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3. NEWSPAPERS NEWS, and the NEWS MEDIA

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Title: 3. NEWSPAPERS NEWS, and the NEWS MEDIA


1
3. NEWSPAPERS NEWS, and the NEWS MEDIA
AL AKHAWAYN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES AND
SOCIAL SCIENCES COMMUNICATIONS STUDIES
  • Lecture by Prof. Dr. Mohammed Ibahrine
  • based on
  • DeFleur and Denniss Understanding Mass
    Communication

2
Developing a Concise Definition
  • Developing a Concise Definition
  • Mass communication is a process in which
    professional communicators design and use media
    to disseminate messages widely, rapidly, and
    continuously in order to arouse intended meanings
    in large, diverse, and selectively attending
    audiences in attempts to influence them in a
    variety of ways

3
Structure of the Lecture
  • 1. Newspapers A Medium for the Mass Society
  • 1.1 The First Newspapers
  • 1.2 The Press in the American Colonies
  • 1.3 Establishing Traditions in American
    Journalism
  • 2. Newspapers for the Common People
  • 2.1 The Emergence of the Penny Press
  • 2.2 The Impact of Society on the Growth of
    Newspapers
  • 2.3 Newspapers as Cultural Innovation
  • 2.4 Types of Contemporary Newspapers

4
Structure of the Lecture
  • 3. Developments that shaped Todays Newspapers
  • 3.1 The Growth of Wire Services and Syndicates
  • 3.2 Changing Patterns of Ownership
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and
    Presenting the News
  • 4.1 The Surveillance Function
  • 4.2 Encoding Strategies for Packaging the News

5
Structure of the Lecture
  • 5. Contrasting Conceptions of the Nature and
    Function of News
  • 5.1 The Marketing Approach News as a Product
  • 5.2 The Adversarial Approach Watchdogs of the
    Public Interest
  • 5.3 The Agenda Setting Function of the Press

6
1. Newspapers A Medium For The Mass Society
  • 1.1 The First Newspaper
  • The story of newspapers begins with Gutenbergs
    press
  • In the mid-1500, leaders in Venice made available
    to he public printed press about the war in
    Dalmatia
  • Venetians had to paw a gezette, a small coin
  • The term gazette so frequently used in newspaper
    titles, comes from that origin

7
1. Newspapers A Medium For The Mass Society
  • 1.1 The First Newspaper
  • An obscure forerunner of a newspaper was
    apparently printed in Germany beginning in 1609
  • The coranto (from which we get the term courant,
    which used in titles of modern newspapers)
  • The coranto was a brief printed news sheet whose
    form originated in Holland

8
1. Newspapers A Medium For The Mass Society
  • 1.1 The First Newspaper
  • The seven characteristics of modern newspapers
  • 1. Published at least weekly
  • 2. Produced on paper by a mechanical printing
    process or delivered online in a digital form
  • 3. Available free or for a prices to people of
    all walks of life
  • 4. Prints news of general interest rather than
    items on specialized topics such as religion or
    business
  • 5. Readable by people of ordinary literacy
  • 6. Timely
  • 7. Stable over time

9
1. Newspapers A Medium For The Mass Society
  • 1.1 The First Newspaper
  • By this definition, the first true newspaper was
    the Oxford Gazette, (later called the London
    Gazette)
  • First published in 1665 under the authority of
    King Charles II
  • The London Gazette appeared twice a week and
    continued publication well into the twentieth
    century
  • This was an authorized newspaper which means
    that its content was controlled and pre-screened
    by the Crown

10
1. Newspapers A Medium For The Mass Society
  • 1.2 The Press In The American Colonies
  • It was the colonial press that established many
    of the features that characterize American
    newspapers of today
  • Steady growth of population and commerce in the
    coloniesgt Market for news of shipping and trade
  • At the same time, political tensions grew over
    such issues as taxes and control of trade
  • These widespread feelings were news
  • One of the more significant criticism appeared in
    the first and (last) issue of a paper titled
    Publick Occurrencies

