implement
    the programmes of promoting and developing khadi
    and village industries

20
Present status
  • KVIC works under the administrative control of
    the Ministry of Agro and Rural Industries.
  • KVIC has a 10 member commission at the policy
    making level.
  • one of whom is Chairman),
  • Two expert members and
  • Two official members (the Chief Executive Officer
    and the Financial Advisor).
  • The Chairman, CEO and FA are full time members.
  • The head quarters of KVIC is in Mumbai
  • It has its State and Regional Offices in all the
    States.
  • It has training, production and Sales centres
    through out the country.

21
Present status
  • KVIC is having 30 State Khadi and Village
    Industries Board,
  • over 3500 institutions and
  • over 29000 co-operative societies.
  • There are around 14200 sales outlets in the
    country in KVI Sector.
  • It is having 46 women participation in its
    activities.
  • 30 beneficiaries belongs to SC/ST.
  • KVI Boards assist over 5 lakh artisans.
  • It has reached 2.35 lakhs villages.

22
A COMPARISION OF MILL AND KHADI SECTOR
23
FABRIC PRODUCTION (MILION SQ. METER)
24
Village Industries
  • Group-I Mineral based industry
  • Group-II Forest based industry
  • Group-III Agro based and food industry
  • Group-IV Polymer and chemical based
    industry
  • Group-V Engineering non- conventional
    energy industry
  • Group-VI Textile industry
  • Group-VII Service industry

25
Group-I Mineral based industry
  • 1. Cottage pottery industry
  • 2. Lime Stone, Lime shell and other Lime products
    industry
  • 3. Stone Crushing, Crushing Carving and Engraving
    for Temples and Buildings.
  • 4. Utility articles made out of stone
  • 5. Slate and Slate Pencil making
  • 6. Manufacture of Plaster of Paris
  • 7. Utensil Washing Power
  • 8. Fuel Bequeathing
  • 9. Jewellery out of Gold, Silver, Stone, Shell
    and Synthetic materials.
  • 10. Manufacture of Gulal-Rangoli
  • 11. Manufacture of Bangles
  • 12. Manufacture of Paints, Pigments, Varnishes
    and Distemper

26
Group-II Forest Based Industry
  • 13. Hand Made Paper
  • 14. Manufacture of Katha
  • 15. Manufacture of Gums and Resins
  • 16. Manufacture of Shellac
  • 17. Cottage Match Industry, Manufacture of Fire
    WorksAgarbatties
  • 18. Bamboo and Cane Works
  • 19. Manufacture of Paper Cups, Plates, Bags
    other paper containers
  • 20. Manufacture of exercise book binding,
    envelope making register making including all
    other stationery items made out of paper
  • 21. Khus tattis and broom making
  • 22. Collection, Processing and Packing of Forest
    Products
  • 23. Photo Framing
  • 24. Manufacture of Jute Products (under Fibre
    Industry)

27
Group-III Agro Based And Food Industry
  • 25. Processing, Packing and Marketing of Cereals,
    Pulses Spices, Condiments, Masala etc.
  • 26. Palmgur and other palm products industry
  • 27. Manufacture of Cane gur and khadisari
  • 28. Bee keeping
  • 29. Fruit and vegetables processing, Preservation
    and Canning, including Pickles
  • 30. Ghani oil industry
  • 31. Fibre other than Coir
  • 32. Collection of Forest Plants and fruits for
    Medicinal purpose
  • 33. Processing of Maize and Ragi
  • 34. Pith work - Manufacture of Pith Mata and
    garlands etc.
  • 35. Cashew Processing
  • 36. Leaf Cup Making
  • 37. Menthol

28
Group-IV Polymer and Chemical Based Industry
  • 38. Flaying, curing tanning of hides and skins
    and ancillary industries connected with same and
    Cottage Leather Industry
  • 39. Cottage Soap Industry
  • 40. Manufacture of Rubber Goods (dipped latex
    products)
  • 41. Products out of Rexins, PVC etc.
  • 42. Horn and Bone including ivory products
  • 43. Candle, Camphor and sealing wax making
  • 44. Manufacture of Packaging items of Plastics
  • 45. Manufacture of Bindi
  • 46. Manufacture of Mehendi
  • 47. Manufacture of Essential Oils
  • 48. Manufacture of Shampoos
  • 49. Manufacture of Hair Oils
  • 50. Detergents and Washing Power making
    (Non-toxic)

29
Group-V Engineering and Non-Conventional Energy
Industry
  • 51. Carpentry
  • 52. Black-smithy
  • 53. Manufacture of House-hold Aluminum Utensils
  • 54. Manufacture use of manure methane (gobar
    gas from cow dung other waste products as flesh
    of dead animals, night soil etc.
  • 55. Manufacture of Paper, Clips, Safety Pins,
    Stove pins etc.
  • 56. Manufacture of decorative bulbs, bottles,
    glass etc.
  • 57. Umbrella assembling
  • 58. Solar and Wind Energy implements
  • 59. Manufacture of hand made Utensil out of Brass
  • 60. Manufacture of hand made Utensils out of
    Copper
  • 61. Manufacture of hand made Utensils out of Bell
    Metal
  • 62. Other articles made out of Brass, Copper and
    Bell Metal
  • 63. Production of Radios
  • 64. Production of Cassette Player whether or not
    fitted with Radio

30
Group-V Engineering and Non-Conventional Energy
Industry
  • 65. Production of Cassette Recorder with or
    without Radio
  • 66. Production of Voltage Stabilizer
  • 67. Manufacture of Electronic Clocks and Alarm
    Time Pieces
  • 68. Carved wood and Artistic Furniture making
  • 69. Tin Smithy
  • 70. Motor Winding
  • 71. Wire Net Making
  • 72. Iron Grills Making
  • 73. Manufacture of Rural transport vehicles such
    as Carts, Bullock Carts, Small Boats, Assembly of
    Bi-cycles, Cycle-rickshaw, motorized carts etc.
  • 74. Manufacture of Musical Instruments

31
Group-VI Textile Industry
  • 75. Polyvastra (Blended fabric)
  • 76. Manufacture of Lok-Vastra Cloth
  • 77. Hosiery
  • 78. Tailoring and Preparation of readymade
    Garments
  • 79. Batik work
  • 80. Toys and Doll making
  • 81. Thread Balls and Woolen Balling, Lacchi
    making
  • 82. Embroidery
  • 83. Manufacture of Surgical Bandages
  • 84. Stove Wicks

32
Group-VII Service Industry
  • 85. Laundry
  • 86. Barber
  • 87. Plumbing
  • 88. Servicing of Electrical wiring Electronic
    domestic appliances and equipments
  • 89. Repairs of diesel engines, pump sets etc.
  • 90. Tyre Vulcanizing Unit
  • 91. Agriculture servicing for sprayers,
    insecticides, pump sets etc.
  • 92. Hiring of sound systems like loudspeaker,
    amplifier, mike etc.
  • 93. Battery charging
  • 94. Art Board Painting
  • 95. Cycle repair shops and
  • 96. Masonry.

33
Achievements
34
Employment
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