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Global warming

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Global warming Disease problems and health hazards Bureau of Emerging Infectious Diseases http://beid.ddc.moph.go.th Department of Disease Control – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Global warming


1
Global warming
Disease problems and health hazards
Bureau of Emerging Infectious Diseases
http//beid.ddc.moph.go.th Department of
Disease Control Ministry of Public Health,
Thailand
2
What is Global Warming?
  • Global warming An increase in the average
  • temperature of the earths atmosphere, esp. a
    sustained increase sufficient to cause climatic
    change.
  • Climate change a change
  • of climate which is attributed
  • directly or indirectly to human
  • activity that alters the
  • composition of the global
  • atmosphere and which is in
  • addition to natural climate variability
  • observed over comparable time periods
    (source UNFCCC)

3
Did you know ?
  • 18 heat waves were reported in India within 10
    yrs. (1980-1998)
  • In 1998 and 2003, China reported deaths over
    4,000 cases from flash floods.
  • In 2001, heat waves in Bangladesh caused deaths
    among metal workers and rickshaw pullers due to
    heat stroke.
  • 2004 Japan crashed by 10 Typhoons.

4
Did you know that?
  • 2004 Philippines reported devastated area with
    more than 10,000 deaths from Typhoons and Topical
    storm.
  • In 2005, floods in Rajasthan and droughts in
    northeast India.
  • Thailand hitted by unusual droughts in 63
    provinces with 9.2 million population effected.

Source Greenpeace
5
Did you know that ?
  • In 2006 Bhutan reported loss of life from flash
    floods and landslides due to melting of glaciers

Source Basuki www.who.int/phe
6
Did you know that ?
  • In 2007 4 Monsoon depressions double the normal
    number caused severe floods in Bangladesh, India
    and Nepal causing death, loss of livelihood and
    displacement of millions.

7
Did you know that ?
  • 2001 over 45 of tourist resorts in the
    Maldives reported Beach Erosion
  • In Indonesia, cases of dengue fever have risen by
    50 between 2006-07 due to temperature increases

Source Dr. Chirapol Sintunawa
Source WHO
8
Did you know that ?
Tiger habitat in Bangladesh faces threats
from the rise in sea level
  • The glaciers in the Himalayas are melting
    rapidly. The Himalayas contribute crucially to
    the water supply of 1.3 billions people, feeding
    into nine of Asias greatest rivers.

Photo _at_ Abir Abdullah / Still Pictures Photo
www.allposters.com
????? WHO
9
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10
Strong Global Warming Observed
Global Average Near-Surface Temperatures since
1850-2007 Increased of temperatures in two
decades average by 0.5C
Average global temperature is expected to rise by
0.2 degrees Celsius per decade over the next 100
years
Source
11
Antarctic and Arctic Ice Melting
West sheet
East sheet
12
Sea level is projected to rise by 9.88 cm. by 2100
  • Increasing sea-levels
  • Strong wind

13
How do people produce Global Warming?
  • Mainly in burning of fossil fuel since mid-18th
    century due to industrialization.
  • Releasing of carbon dioxide from incineration of
    waste and electricity generation.

14
Photo Basuki www.who.int/phe
Source www.global-greenhouse-warming.com/
15
Greenhouse Gases
Combustion of fossil fuels and forest fires
Water vapor
Protective layer in the upper atmosphere from UV
radiation. If excessive produced caused air
pollution such as smog fog
Combustion of fossil fuels and ploughing farm
soils
Use of refrigerators, air conditioners, aerosol
spray and cleaning agents cause depletion of
atmospheric ozone layer
Animal husbandry, irrigated agriculture and oil
extraction
7-11-2007
??. ????? ?????????
15
Modified from Dr. Chirapol Sinthunawa
16
and climate change is happening!!
  • Global climate change is happening !

