Plants With Medicinal Qualities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Plants With Medicinal Qualities PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3ba3d5-Njk5N


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Plants With Medicinal Qualities


Plants With Medicinal Qualities Andrew Ferguson Kumar Patel Tye Throneberry Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba is one of the most commonly used herbal medicines in the world. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:130
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 37
Provided by: facultyUc2
Learn more at:


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Plants With Medicinal Qualities

Plants With Medicinal Qualities
  • Andrew Ferguson
  • Kumar Patel
  • Tye Throneberry

Ginkgo biloba
  • Ginkgo biloba is one of the most commonly used
    herbal medicines in the world.
  • It has been used for thousands of years in China.
  • The Ginkgo was thought to be extinct in the wild,
    but it is now known to grow wild in two areas in

Ginkgo biloba
  • Ginkgos are deciduous trees that, when full
    grown, range from 60-120 feet tall.
  • The species originated in China 180 million years
    ago, and there are over 100 Ginkgo trees in China
    that are reportedly over 1000 years old.
  • They are very hardy trees. 8 Ginkgos survived the
    atomic bombing of Hiroshima and are still alive

  • The Ginkgo has bi-lobed leaves with veins that
    extend out from the center.
  • Each tree is either male or female.
  • The branches grow in length by the growth of
    shoots from the bases of the leaves.
  • Male plants produce pollen cones, and female
    plants have two ovules at the end of stalks that
    form seeds upon pollination.

  • Common Name Maidenhair Tree
  • Division Ginkgophyta
  • Class Ginkgoopsida
  • Order Ginkgoales
  • Family Ginkgoaceae
  • Genus Ginkgo
  • Species Ginkgo biloba

  • Ginkgo means silver apricot
  • biloba means bi-lobed - referring to the two
    lobed leaves of the plant.
  • G. biloba is a living fossil, and it is the only
    plant from its division, class, order, family, or
    genus that is still alive. It has no botanical

Distribution and Habitat
  • Ginkgo trees can be found in many temperate and
    subtropical areas including North, Central, and
    South America, Africa, China, and Australia.
  • The Ginkgo grows best in moist, deep, sandy soils
    near rivers, but it can grow in almost any set of

History of Use
  • Ginkgo seeds and leaves have been used in
    traditional Chinese medicine to treat asthma,
    coughs, bladder irritability, and uterine fluxes.
  • The leaves were eaten as early as 200AD in China
    to increase blood flow to the lungs and treat

  • Ginkgo biloba has a very unique chemical
    composition that accounts for the multiple
    effects it produces.
  • Its extract, EGB 761, contains many functional
    groups which also help to account for the
    multiple effects it produces.

EGb 761
  • EGb 761 produces four main effects 1.
    Vasodilation and protection of the circulatory
    system. 2. Protection of the nervous system. 3.
    Protection against retinal diseases. 4.
    Protection against otorhinolaryngeal diseases.

  • Something unique about EGb 761 is that it does
    not act solely as an activator or an inhibitor.
    Instead, it may act as either one, promoting
    either the activation or inhibition of processes
    that maintain regular behavior of the body.

  • In the US, Ginkgo is an herbal medication, but in
    Europe particularly in Germany and France
    Ginkgo is prescribed by doctors to treat many
    conditions and diseases associated with aging.
  • Dimentia, Alzheimers, macular degeneration,
    glaucoma, mood disorders, and sexual dysfunction.

  • Ginko also protects against free radicals, which
    improves the survival of many primary auditory
    and optical nerves. Its vasodilating properties
    are the method by which it cures sexual
    dysfunction. It has beneficial effects on memory
    and attention span due to its stimulation of the

  • While Ginkgo seems to cause few problems to those
    who take it, many are still skeptical of its
  • Ginkgo may be beneficial, but so are many of its
  • For people who only feel right about treating
    themselves with herbal medications, ginkgo may be
    a good alternative to prescribed medicines.
  • Many people take ginkgo for its memory enhancing
  • Even if the perceived results are just a product
    of the placebo effect, they are still results.

Ephedra Taxonomy
  • Division Gnetophyta
  • Class Gnetopsida
  • Order Ephedrales
  • Family Ephedraceae
  • Genus Ephedra
  • Species Ephedra sinica

Ephedra sinica
  • Ephedra sinica is an ephedrine containing member
    of the Ephedra genus.
  • Its common names are Ma Huang and Ephedra
  • Ephedra was the active ingredient in the recently
    banned Fen Phen drug.

Ephedra Botanical Relationships
  • Many, but not all, of the species in the Ephedra
    genus contain alkaloids.
  • E. sinica traditionally has the highest alkaloid
    content 1-3 of the plant is composed of
    alkaloids, and 40-90 of these alkaloids are
  • Ephedrine is an alkaloid that is the active
    ingredient that produces the desired effects of
    ingesting the plant.

Ephedra sinica
  • Ephedra sinica is a small evergreen bush that
    occurs in dry climates over a wide area, mainly
    in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • The plant originated in Pakistan and Northern
    China about 30 million years ago, but it can now
    be found across Southern Europe, North Africa,
    Southwest and Central Asia, South America, and in
    the Southwestern areas of the US.

Harvesting Ephedrine
  • The usefual part of E. sinica is primarily the
    dried, young branch.
  • Sometimes, the root or whole plant is used.
    Ephedrine found in dietary supplements is usually
    either a formation of powdered stems and aerial
    portion or a dried extract. Dried extracts
    contain more ephedrine alkaloids by weight, due
    to the extraction process.

