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Dropout Prevention and Retention Strategies

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Dropout Prevention and Retention Strategies Donna Dockery A Student Drops Out Risha Berry Every 9 Seconds In The MERC United States June 2, 2010 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dropout Prevention and Retention Strategies


1
Dropout Prevention and Retention Strategies
  • Donna Dockery A Student Drops Out
  • Risha Berry Every 9 Seconds In The
  • MERC United States
  • June 2, 2010

2
Overview
  • National, state and local trends
  • History and implications
  • Community, family , individual, and school
    factors
  • Recommended school strategies
  • Diagnostic, targeted, school-wide recommendations

3
Depth of the Problem Nationally
  • National on-time graduation rates increased from
    72 in 2002 to 74 in 2004
  • Ranged from 87 (NJ) to 60 (DC, SC) in 2003
  • 22 of 18-24 year olds had not completed high
    school in 2004
  • 15 of young adults are not in school or working
  • From 1990-2000 graduation rates declined in 43
    states
  • Rates of 9th and 10th grade dropouts increased

4
Statistics from Virginia
  • Average Freshman Graduation Rates (AFGR)2007
  • 73.9 in USA 75.5 in Virginia
  • Event Drop Out Rates for Grades 9 12 in 2007
  • 4.4 in USA 2.6 in Virginia
  • Virginia DOE reports
  • 83 2009 class graduated 8 dropouts
  • More students drop out in higher grades than in
    9th

5
Philadelphia Study
  • Dropouts most likely in the
  • 9th grade - 45.8 (2 in first year of high
    school)
  • 10th grade 33.5
  • 11th grade 15.7
  • 12th grade - 5
  • Many students face academic and adjustment
    difficulties in high school
  • 9th grade failure a significant predictor
    dropouts

6
Class of 2009 Cohort Graduation and Dropout Rates
  • On Time Grad Dropout Dropout
    numbers
  • Chesterfield 86 9 428
  • Colonial Heights 86 7 17
  • Goochland 84 6 11
  • Hanover 92 3
    55
  • Henrico 81 8 322
  • Hopewell 61 17 55
  • Powhatan 88 7 24
  • Richmond 68 18 283
  • Total who did not graduate on time 1195

7
Community Factors
  • Urban versus rural suburban
  • Western and southern states
  • Poverty
  • Communities of Color
  • Large numbers of immigrants
  • High levels of adults not working, dropouts or
    with low educational levels
  • High rates of mobility/instability
  • High violence, crime, overcrowding

8
History
  • Why Standards of Accountability?
  • Polls show that the public approves of high
    standards in schools
  • Standards are used to
  • Specify what students must know
  • Hold students and educators accountable for
    reaching these benchmarks
  • Reassures parents and voters that their children
    are learning and their tax dollars are well
    invested

9
However
  • If students cannot meet these desired standards
  • They will not graduate from high school
  • If students expect to fail these critical tests,
  • Many may drop out of formal education well before
    their senior year
  • Failure prevention strategies become the critical
    educational approaches needed to ensure that all
    children meet world class standards

10
Consequences
  • High rates of unemployment
  • Decreased earning power
  • Linked to adult criminality, violence, family and
    relationship problems, job concerns, health and
    longevity
  • Long-term negative effects on income, need for
    social services, lower tax revenues, crime rates

11
Who are We Talking About?
  • On time graduation rates in 2001
  • 2/3 entering 9th grade
  • 72 females, 64 males graduated
  • About 50 American Indian, Black, Latino
  • About 75 White and Asian/Pacific Islander
  • Low-income 6 times more likely to drop out
  • About 47 of students with disabilities graduated
    with standard diplomas 41 dropped out

12
Family Risk Factors
  • Engagement/Commitment
  • Low educational expectations
  • Sibling who has dropped out
  • Little contact with school
  • Lack of conversation about school
  • Background
  • Low SES
  • High mobility
  • Low parental education
  • Large number of siblings
  • Not living with natural parents
  • Family disruption

13
Whos at Greatest Risk?
  • Grade retention in elementary school
  • Poor academic achievement
  • Chronically tardy or absent
  • Behavioral/disciplinary issues
  • Nongraduates in high school 4-5 years
  • Capable students may experience
  • Substance abuse Disciplinary infractions
  • Crisis Working or parenthood

