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Artificial Intelligence and Sentient Machinery

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By Nikhil Chandwani and Peter Davis AI is precursored by Artificial intelligence the idealism that the idea of Artificial Intelligence came in the great ancient myths ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Artificial Intelligence and Sentient Machinery


1
Artificial Intelligence and Sentient Machinery
  • By Nikhil Chandwani and Peter Davis

2
History
  • AI is precursored by Artificial intelligence
    the idealism that the idea of Artificial
    Intelligence came in the great ancient myths,
    noting that Greek myths of Hephaestus and
    Pygmalion mentioned that certain parts were not
    organic and very artificial as well as mechanic
    beings. These mechanic beings were merely
    servants and personified as the Gods and
    Goddesses, part of humanity, and part of the
    abyss.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." Wikipedia.
    Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr.
    2012. lthttp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_ar
    tificial_intelligencegt.

3
Middle Ages
  • The idea of alchemy was a part of the creation of
    artificial man and making the perfect being.
    These were more in line with English scientists
    who would serve under the king and asked to
    create the perfect being. And since Gold was
    valued at such a high cost back then, it was
    introduced to be very popular as the key
    ingredient and solution of the artificial man.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." Wikipedia.
    Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr.
    2012. lthttp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_ar
    tificial_intelligencegt.

4
Post-MiddleAges
  • Some historical Men like Leonardo Da Vinci, were
    convinced that the artificial man could be
    created, not through alchemic means, but through
    scientific means. Da Vinci in particular began to
    build and create the robotic knight, whose
    schematics show up many years later. Da Vincis
    influence starts and snowballs the idea of
    intelligence being controlled via tele-operated.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." Wikipedia.
    Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr.
    2012. lthttp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_ar
    tificial_intelligencegt.

5
(No Transcript)
6
20th Century
  • 20th century Frankenstein by Mary Shelly. comes
    out and creates the idea of the artificial man
    and mechanics working together. R.U.R. comes out
    and is received with positive reviews, while it
    introduces the idealism of great and honorable
    society Karel Capek was the first to introduce
    the terminology of robot into any language.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence."
    1900s-1950s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04
    July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. lthttp//en.wikipedia
    .org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligencegt.

7
Start of 1900s
  • The 1900s gave way to great innovations in
    synthetic thought and artificial intelligence.
    People like Isaac Asimov published the grand
    thesis of robotics of robotics the Three Laws of
    Robotics which define the rules of robotics.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence."
    1900s-1950s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04
    July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. lthttp//en.wikipedia
    .org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligencegt.

8
(No Transcript)
9
Mid 1900s
  • In the 1950s, known scientist Alan Turing, was
    toying with the idea of machine intelligence
    along with other researchers. He came across a
    conundrum and asked the question Can machines
    think? This led to an experiment in which he
    introduced the Turing Test in which he posed the
    ideal that if a machine and continue on with a
    conversation through non-visionary means,
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence."
    1900s-1950s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04
    July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. lthttp//en.wikipedia
    .org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligencegt.

10
(No Transcript)
11
Cont.
  • Then in 1957, the GPS, or General Problem Solver
    created by Herbert Simon, J.C. Shaw, and Allen
    Newell came to fruition. It was made and
    programmed in LISP (a practical mathematical
    notation for computer programs), and could solve
    theorms, geometric problems, and could even play
    chess. Then, improvements by one, James Slagle
    of MIT, wrote SAINT which solved calculus
    problems at college levels. Both works were a
    precursor for the eventual SOAR system (a
    general cognitive architecture for developing
    systems that exhibit intelligent behavior),
    which has impacted the AI development community
    incredibly.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence."
    1900s-1950s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04
    July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. lthttp//en.wikipedia
    .org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligencegt.

12
Cont.
  • Next, the 60s gave birth to the mouse at SRI, a
    Robotic Surgical System, by one Doug Engelbart,
    but SRI also got to show off the first SRI robot
    that was not programmed via LISP named Shakey
    which produced a robot that could combine
    locomotion, perception and the ability to problem
    solve. Then it was at this same time, that the
    First International Joint Conference about AI was
    held in the capital of the United States of
    America.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence."
    1900s-1950s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04
    July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. lthttp//en.wikipedia
    .org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligencegt.

