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Introduction to Horticulture

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Introduction to Horticulture By: Johnny M. Jessup Agriculture Teacher/FFA Advisor Horticulture Word first used in 1600 s Comes from two Latin words Hortus Garden ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Horticulture


1
Introduction to Horticulture
  • By Johnny M. Jessup
  • Agriculture Teacher/FFA Advisor

2
Horticulture
  • Word first used in 1600s
  • Comes from two Latin words
  • Hortus Garden
  • Cultura Cultivation
  • Horticulture means cultivated garden or
    culture of garden plants

3
Life Sciences
  • Biology is the branch of science that deals with
    both plant and animal organisms and life
    processes.
  • Zoology is the part of biology that deals with
    animals.
  • Botany is the part of biology that deals with
    plants.

4
Plant Sciences
  • Applied plant sciences are based on the purpose
    for which the plants are grown.
  • Agronomy
  • Forestry
  • Horticulture

5
Agronomy
  • The science and practice of growing field crops
    such as cotton, wheat, tobacco, corn and soybeans.

6
Forestry
  • The science and practice of growing, managing and
    harvesting trees for building materials and other
    products.

7
Horticulture
  • The science and practice of growing, processing
    and marketing fruits, vegetables, and ornamental
    plants.

8
Introductory Horticulture
  • Horticulture differs from agronomy and forestry
    because..
  • Requires more intensive management and higher
    labor inputs than other branches.
  • Horticulture offers a higher gross return per
    unit area per unit time.
  • Ex.- Greenhouse grower (20.00 per ft2/yr)

9
Branches of Horticulture
  • Olericulture
  • The growing and study of vegetables.
  • Pomology
  • The growing and study of fruits and nuts.
  • Viticulture
  • The growing and study of grapes or vines.
  • Floriculture
  • The growing and study of flowers.

10
Branches of Horticulture
  • Greenhouse Management
  • The growing and study of plants in greenhouses.
  • Turfgrass Management
  • The growing and study of turfgrasses. This
    includes home, municipal, and commercial lawns
    sports turf maintenance highway rights-of-way
    and seed and sod production.

11
Branches of Horticulture
  • Nursery Management
  • The growing and study of trees and shrubs that
    are produced primarily for landscape purposes.
  • Arboriculture
  • The growing and study of trees.
  • Known as silviculture in forestry.
  • Synonymous with urban forestry.

12
Branches of Horticulture
  • Landscape Horticulture
  • The application of design and horticultural
    principles to placement and care of plants in the
    landscape.
  • Interiorscaping
  • The application of design and horticultural
    principles to placement and care of plants in
    indoor environments.

13
Branches of Horticulture
  • Horticultural Therapy
  • The use of horticultural plants and methods as
    therapeutic tools with disabled and disadvantaged
    people.

14
Horticulture Science or Art?
  • Known as applied botany because.
  • Takes principles of botany such as morphology,
    anatomy, and physiology and applies them to the
    growing of crops.
  • Also uses other sciences such as.
  • Chemistry, biochemistry, physics, mathematics,
    and genetics.
  • So, horticulture is obviously a science.

15
Horticulture Science or Art?
  • But horticulture is also a art form.
  • Where practical experience is helpful.
  • Example A person may know the science of
    cultivating plants, but be unsuccessful due to a
    lack of a green thumb.

16
Horticulture Science or Art?
  • Art forms in horticulture
  • Grafting
  • Floral Design
  • Landscape Design
  • Horticulture is an applied science
    and an art
    form.

17
History of Horticulture
  • Garden of Eden
  • Romanticized garden of paradise.
  • Ultimate goal throughout history.

18
History of Horticulture
  • Prehistoric people were primarily.
  • Hunters and gatherers.
  • Collected seeds, fruits, and nuts.

19
History of Horticulture
  • Primitive people began to study plants.
  • Is it edible?
  • Does eating it modify well-being?
  • Does it taste good?
  • Can it used to keep me warm? As fuel? As
    clothing?
  • Is it useful to combat pain? Disease?

20
History of Horticulture
  • When were plants first cultivated?
  • Neolithic Age (7000 10000 years ago)
  • First farmers were women!!!!

21
History of Horticulture
  • By 3000 B.C. in Egypt
  • Land preparation
  • Irrigation
  • Pruning

22
History of Horticulture
  • Meanwhile in Mesopotamia,
    Babylonia, and Assyria..
  • Irrigation canals lined with burnt brick and
    sealed with asphalt joints.
  • This system kept 10,000 square miles under
    cultivation..
  • Which fed 15,000,000 people
  • Cultivated roses, figs, dates, grapes, and
    olives.