17
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18
USA, Saudi Arabia released highest CO2 per head
of population in the world.
Thailand
19
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20
Wider Ozone hole prevent less UV radiation
21
CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbon)
22
The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the
Ozone Layer
In 1981 the United Nations Environment
Organization has established the legal and
technical working group for drafting to achieve
agreements in international treaties to resolve
the damage called the Vienna Convention on ozone
layer protection.
Contains a pledge to cooperate in research and
surveillance data exchange volume Emissions and
destroy the ozone layer as well as control the
operation of the Convention to the future with
the Vienna Convention
The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the
Ozone Layer adopted in March 1985, entered into
force, 1988 by 28 countries
Source Hazardous Substances Control Bureau
23
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete
the Ozone Layer
To have negotiated the draft regulations and
measures to prevent the destruction of the ozone
layer under the Vienna Convention, which the
draft was completed in the short time on 16
September 1987 at City Diamond Three Seasons of
Canada in 47 countries worldwide, entered into
force, 1989
Currently, 184 countries around the world have
jointly ratified the Vienna Convention included
Thailand
16 September is an Ozone Day
24
Thailand's role
  • Must take steps to reduce and stop using the
    substances in accordance with the specified
    period.
  • Must report the amount of controlled substance to
    UNEP who serves as the Secretariat of the
    Protocol.
  • Department of Industrial Works Ministry of
    Industry as the primary agency responsible
    conducted studies in amount of substances
    destroying the ozone layer in different industry
    sectors and the import volume controls destroying
    substances.
  • National Plan of Thailand to stop using
    substances that destroy the ozone layer and
    prepared for the period of disuse substances
    destroying the ozone layer.

25
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26
What ifClimate Change?
  • Increasing sea-levels
  • Increasing Strong wind

Photo www.allposters.com
Increasing sea-levels will lead to costal
erosion Photo _at_ Greenpeace/Jeremy Sutton-Hibbert
27
Changes in the Claciers at Shrong Himal, Nepal
over 26 years
Source Nagoya University, http//snowman.hyarc.n
agoya-u.ac.jp
28
Impact of Climate Change How does it all relate
to me?
29
Weather events VS Impacts on human health (1)
Heat stroke, Respiratory dis. Cardio-vascular
illness
Heat waves / air pollution
Warmer temp. disturbed rainfall patterns
30
Changes in climate may alter the distribution of
important vector species and may increase the
spread of disease.
31
Weather events VS Impacts on human health (2)
Heavy precipitation events
Malnutrition Starvation Psychosocial Stress
Droughts
32
Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) Global warming
Expansion of water surface Warmers temp
longer duration Tendency to be toxic
strains Especially temperate zone
  • Freshwater HABs Toxins
  • Hepatoxins, Neurotoxins
  • All are blue-green algae (cyanobacteria)
  • Marine HABs Toxins Toxicity
  • Diarrheic, Paralytic, Neurotoxic, Amnestic
    shellfish poison, Ciguatera fish poison (DSP,
    PSP, NSP, ASP, CFP)

33
Harmful algal bloom
Harmful algal bloom Florida
34
Weather events VS Impacts on human health (3)
Cyclones, Storms, flooding
  • Disappearance of Land
  • Migration
  • Social conflict
  • Stress

Sea level rise Coastal storms
35
Projected impacts of global warming in Asia (1)
  • Glacier melt in the Himalayas is projected to
    increase flooding, rock avalanches from
    destabilised slopes, and affect water resources
    within the next two to three decades. This will
    be followed by decreased river flows as the
    glaciers recede.
  • Freshwater availability in Central, South, East
    and Southeast Asia particularly in large river
    basins is projected to decrease due to climate
    change which, along with population growth and
    increasing demand arising from higher standards
    of living, could adversely affect more than a
    billion people.