11
1. Newspapers A Medium For The Mass Society
  • 1.3 Establishing Traditions In American
    Journalism
  • American newspapers are protected by the First
    Amendments s provision for freedom of press and
    by a body of law developed over more than two
    centuries
  • Bold printers and publishers fought in a long
    struggle marked by numerous conflicts and harsh
    repressions

12
1. Newspapers A Medium For The Mass Society
  • 1.3.1 The Press as Watchdog of the public
    interest
  • In 1721, James Franklin started his own paper,
    the New England Courant
  • The paper was aimed at a prosperous elite and had
    no connection with the post office (distribution)
  • The Courant was the first newspaper in the
    colonies to crusade on a public issue
  • Using the newspaper to speak out against the
    authorities began an important tradition
  • American newspaper would become watchdogs of the
    public interest

13
1. Newspapers A Medium For The Mass Society
  • 1.3.2 The principle of freedom of the press
  • In 1734, Peter Zenger established the New York
    Weekly Journal
  • The paper ran articles openly critical of the
    Governor
  • Zenger was convicted on a charge of seditious
    libel
  • The legal definition of sedition is to promote
    disaffection with government, that is, to incite
    people to revolt against constituted authority
  • Libel, in legal terms, means deliberately
    publishing (making public) untruths about a
    person

14
1. Newspapers A Medium For The Mass Society
  • 1.3.2 The principle of freedom of the press
  • No one should be punished for printing the truth
  • Zengers trial did not change the law, but it
    established an important principle
  • The press should be allowed to criticize
    government
  • The idea was integrated into the First Amendment
    to the Constitution of the United States

15
2. Newspapers for the Common People
  • 2.1 The Emergence of the Penny Press
  • On September 3, 1833, Benjamin Day published the
    New York Sun
  • Its masthead carried the slogan It Shines for
    All
  • The Sun was designed to the less educated
  • Day offered his readers a different kind of news
  • The incidental happenings of New York life

16
2. Newspapers for the Common People
  • 2.1 The Emergence of the Penny Press
  • It was filled with human-interest items about
    common people
  • Day began an important newspaper tradition when
    he hired the very first salaried reporter, who
    went to the local courts and reported local
    happenings
  • The term reporter is derived from those who
    record court proceedings
  • Another feature of this newspaper was its mode of
    delivery

17
2. Newspapers for the Common People
  • 2.1 The Emergence of the Penny Press
  • It was sold on the street by newsboys for only a
    penny
  • One of the most important features of the Sun was
    its selling advertising space for a great variety
    of products and services
  • The paper was an instant success
  • All the competing newspapers that adopted Days
    basic formula were known as the penny press

18
2. Newspapers for the Common People
  • 2.2 The Impact of Society on the Growth of
    Newspapers
  • Three great changes took place in American
    society that had significant influences on the
    growth of the nations newspaper industry
  • 1. Rapid expansion of the population
  • 2. The remarkable evolution of technology
  • 3. The influence of the Civil War

19
2. Newspapers for the Common People
  • 2.3 Newspapers as Cultural Innovation
  • By the time of World War I, newspaper circulation
    of had grown to a point where many households in
    the United States were subscribing to both
    morning and an afternoon paper
  • During the early decades of the last century,
    newspaper enjoyed a kind of golden age (1910 and
    1930)
  • Once newer media arrived, newspaper entered a
    decline in subscriptions per household

20
2. Newspapers for the Common People
  • 2.3 Newspapers as Cultural Innovation
  • The great decline was a consequence of two major
    factors
  • After 1930, the costs of news gathering and all
    other aspects of publishing began to increase
  • Competition for advertising dollars from radio,
    and eventually television rose relentlessly
  • These trends have continued to the present time
    and are likely to persist into the future

21
2. Newspapers for the Common People
  • 2.4 Types of Contemporary Newspapers
  • General-news papers
  • Specialized-news paper
  • 1. Metropolitan dailies
  • 2. Tabloids (sensationalism/
  • 3. Medium-sized and small dailies
  • 4. Non-daily newspapers
  • 5. Free-Distribution newspapers
  • 6. The Ethnic press
  • 7. Other specialized papers