13
70s
  • In the age of the 70s, such advancements that
    were seen were the development of and final
    product of SCHOLAR, the first intelligent
    tutoring system which was based on the Turing
    system on how it used its format for
    question-basis-answer. Don Walker and Jane
    Robinson improve on the code of LISP and it turns
    into Natural Language Processing at SRI. Later
    on, Bill Woods in 1972, dictated the Augmented
    Transition Networks for the basis of programming
    languages that machines used back then.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence."
    1970s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July
    2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. lthttp//en.wikipedia.org/
    wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligencegt.

14
70-79
  • Then, robotics came through with Terry Winograd,
    whose thesis was actively used to exemplify the
    ability of computers to understand English
    sentences. Later on in his life, he demonstrated
    this ability with SHRDLU, his programming system
    that understands natural language and used a
    robot arm that could understand English.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence."
    1970s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July
    2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. lthttp//en.wikipedia.org/
    wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligencegt.

15
80s
  • In the 1980s, the idealism of AI was very popular
    in most fiction, and programming began to be
    available commercially, like the LISP machines,
    which were marketed heavily. Lee Erman, Rick
    Hayes-Roth, Victor Lesser and Raj Reddy begin to
    publish the framework for the robotics speech
    program for computers HEARSAY-II which was
    designed to understand and filter speech. At the
    same time, the AAAI (American Association of
    Artifical Intelligence) was being held at
    Stanford University.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence."
    1980s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July
    2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. lthttp//en.wikipedia.org/
    wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligencegt.

16
1980s
  • Next, young computer programmer who would
    eventually found Thinking Machines begins to the
    create the gigantic architecture that would bring
    greater power to Artifical Intelligence research
    and computation. Then, as mentioned before, Paul
    Rosenbloom, John Laird, and Allen Newell complete
    SOAR, giving way to new programming, which
    coincidently leads to James Allen to invent the
    Interval Calculus, which is widely used in small
    programming and CPU creation.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence."
    1980s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July
    2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. lthttp//en.wikipedia.org/
    wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligencegt.

17
90s
  • In the 1990s, there is a large boom is robotics
    and sciences in general, but the improvements of
    data mining and translation are the most
    particular. In addition, robotic branches see
    success when its something like the Deep Blue
    win over Garry Kasparov, the current chess
    champion of that time. Then, in July 4th 1997,
    NASAs pathfinder mission is the first autonomous
    robotics system, to land on a part of Mars. In
    addition, robotics begins to be geared toward
    education, with such programs as FIRST promising
    the recognition and inspiration of science.
  • Lohr, Steven. "Creating Artificial Intelligence
    Based on The Real Thing." Nytimes.com. New York
    Times, 5 Dec. 2011. Web. 13 Apr. 2012.
    lthttp//www.nytimes.com/2011/12/06/science/creatin
    g-artificial-intelligence-based-on-the-real-thing.
    html?_r2gt.

18
2000s
  • Finally in recent years, we have autonomous
    robots doing work for us (Roombas, VACS, Siri.)
    Roombas and VACS are robotic vacuums. Siri is
    the intellectual AI inside the iphone. We have
    smart technology which have become an essential
    part of business and sociological means, and that
    includes Chat Robots or chatbots, which are
    very popular on the World Wide Web.
  • Menzetti, Riccardo. "Consciousness and Artificial
    Intelligence." Riccardo Manzotti's Home Page on
    Consciousness and the like. Science and Tech, 30
    July 2010. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. lthttp//www.consciou
    sness.it/CAI/CAI.htmgt.

19
AI and Consciousness  Theoretical foundations
and current approaches
  •  Article Quote about Artificial Consciousness
  • In the last ten years there has been a growing
    interest towards the field of artificial
    consciousness. Several researchers, also from
    traditional Artificial Intelligence, addressed
    the hypothesis of designing and implementing
    models for artificial consciousness (sometimes
    referred to as machine consciousness or synthetic
    consciousness) on one hand there is hope of
    being able to design a model for consciousness,
    on the other hand the actual implementations of
    such models could be helpful for understanding
    consciousness.
  • The traditional field of Artificial Intelligence
    is thus flanked by the seminal field of
    artificial or machine consciousness (sometimes
    machine or synthetic consciousness) aimed at
    reproducing the relevant features of
    consciousness using non biological components.
    According to Ricardo Sanz, there are three
    motivations to pursue artificial consciousness
    (Sanz, 2005)
  • 1) implementing and designing machines resembling
    human beings (cognitive robotics)
  • 2) understanding the nature of consciousness
    (cognitive science)
  • 3) implementing and designing more efficient
    control systems.
  • The current generation of systems for man-machine
    interaction shows impressive performances with
    respect to the mechanics and the control of
    movements see for example the anthropomorphic
    robots produced by the Japanese companies and
    universities. However, these robots, currently at
    the state of the art, present only limited
    capabilities of perception, reasoning and action
    in novel and unstructured environments. Moreover,
    the capabilities of user-robot interaction are
    standardized and well defined.
  • A new generation of robots and softbots aimed at
    interacting with humans in an unconstrained
    environment shall need a better awareness of
    their surroundings and of the relevant events,
    objects, and agents. In short, the new generation
    of robots and softbots shall need some form of
    artificial consciousness.
  • Menzetti, Riccardo. "Consciousness and Artificial
    Intelligence." Riccardo Manzotti's Home Page on
    Consciousness and the like. Science and Tech, 30
    July 2010. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. lthttp//www.consciou
    sness.it/CAI/CAI.htmgt.