Source IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report, April
2007
36
Projected impacts of global warming in Asia (2)
  • Coastal areas, especially heavily-populated
    mega-delta regions in South, East and Southeast
    Asia, will be at greatest risk due to increased
    flooding from the sea and in some mega-deltas
    flooding from the rivers.
  • Climate change is projected to impinge on
    sustainable development of most developing
    countries of Asia as it compounds the pressures
    on natural resources and the environment
    associated with rapid urbanisation,
    industrialisation, and economic development.

Source IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report, April
2007
37
Projected impacts of global warming in Asia (3)
  • Endemic morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoeal
    disease primarily associated with floods and
    droughts are expected to rise in East, South and
    Southeast Asia due to projected changes in
    hydrological cycle associated with global
    warming.
  • Increases in coastal water temperature would
    exacerbate the abundance and/or toxicity of
    cholera in South Asia.

Source IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report, April
2007
38
Projected impacts of global warming in Asia
  • It is projected that crop yields could increase
    up to 20 in East and Southeast Asia while it
    could decrease up to 30 in Central and South
    Asia by the mid 21 st century. Taken together and
    considering the influence of rapid population
    growth and urbanization, the risk of hunger is
    projected to remain very high in several
    developing countries.

39
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????
40
Southeast Asia if West sheet melted (17-foot
rise)
Source Dr. Chirapol Sintunawa 12-10-2007
41
Climate Change Study Impact to Thailand
Climate change tend to be higher and longer
temperatures BUT not dryness
  • Slightly increasing temperature around 1-2 C
  • Summer season will be longer 1-2 months
  • Winter season will be shorter 1-2 months
  • Rainy season remains unchanged BUT water volume
    will increase 10-20
  • Uncertain season interval changed dramatically (
    Extreme scenario )

What if Climate Change effected Thailand?
Encourage to conduct various of continued-studies
and brain storming
42
Where are we now ?
  • Joined the UN Framework Convention on Climate
    Change (United Nations Framework Convention on
    Climate Change, UNFCCC) .
  • Non-Annex1 categories without commitment to
    reduced greenhouse gases.
  • Release greenhouse gases in small proportion
    compared to other countries
  • Nevertheless Global climate change impact in
    country climate change too.

43
Copenhagen Summit, the 17th anniversary of the
climate7-18 December 2009 Copenhagen Denmark
  • Mr. Abhisit Vejjajiva, Prime Minister and Dr.
    Khunying Kalaya Sophonpanich, Minster of Science
    and Technology participated the meeting on global
    warming in Copenhagen, organized by UNFCC At
  • to solve global warming

44
Remains unclear to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions
  • Control Global Temperature not to increase over 2
    degrees C in average to seriously reduce global
    climate change
  • BUT
  • Searching for consensus To reduce greenhouse gas
  • To defined framework and time frame in the
    preparation of new treaties.

45
Impacts in Thailand
Sea Level
Increasing sea-levels approximately 0.09 0.88
meters will lead to costal erosion.
Gulf of Thailand Erosion crisis worse than the
Andaman Sea six areas crisis included Bangkok,
Rayong, Petchaburi down to Narathivas
46
Bangkhunthien coastal water erosion
30-10-2007
??.????? ?????????
46
47
Floods
Within 3 decades, country severely affected by
climate change in the frequency of extreme
weather events result Floods and storms,
especially in eastern coastal lines and southern
area near the ocean as well as Bangkok, Hadyai
and Chiangmai.
Climate change may also affect diseases spread
both human and animal/plants delta regions
48
Flash Floods
49
Drought
Drought occurs in summer caused dryness
reservoir, reduced crop yields.
Dryness affecting in crops produced caused
farmers stress
50
Fog and Forest Fires Long term high temperature
has been rise in key air pollutants causes
respiratory diseases.