22
ASSIGNMENT
  • ASSIGNMENT
  • 1. Metropolitan dailies
  • 2. Tabloids (sensationalism/
  • 3. Medium-sized and small dailies
  • 4. Non-daily newspapers
  • 5. Free-Distribution newspapers
  • 6. The Ethnic press
  • 7. Other specialized papers

23
3. Developments that shaped Todays Newspapers
  • 3. Developments that shaped Todays Newspapers
  • 3.1 The Growth of Wire Services and Syndicates
  • 3.2 Changing Patterns of Ownership

24
4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and
Presenting the News
  • 4.1 The Surveillance Function
  • News is current or fresh knowledge about an event
    or subject that is gathered, processed an
    disseminated via a medium to a significant number
    of interested people
  • That act of gathering, processing and
    disseminating such fresh information can be
    called the news process
  • The news process begins with surveillance of the
    news environment

25
4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and
Presenting the News
  • 4.1 The Surveillance Function
  • The first thing that happens is that they are
    sorted and selected by a process called
    gatekeeping
  • Some reports are immediately discarded, while
    others are retained for further consideration
  • Those retained will be carefully edited to make
    sure that they can be understood by the public
    and are factually correct

26
4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and
Presenting the News
  • Introduction
  • Stories judged not to be very important are
    assigned very little space and are positioned
    toward the end
  • The lead stories come first in the broadcast and
    are allotted more time or space
  • In online media news values play a role that is
    similar to those in the case of traditional
    newspapers

27
4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and
Presenting the News
  • 4.1 The Surveillance Function
  • Citizens supposedly have trustworthy information
    enabling them to make informed decisions about
    events and issues that are of significance to
    them as individuals and to society as a whole
  • Categories for surveillance
  • The News must be observed, understood,
    interpreted and recorded by reporters whose task
    is to prepare initial comprehensive descriptions
    for public consumption

28
4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and
Presenting the News
  • 4.1 Categories for surveillance
  • Categories are divided up an orderly division of
    labor
  • Natural division-gt geographic territories
  • Local
  • Regional
  • National
  • And International
  • Specialized topics
  • Politics
  • The economy
  • Science
  • Health
  • Sports

29
4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and
Presenting the News
  • 4.1 Categories for surveillance
  • Categories are divided up an orderly division of
    labor
  • Organizations from where facts for developing
    new stories are often obtained
  • The White House
  • The Pentagon
  • Or the Congress

30
4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and
Presenting the News
  • 4.1 Categories for surveillance
  • A rather different kind of distinction among news
    stories
  • Spot news
  • the event occurs, it provides facts for a news
    story, the account is prepared, it is
    disseminated and that is the end
  • Continuing news
  • There is no clear beginning or end
  • An ongoing series of related happenings , e.g.
    Environment,

31
4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and
Presenting the News
  • 4.1 Categories for surveillance
  • Another category that is somewhat time-related is
  • Hard news
  • is what most ordinary people think of as news
  • Soft news
  • Is not as time-critical
  • It focuses on situations, people or events that
    have human interest

32
4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and
Presenting the News
  • 4.2.1 Traditional News Values
  • Newsworthiness or news values
  • There are at least seven major criteria in
    assessing a story as an attractive candidate for
    presentation to the public
  • 1. The impact of a story is important
  • It refers to the number of people whose lives
    will be influenced in some way by the subject of
    the story
  • 2. Timeliness is a news value
  • Is should be presented to the public while it is
    still fresh
  • Scoop (you read (viewed) it here first)

33
4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and
Presenting the News
  • 4.2.1 Traditional News Values
  • 3. Prominence
  • Stories about people who are in the public eye
    have much higher news value than those about
    obscure, even the occurrence are the same
  • 4. Proximity
  • Stories about events and situations in ones home
    community are newsworthy than events that take
    place far away