Historical Use
  • Ephedra has been used in traditional Chinese
    medicine for over 5000 years.
  • Historically, it was used to treat colds, the
    flu, fever, chills, headaches, edema, joint and
    bone pain, and it was used as a diuretic.

Uses of Ephedra
  • When combined with caffeine, ephedrine has been
    shown to promote thermogenesis, fat loss, and
    muscle gain in a collection of controlled trials.
  • Ephedrine acts as a general stimulant on the
    nervous system, making the body feel more

  • Taking too much ephedrine can produce toxic
    effects that include peripheral vasconstriction
    and cardiac palpitations which lead to increased
    blood pressure and increased heart rate.
  • More adverse effects of ephedrine may target the
    central nervous system these effects include
    nervousness, anxiety, tremors, weakness,
    irritability, and insomnia.
  • All of these adverse effects increase with higher
    doses, and overdose can lead to nausea, vomiting,
    fever, palpitations, tachycardia, hypertension,
    paranoid psychosis, respiratory depression,
    convulsions, and even coma.

  • On February 6, 2004, the FDA banned the sale of
    dietary supplements containing ephedrine
    alkaloids on the grounds that they pose an
    unreasonable risk to those who use them.
  • The FDA had reports of over 16,000 adverse events
    associated with the use of ephedrine alkaloid
    containing dietary supplements. These supplements
    caused heart palpitations, insomnia, and tremors,
    among other things.

  • Drugs that contain ephedrine alkaloids had been
    previously monitored and regulated by the FDA,
    and it was unreasonable to not regulate the
    dietary supplements. On August 21, 2006, a
    circuit court upheld the FDAs decision to ban
    ephedra as a dietary supplement.

  • While ephedrine has been shown to promote weight
    loss and give the user an increased feeling of
    energy, the risks seem to outweigh the rewards.
  • Exercise and proper diet are safer, more
    effective ways to lose weight and increase
    metabolic rate and energy levels.

  • Hawthorn is a plant that was used in traditional
    Chinese medicine as a digestive aid.
  • Recently, it has been used to treat people with
    high blood pressure and mild heart failure in

Hawthorn Taxonomy
  • Division Magnoliophyta
  • Class Magnoliopsida
  • Order Rosales
  • Family Rosaceae
  • Subfamily Maloideae
  • GenusCrataegus
  • Species Crataegus laevigata

Hawthorn Taxonomy and Morphology
  • The Rosaceae family is a large family of plants,
    with about 3,000-4,000 species in 100-120
    genuses. Traditionally it has been divided into
    four subfamilies Rosoideae, Spiraeoideae,
    Maloideae, and Amygdaloideae.
  • These subfamilies are primarily diagnosed by the
    structure of the fruits, although this approach
    is not followed universally.
  • Crataegus laevigata is native to Europe around 30
    million years ago.

Hawthorn Morphology
  • Hawthorn comes from shrubs that grow from 5-15 m
    tall, characterized by their small pome fruit and
    thorny branches. The bark is smooth and gray in
    younger shrubs. In older trees, the bark has
    narrow ridges.
  • The fruits are sometimes known as "haws", from
    which the first part of the name Hawthorn was
  • The rest of the name comes from the thorns that
    grow from the branches, and are 1-3 cm long. The
    leaves grow spirally on long shoots and in
    clusters on the branches or twigs.
  • The leaves themselves have lobed or serrate
    margins and are somewhat variable shape.

Hawthorn Habitat
  • Hawthorn comes from an extremely hardy tree.
  • There are over 1000 species that are remarkably
    similar, and even professional foresters do not
    try to identify each tree by its species.
    Instead, they are grouped together.
  • The shrubs tend to hybridize and adapt to the
    environment they are planted in, but they prefer
    more moist soils in fertile areas.
  • The shrubs can grow in partial sunlight, but they
    grow better in full sunlight.

  • In traditional Chinese medicine, hawthorn was
    used primarily as a digestive aid, but recently
    it has been used to treat other ailments.
  • In Europe, Hawthorn has been particularly widely
  • Topically, hawthorn leaf has been used to treat
    boils, sores, and ulcers.

  • Orally, hawthorn leaf preparations are used to
    prevent and treat coronary circulation problems.
  • They can also be used to increase cardiac output
    reduced by hypertension or pulmonary disease, and
    to treat chronic arrhythmias, hypotension, and
    other heart conditions.

Hawthorn Controversy
  • Hawthorn, as with Ginkgo, does not have many
    adverse effects.
  • Sources did say to avoid hawthorn if you are
    pregnant or breast feeding.
  • The only adverse effect to hawthorn is that it
    may have no effect at all. As with many herbal
    treatments, studies produced a variety of
    conclusions concerning the effectiveness of

Herbal Treatment Pros
  • Herbal medications may be beneficial to us either
    directly or indirectly via the placebo effect.
  • Most herbal medications have few adverse effects,
    and overdose is not usually a life threatening
  • Herbal medications are more affordable than most
    prescription medications

Herbal Treatment Cons
  • Herbal treatment may be a waste of money, because
    often it fails to produce any effect at all.
  • Herbal treatments are usually not as effective as
    prescribed treatments.
  • Herbal treatments cant cure some diseases and
    ailments that prescribed treatments can.
  • Even the herbal treatment books we consulted said
    to visit a physician if symptoms persisted for a
    certain period of time, indicating that while
    herbal treatments can help, there is no herbal
    substitute for many treatments.