51
Temperature
Climate Change lead to variation in average
country temperatures caused many hot days, heat
waves continuity and flash floods and storm.
Urban heat island temperature in urban higher
than in rural both day and night time and every
seasons.
Needs of power for air-conditioning and
refrigerators caused to massive electricity
producing which effected to loss of water and
dryness in summer.
52
Electricity Consumed Comparison Using
Electricity Volume of 3 Department Stores using
volume of population in Province
Million unit
Siam Paragon
Mae Hong Son
123
Amnat Charoen.
Mukdahan
Nong Bua Lam Phu
Nan
Yasothon
MBK
Uthai Thani
81
Phayao
279 Million unit
Mukdahan
Satun
Samut Songkhram
Loei
Central World
75
Phrae
Phatthalung
Narathiwat
Ranong
Source Electricity Generating Authority of
Thailand
53
CO2 Release from Power used in 2006By economy
category
Petroleum Coal
Other energy
Electricity
Electricity 40
Industry
Business.
Transport
Home residents
Agriculture / Construction / Mining.
Source Electricity Generating Authority of
Thailand
54
  • Global Warming is Fever.
  • Who is getting alert?

Be aware but not scared
55
  • What you can do now?
  • 2 basis mitigation and adaptation
  • Mitigation Use less energy and conserve more of
    it
  • Adaptation Adjustment of public health response
  • Other strategies Tree planting campaign, Kick
    start an environmental campaign etc.

26 Sep 08
56
How is the Hadyai hospital doing?
57
Appointed working group
Red Shirt Team (year 2)
Yellow Shirt Team (year 3)
58
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59
Kettle
How to save energy?
  • ?Keep water in enough for a day used
  • ?Do not plug in prior to using
  • ?Unplug after use immediately

60
Ophthalmology Ward - Unplug when unused
61
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62
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63
Challenge health impact of
climate change
  • Reduced Global Temperature
  • Preparedness
  • Surviellance / Laboratory
  • Disease Control / Changed behaviour
  • Investigation and clinical management
  • Health education
  • Public Health Emergency Response
  • Clean water
  • Quality control of sewage and pollution
  • Study on changing of human behavior
  • Capacity Building focus on Public Health
    personnel
  • Applied public Health Method and Technologies
    such as Green building, Vaccines

64
  • Clinical Treatment
  • Strictly follow guideline for IC, PPE
  • Logistic preparation
  • Diagnosis / Surveillance
  • Clinical Finding,
  • Epidemiology, Laboratory

Role Of Medical team to EID / PHER
  • Reporting on time
  • Encourage team
  • Alerting Message
  • Supervise team and health
  • education to population
  • Selected key message
  • Quality assurance
  • Collecting, Recording,
  • Analyze and report
  • Updating new knowledge

65
Conclusion (1)
  • Now the world is changing in many directions.
  • Climate change and global warming caused public
    health problem and diseases outbreak in the
    world.
  • Thailand should prepare for respond to
    Communicable diseases / Infectious diseases and
    other new/re-emerging diseases for example
  • Vector-Borne Disease hemorrhagic fever, Malaria,
    Japanese encephalitis, Elephantiasis
  • Food and water Borne Diseases Diarrhea, Food
    Poisoning, Hepatitis
  • Respiratory Diseases Influenza
  • Emerging and re-emerging Diseases Avian
    Influenza, Nipah and Westnile
  • Infectious Diseases from Natural Disaster Impact

66
Conclusion (2)
  • Preparedness concepts
  • Strengthen and Development of public Health
    System
  • Surveillance and Rapid Response
  • Enhancement of capacity building and knowledge
  • Strengthen multi-sectoral collaboration and
    network

67
Sawasdee
68
Back up slides
69
????????????? ????????????????????????????????
  • Carbon Credit ??? ????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????? (Kyoto
    Protocol)
  • ?????????????????????????? 41 ??????
    ????????????????????????????????? 5
    ??????????????? 2533 ??????? 2555

70
??????????? (Carbon Label) ???????????????????????
???????
  • ??????????? ????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????? ???
    ?????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????? ???????????

71
????????????????? Global Warming
  • ????????????????????????????????? (????????????)
    www.tgo.or.th
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    www.ipcc.ch/
  • World Health Organization www.searo.who.int
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