34
4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and
Presenting the News
  • 4.2.1 Traditional News Values
  • 5. A time-honored news value is the bizarre
  • John Bogart
  • When a dog bites a man, that is not news
  • But if a man bites a dog, that is news
  • 6. Conflict in a story
  • Harmony is boring, strife is newsworthy
  • 7. Currency
  • More value is attributed to stories pertaining to
    issues that are in the spotlight of the public

35
4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and
Presenting the News
  • 4.2.2 Story Formats
  • The story itself must be packaged in one of the
    story formats
  • 1. The Five Ws
  • A well-written newspaper is one that tells
  • Who did What, Where, When and Why
  • 2. The Inverted Pyramid
  • Graphic (METAPHOR) to illustrate
  • News stories are organized so that the most
    important ideas appear first
  • People read just the headlines
  • Other stop after reading the lead sentence
  • So the most important ideas need to be set forth
    at the very outset

36
4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and
Presenting the News
  • 4.2.2 Story Formats
  • The story itself must be packaged in one of the
    story formats
  • 3. VOT Voice-over-tape
  • In which the viewer first sees the anchorperson,
    but is then switched to a videotape with the
    anchor's voice over the ongoing picture
  • 4. The Stand-up with package
  • Is similar with the reporter interviewing someone
    at the scene

37
4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and
Presenting the News
  • 4.2.3 Alternative Journalistic Styles
  • A number of alternative journalistic styles have
    come into use at one time or another
  • Some were popular at one point of time
  • Some have left their marks on the contemporary
    news industries
  • 4.2.3.1 The Sensational or tabloid Journalism
    Style
  • Trivialization of the news
  • Infotainment a merging of information and
    entertainment
  • 4.2.3.2 The objective or impartial journalism
  • Separate facts from opinion
  • Presenting an emotionally detached view of the
    news
  • Striving for fairness and balance

38
4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and
Presenting the News
  • 4.2.3 Alternative Journalistic Styles
  • 4.2.3.3 The advocacy style
  • The reporter and the story identify with the
    advocate that is to promote a cause a position
  • 4.2.3.4 Precision Journalism
  • It makes use of the research procedures of the
    social sciences to gather and report quantitative
    information for the purpose development a news
    story
  • The intensive use of Computer-assisted reporting
    (CAR)

39
4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and
Presenting the News
  • 4.2.3 Alternative Journalistic Styles
  • 4.2.3.5 Civic or Public journalism
  • Civic Journalism's goal is to keep the press
    grounded in the concerns of ordinary people,
    rather than in those of the elite
  • Advocates of this approach argue that traditional
    journalism is no longer trusted by the public and
    that
  • Civic journalism can restore confidence
  • Critics warn that it moves journalism away from
    its traditional impartial and disinterested
    stance to that of political activists pushing a
    particular agenda

40
5. Contrasting Conceptions of the Nature and
Function of News
  • 5.1 The Marketing Approach News as a Product
  • This approach begins with extensive market
    research that assembles statistical data on the
    interests, media habits and concerns of the
    audience
  • To end declines in newspaper circulation, the
    market research experts prescribed change, by
    adding new sections on topics such as lifestyles,
    entertainment, gardening an housing
  • Sections that help readers USE their
    communities and their environment
  • The best-known example of a newspaper that
    relies heavily on the marketing approach is the
    USA
  • It pioneered the use of color, brevity (critics
    say superficiality) in style

41
5. Contrasting Conceptions of the Nature and
Function of News
  • 5.2 The Adversarial Approach Watchdogs of the
    Public Interest
  • The role of the press as an adversary is the one
    most honored in the traditions of journalism
  • The press has been called the fourth estate
  • Traditional investigating reporting
  • Muckraker tradition

42
6. The Future of the Newspaper
  • See the chapter on the Internet
  • Futurists have been predicting the death of
    print
  • Such forecast have not come true
  • The Vanishing Newspaper Saving Journalism In The
    Information Age

43
Futurists have been predicting the death of
print Such forecast have not come true
  • 1. Perishable
  • 2. Appeal to middle-age and older readers
  • 3. They cause smudges on hands from the ink
  • 1. Portable
  • 2. Predictable
  • 3. Accessible
  • 4. Cost Effective
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