14
Individual Risk Factors
  • Learning disability or emotional disturbance
  • School performance
  • Low achievement
  • Grade Retention/Overage
  • Early adult responsibilities
  • Working or parenthood
  • School Behavior
  • Misbehavior
  • Early aggression

15
Individual Risk Factors
  • Social Attitudes/Behaviors
  • High-risk peer group
  • High-risk social behavior
  • Highly socially active outside of school
  • School Engagement
  • Poor attendance
  • Low educational expectations
  • Lack of effort
  • Low commitment to school
  • No extracurricular involvement

16
School Factors
  • School factors can account for approximately 2/3
    of the differences in mean school dropout rates

17
We must examine
  • Leadership roles and responsibilities
  • Administration
  • Discipline
  • Safe and orderly environments
  • Culturally relevant climates

18
School Factors
  • Teacher
  • Expectations
  • Classroom management
  • Professional development
  • Curricular and instructional

19
School Strategies
  • Best practices
  • Culturally appropriate
  • Continuity
  • Evaluation
  • Cultural understanding

20
School Strategies
  • School reform
  • Effective programming
  • Alternative school
  • Vo Tech
  • Distance learning
  • Flexible scheduling

21
School Strategies
  • Institutional effectiveness/climate
  • Division
  • Mission
  • Philosophy, values, spirit of school improvement

22
Characteristics of schools that were effective
with students of low socioeconomic status
  • Promote high present educational expectations
  • Hire principals who are initiators and who want
    to make changes in the schools
  • Increase the external reward structure for
    academic achievement
  • Focus on basic skills first
  • Carefully evaluate the effect of community on the
    school

23
Dropout Intervention Strategies
  • Diagnostic
  • Targeted interventions
  • School-wide interventions (WWC)
  • Academic and social focus important
  • Flexible tailored to individual students and
    groups
  • Begin early
  • Integrate services

24
Targeted Interventions
  • Assign adult advocates
  • Provide academic support and enrichment
  • Implement programs to improve students classroom
    behaviors and social skills

25
Schoolwide Interventions
  • Personalize learning environment and
    instructional process
  • Rigorous and relevant instruction to engage
    students

26
Programmatic Strategies
  • Transition plans
  • Mentoring
  • Tutoring
  • Service learning
  • Work based learning
  • Bullying prevention
  • School safety
  • Attendance policies and tracking
  • Efforts in reducing truancy

27
Diagnostic Use Early Tracking Systems
  • Systemic and multifaceted problem
  • Complex and long-term, with
  • Interventions often too little, too late
  • Risk factors dont accurately predict actual
    dropouts- use multiple risk factors
  • All dropouts arent the same, often long process
    of disengagement
  • Dropout is a process, not an event

28
Heed Early Warning Signs with Appropriate
Interventions
  • Track individuals from 4th grade on
  • Set criteria for being off-track for graduation
  • Establish continuum of interventions
  • Track 9th graders with
  • 10 days absent in the first month
  • Core academic failure first quarter, semester,
    and end-of-year
  • Too few credits to be promoted to 10th grade

29
Early Tracking Systems
  • Watch for AB.Cs
  • A - Absenteeism
  • B - Behavioral Issues
  • C - Course Failure

30
But remember.
  • Risk factors may not effectively predict dropouts
  • Use longitudinal data
  • Even combining overage by 2 or more years with
    high absenteeism for middle school students
    only predicted 15 of those who later dropped out
    in high school
  • Regression model of 40 risk factors only
    predicted 42 of students who dropped out

31
Components of Successful Transition to High
School
  • Communal school organization
  • Small learning communities
  • Teaming of students and teachers
  • Common core curriculum versus tracking
  • Academic support
  • Extended homeroom/Advisory
  • Student centered learning/Activities
  • Orientation of student and parents
  • Summer enrichment
  • 9th grade academic/social adjustment course

32
Effective Strategies and Interventions
  • What have you tried?
  • What do you think is effective?
  • What needs to be adjusted or tweaked?
  • What are your next steps?