23
History of Horticulture
  • Hanging Gardens of Babylon
  • Built by Nebuchadnezzar.
  • One of 7 Wonders of the Ancient World

24
History of Horticulture
  • Eventually people began asking questions
    such as..
  • How do they grow?
  • How do they reproduce?
  • How are they constructed?
  • How are they nourished?
  • How are they related to one another?
  • How are traits passed from one
    generation to the next?

25
History of Horticulture
  • Meanwhile, back in America
  • The Pre-Incas were cultivating maize (corn)

26
History of Horticulture
  • Other Indian crops included
  • Potatoes
  • Sweet potatoes
  • Peppers
  • Squash
  • Tomatoes
  • Cocoa

27
History of Horticulture
  • The use of plant products eventually led to
    physicians, pharmacists, and scientists.

28
History of Horticulture
  • Theophrastus
  • 1st scientific horticulturist
  • Student of Plato and Aristotle
  • Wrote the books History of Plants and The Causes
    of Plants.

29
History of Horticulture
  • History of Plants
  • Morphology of roots, flowers, and leaves.
  • Anatomical features such as bark, pith,
    fibers, and vessels.
  • The Causes of Plants
  • Relationship of weather, soils, and agricultural
    practices.
  • Importance of seeds
  • Value of grafting
  • Tastes and flagrances of plants
  • Death of plants

30
History of Horticulture
  • Dioscorides
  • Early Christian Era
  • Wrote about the medicinal uses of plants
  • Proposed ideas about the relationship of plants

31
History of Horticulture
  • Middle Ages
  • Little advancement in horticulture
  • Arabs (established botanical gardens)
  • Scientific advances of Greeks and Romans were
    preserved in monasteries.

32
History of Horticulture
  • Renaissance
  • Rebirth of energetic attention to scientific
    discovery.
  • Taxonomy, morphology, and anatomy branches of
    botany began to grow.
  • More and more plants were discovered due to
    exploration which required a system of
    classification.

33
History of Horticulture
  • Linnaeus (1707-1778)
  • Swedish botanist.
  • Developed binomial classification scheme for
    plants.
  • Based on their sexual or flowering parts.
  • Basis for all classification systems today.
  • Built upon the work of the Greeks, especially
    Dioscorides.

34
History of Horticulture
  • As the Renaissance evolved
  • Creation of formal Gardens
  • Versailles
  • Belvedere in Vienna

35
History of Horticulture
  • Improvements in fruit, nut, and vegetable
    production.
  • Influx of new plants
    from the colonies.
  • Some of these plants became mainstays
    of European diets.

36
Horticulture in America
  • When the Europeans arrived they brought seeds,
    cuttings, and plants.
  • Orchards were established
  • Crops brought to America
  • Oranges
  • Wheat
  • Cabbage

37
Horticulture in America
  • Early horticulturists in America
  • John Bartram
  • George Washington
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • John Chapman
  • aka. Johnny Appleseed

38
Horticulture in America
  • New life in horticulture
  • Morrill Act of 1862.
  • Established land-grant universities.
  • Encouraged the growth of
    agricultural knowledge.

39
Horticulture in America
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey (1858-1954)
  • Father of American Horticulture
  • Educated at Michigan Agricultural College
  • Present Day Michigan State University
  • Studied at Harvard under Asa Gray
  • Then was a professor at Michigan Agricultural
    College and at Cornell University.

40
Horticulture in America
  • Established the 1st horticulture department
  • Prodigious Writer
  • Hortus
  • Taxonomic index of horticultural plants.
  • Cyclopedia of Horticulture
  • Cultural and taxonomic information of plants.

41
Horticulture in America
  • Established the Bailey Hortorium.
  • things of the garden
  • Established the (ASHS) American Society of
    Horticulture Science in 1903.

42
Modern Day Horticulture
  • New Cultivars
  • Plant-Water Relationships
  • Temperature
  • Light
  • Plant Nutrition
  • The Rhizosphere
  • Integrated Pest Management
  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • Mechanization
  • Post Harvest Factors

43
  • Lets Review!

44
Designed by
  • Johnny M. Jessup, FFA Advisor
  • Hobbton High School
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