20
What is Artificial Intelligence
  • Artificial Intelligence is the creation of
    systems of computers that can act, reason, and
    perceive information. It is an intelligent
    machine. It thinks, makes decisions, and solves
    problems all from learning and stored
    information. It is an interdisciplinary field
    that requires knowledge in computer science,
    linguistics, psychology, biology, and philosophy
    to work well.
  • Jaakob, Robin. "Artificial Intelligence."
    Intelligenceoftheworld. Artifical Intelligence,
    16 Feb. 2010. Web. 13 Apr. 2012.
    lthttp//intelligence.worldofcomputing.net/ai-intro
    duction/artificial-intelligence-overview.htmlgt.

21
Kinds of Ai/si/yi
  • logical AI is a program that understands general
    facts about different situations and is able to
    mathematically infer actions that are appropriate
    in achieving its goals. Some logical AIs are
    the McC59 and McC89.
  • search is a program that examines large numbers
    of possibilities in a scenario. This can be used
    for chess games online where it searches for
    different possibilities for its moves.
  • pattern recognition can match a pair of eyes with
    a nose and recognize the face that goes with it.
    This can be useful for criminal departments.
  • inference is a mathematical and logical deduction
    that can infer things based on its previous
    knowledge.
  • McCarthy, John S. "Branches of AI." Formal
    Reasoning Group. Stanford, 3 Mar. 2007. Web. 13
    Apr. 2012. lthttp//www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/wha
    tisai/node2.htmlgt.

22
Kinds of AI/SI/VI
  • common sense knowledge and reasoning is a
    developing system of non monotonic reasoning and
    theories of action. Monotonic reasoning is a
    property of many logical systems that states that
    the hypotheses of any derived fact may be freely
    extended with additional assumptions. This is
    the farthest away from human level for an
    Artificial Intelligence. It also contains a
    bunch of common sense applications.
  • learning from experience can learn facts or
    behaviors they represent.
  • planning can have general knowledge about the
    world and develop a strategy or sequence of
    actions to achieve its goal with ease.
  • epistemology is a study of the kinds of
    knowledge to solve problems within the world.
  • McCarthy, John S. "Branches of AI." Formal
    Reasoning Group. Stanford, 3 Mar. 2007. Web. 13
    Apr. 2012. lthttp//www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/wha
    tisai/node2.htmlgt.

23
Kinds of AI/SI/VI
  • heuristics can discover and measure how far a
    node in a search tree seems to be from a goal.
  • genetic programming solves tasks by using Lisp
    programs and mating them together.
  • McCarthy, John S. "Branches of AI." Formal
    Reasoning Group. Stanford, 3 Mar. 2007. Web. 13
    Apr. 2012. lthttp//www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/wha
    tisai/node2.htmlgt.
  • Game Playing- People can buy machines to play
    high level chess. For example, Deep Blue, an AI
    that defeated the highest ranking chess player in
    the world was a game playing machine. They play
    well because of brute force computations in their
    system. They look at thousands of positions
    before making their final move and this allows
    them to beat humans with ease.
  • Speech recognition- Computer speech recognition
    is a convenient way to get information. Chatbots
    can recognize human voices. This developed into
    Seri an iphone AI that can recognize speech that
    can help people look up information without
    having to touch the phone.
  • McCarthy, John S. "Applications of AI." Formal
    Reasoning Group. Stanford, 3 Mar. 2007. Web. 13
    Apr. 2012. lthttp//www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/wha
    tisai/node3.htmlgt.