33
Websources
  • What Works Clearinghouse
  • http//ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/
  • National Dropout Prevention Centers
  • http//www.dropoutprevention.org/
  • The Youth Transition Funders Group (YTFG)
  • http//www.ytfg.org/
  • Emphasis on systematic approaches
  • Jobs for the Future
  • http//www.jff.org/
  • District-wide strategies Early lessons

34
References
  • Bergeson, T., Heuschel, M. A. (2003). Helping
    Students Finish School. Olympia, WA Office of
    Superintendent of Public Instruction.
  • Dynarski, M., Clarke, L., Cobb, B., Finn, J.,
    Rumberger, R., and Smink, J. (2008). Dropout
    Prevention A Practice Guide (NCEE 20084025).
    Washington, DC National Center for Education
    Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of
    Education Sciences, U.S.Department of Education.
    Retrieved from http//ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc.
  • Gleason,P., Dynarski, M. (2002). Do we know who
    to serve? Issues in using risk factors to
    identify dropouts. Journal of Education for
    Students Placed at Risk, 25-41.
  • Hammond, C., Linton, D., Smink, J., Drew, S.
    (2007). Dropout Risk Factors and Exemplary
    Programs. Clemson, SC National Dropout
    Prevention Center, Communities in Schools, Inc.

35
References
  • Martin, N., Halperin, S. (2006). Whatever it
    takes How Twelve Communities are Reconnecting
    Out-of-School Youth. Washington, DC American
    Youth Policy Forum.
  • Smink, J., Reimer, M. (2005) Fifteen Effective
    Strategies for Improving Student Attendance and
    Truancy Prevention. Clemson, SC National Dropout
    Prevention Center/Network.
  • White, S. W., Kelly, F. D. (2010). The school
    counselors role 2qin school dropout prevention.
    Journal of Counseling and Development, 88,
    227-235.
  • Contacts Donna Dockery djdockery_at_vcu.edu
  • Risha Berry berryrr_at_vcu.edu

36
Additional Recommendations
37
Address School/Policy Factors
  • Risk factors
  • High ratios
  • Poor student/teacher interactions
  • High grade retention rates
  • Zero tolerance policies
  • Sporadic, short-term interventions
  • Large school size
  • Low math achievement
  • High grade retention rates
  • High absenteeism
  • High rates of misbehavior
  • High stakes testing may increase dropouts and
    grade retention in 9/10
  • Lack of relevance of curriculum

38
Address School/Policy Factors
  • Address concerns/students effectively
  • Clear code of conduct with consistent
    enforcement
  • High quality teachers
  • School safety and climate
  • After-school opportunities
  • Service learning
  • Block scheduling
  • Use learning communities, teaming or school
    within a school concepts

39
Address School/Policy Factors
  • Systematic renewal of school policies, practices,
    and organizational structures
  • Supportive environment
  • Engaging teachers
  • Significant relationships
  • Engaging and challenging instruction
  • Use technology
  • Career and technical education
  • Monitor class/program assignments

40
Consider Alternative Schooling Options
  • Magnet/Specialty Schools
  • Middle Colleges
  • Adult high schools
  • Job Corp
  • GED Prep

41
Intervene at Critical Points
  • Importance of early intervention
  • Transition programs between levels
  • Also consider interventions after
  • Drug/alcohol infractions
  • Truancy or absenteeism
  • Suspension, expulsion, or disciplinary
    infractions
  • After court involvement

42
Key components of proven programs
  • Attendance and behavioral monitors
  • Tutoring and counseling
  • Small learning communities
  • 9th grade academics, advisories, homeroom
  • Engaging credit recovery programs
  • Benchmarking and progress monitoring
  • Tiered interventions
  • Access to rigorous coursework and high
    expectations
  • Career-oriented real-world curricula/ college
    awareness
  • 8th to 9th grade transition programs
  • Community engagement

43
Themes
  • Structural, organizational and governance changes
  • Curricular and instructional innovations
  • Teacher support systems
  • Transitional support
  • Early warning systems
  • Collaborate with families and community resources

44
Themes from Recommendations
  • Work together
  • Start early
  • Use early warning systems
  • Monitor transitions
  • Data driven
  • More push than pull factors
  • Engage community resources for wrap-around
    services
  • Involve parents

45
Remember
  • Young people want to learn and succeed
  • Past failures and trauma are ego-smashing
  • Importance of sense of belonging and community
  • Importance of committed adults
  • Clear rules, demanding teachers, relevant
    experiential instruction, flexibility in credit
    recovery
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