24
AI/VI/SI
  • Heuristic classification- This type can put
    information in a fixed set of categories. It can
    advise whether or not to accept a credit card
    purchase based on the persons previous
    information. This can be very useful to stop
    identity theft and stealing.
  • McCarthy, John S. "Applications of AI." Formal
    Reasoning Group. Stanford, 3 Mar. 2007. Web. 13
    Apr. 2012. lthttp//www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/wha
    tisai/node3.htmlgt.

25
Recent AI Watson
  • Watson is an AI that played against humans on the
    show Jeopardy. Developed by IBM, Watson went on
    to beat Brad Rutter, the biggest all time
    Jeopardy winner, and Ken Jennings, the record
    holder for the highest win streak 74 wins.
    Watson won 1 million dollars, which was all
    donated to charities.
  • Watson had access to 200 million pages of
    structure and unstructured content, consuming
    four terabytes of disk storage and access to
    Wikipedia. Watson considerably outdid his human
    counterparts while deciding between three answers
    it was given.
  • Watson has a workload optimized system that is
    designed for analytics and was made possible by
    integrating parallel power7 processors and the
    IBM DeepQA software to answer questions on
    Jeopardy in fewer than three seconds. He is made
    up of clusters of 90 IBM Power 750 servers and 16
    Terabytes of RAM. It uses a 3.5 GHz Power7 eight
    core processor with four threads per core.
  • "Watson (computer)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia
    Foundation, 04 Dec. 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012.
    lthttp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watson_(computer)gt.

26
(No Transcript)
27
The Most human Human
  • http//www.thedailyshow.com/watch/tue-march-8-2011
    /brian-christian
  • Stewart, John, prod. "Brian Christian." The Daily
    Show with Jon Stewart. Comedy Central. New York
    City, New York, 8 Mar. 2011. The Daily Show.
    Comedy Central, 8 Mar. 2011. Web. 13 Apr. 2012.
    lthttp//www.thedailyshow.com/watch/tue-march-8-201
    1/brian-christiangt.

28
Works Cited
  • Jaakob, Robin. "Artificial Intelligence."
    Intelligenceoftheworld. Artifical Intelligence,
    16 Feb. 2010. Web. 13 Apr. 2012.
    lthttp//intelligence.worldofcomputing.net/ai-intro
    duction/artificial-intelligence-overview.htmlgt.
  • Lohr, Steven. "Creating Artificial Intelligence
    Based on The Real Thing." Nytimes.com. New York
    Times, 5 Dec. 2011. Web. 13 Apr. 2012.
    lthttp//www.nytimes.com/2011/12/06/science/creatin
    g-artificial-intelligence-based-on-the-real-thing.
    html?_r2gt.
  • McCarthy, John S. "Branches of AI." Formal
    Reasoning Group. Stanford, 3 Mar. 2007. Web. 13
    Apr. 2012. lthttp//www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/wha
    tisai/node2.htmlgt.
  • McCarthy, John S. "Applications of AI." Formal
    Reasoning Group. Stanford, 3 Mar. 2007. Web. 13
    Apr. 2012. lthttp//www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/wha
    tisai/node3.htmlgt.
  • Menzetti, Riccardo. "Consciousness and Artificial
    Intelligence." Riccardo Manzotti's Home Page on
    Consciousness and the like. Science and Tech, 30
    July 2010. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. lthttp//www.consciou
    sness.it/CAI/CAI.htmgt.
  • Stewart, John, prod. "Brian Christian." The Daily
    Show with Jon Stewart. Comedy Central. New York
    City, New York, 8 Mar. 2011. The Daily Show.
    Comedy Central, 8 Mar. 2011. Web. 13 Apr. 2012.
    lthttp//www.thedailyshow.com/watch/tue-march-8-201
    1/brian-christiangt.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence." Wikipedia.
    Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July 2012. Web. 13 Apr.
    2012. lthttp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_ar
    tificial_intelligencegt.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence."
    1900s-1950s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04
    July 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. lthttp//en.wikipedia
    .org/wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligencegt.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence."
    1970s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July
    2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. lthttp//en.wikipedia.org/
    wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligencegt.
  • "Timeline of Artificial Intelligence."
    1980s.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 July
    2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. lthttp//en.wikipedia.org/
    wiki/Timeline_of_artificial_intelligencegt.
  • "Watson (computer)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia
    Foundation, 04 Dec. 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012.
    lthttp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watson_(computer)gt.
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