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Organic Tree Fruit Production: What is it? Where is it going?

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Organic Tree Fruit Production: What is it? Where is it going? Organic pears near Chelan, WA David Granatstein Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Organic Tree Fruit Production: What is it? Where is it going?


1
Organic Tree Fruit Production What is it?
Where is it going?
Organic pears near Chelan, WA
  • David Granatstein
  • Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural
    Resources, Wenatchee, WA

2
Which half of the world will starve if we switch
to organic farming? Earl Butz, former US
Secretary of Agriculture
3
What is Organic Agriculture?
  • The production of crops and animals without the
    use of synthetic pesticides or fertilizers.

4
What is Organic Agriculture?
  • The production of crops and animals without the
    use of synthetic pesticides or fertilizers.
  • An organic farm, properly speaking is not one
    that uses certain substances and avoids others
    it is a farm whose structure is formed in
    imitation of the structure of a natural system
    it has the integrity, the independence, and the
    benign dependence of an organism.

  • - Wendell Berry

5
NOP Definition of Organic Production
  • A production system that is managed to
    respond to site-specific conditions by
    integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical
    practices that foster cycling of resources,
    promote ecological balance, and conserve
    biodiversity.

6
NOSB Principles of Organic Production
  • Optimize soil biological activity
  • Maintain long-term fertility
  • Minimize soil erosion
  • Maintain or enhance the genetic and biological
    diversity of the production system and its
    surroundings

7
NOSB Principles of Organic Production (continued)
  • Utilize production methods and breeds or
    varieties that are well adapted to the region
  • Recycle materials of plant and animal origin in
    order to return nutrients to the land, thus
    minimizing the use of non-renewable resources

8
NOSB Principles of Organic Production (continued)
  • Minimize pollution of soil, water, and air and
  • Become established on an existing farm or field
    through a period of conversion (transition),
    during which no prohibited materials are applied
    and an organic plan is implemented.

9
What Does Certified Organic Mean ?
  • No pesticides ?
  • No chemicals ?
  • No synthetic inputs ?
  • No environmental impacts ?
  • Good soil and water conservation ?
  • Humane treatment of animals ?
  • Consumer protection ?

10
Organic and Sustainability
11
Organic System Plans
  • 1. Describe practices and procedures
  • 2. List of materials that you plan to use during
    the upcoming year.
  • 3. Monitoring techniques used to measure soil
    and water quality (e.g. soil tests)
  • 4. Records maintained (e.g. material application
    records, sales and yield)
  • 5. Practices used to prevent contamination or
    commingling (e.g. buffer zones, labeling)

12
Organic Production System Plans
  • Soil building and fertility maintenance
  • Soil testing required to monitor soil quality
  • No raw manure applications within 120/90 days PH
  • Distinct composting guidelines
  • No destructive cultivation practices
  • Use of cover crops, crop rotations, and
    maintenance of soil organic matter
  • Producer must maintain or improve the soil and
    minimize soil erosion.

13
Organic Production System Plan
  • Bio-intensive pest management plans
  • Prevention first
  • Crop rotations
  • Resistant varieties
  • Maintaining beneficial species habitat
  • Sanitary cultural practices
  • Materials used only when crop rotation,
    biological control, and cultural practices are
    insufficient to control pests.

14
National List
  • National List of Approved Materials
  • Natural materials are approved, unless
    specifically prohibited (strychnine, tobacco)
  • Prohibits all synthetic materials, unless
    specifically allowed (copper sulfate, pheromones)
  • USDA does not maintain a complete list of
    approved materials
  • National Organic Standards Board must approve all
    synthetic materials on National List.
  • NOSB approved synthetics are not approved until
    the NOP rules are amended.

15
NOP - Materials Issues
  • Sodium nitrate - prohibited in Europe
  • List 3 Inerts in pesticide formulations- This
    will eliminate many materials (pesticides and
    soil amendments) from organic use.
  • Compost requirements
  • Raw manure restrictions
  • GMO free non-organic ingredients

16
Organic Farm Acreage in Europe
Source OTA 1999 data
Total organic acreage in EU was 7.5 million
acres. 6-10 of all farmland is organic in
Austria, Switzerland, Denmark, and Sweden. By
2001, 10 million organic acres in EU (certified
plus transition), about 3 of total ag land area.
17
Organic Acreage Growth
  • 1997 USDA survey 1.3 million acres certified
    organic (850K cropland, 496K pasture/range)
    represents about 0.2 of US farmland
  • US sales of organic foods growing by 23/yr for
    past 10 years (25/yr in past 3 years)
  • Washington - 25,000 certified acres in 1997 up
    to 39,000 in 2002

18
Growth of Organic Food Sales
Projected 20 billion in sales by 2005
Source Organic Trade Association
19
Encouraging Trends
  • Consumer trends around wellness
  • Increased organic food sales and availability
  • More public interest in food system, ecosystem
    services, role of ag in society
  • More public and private support for organic
    farming
  • More regulatory certainty (USDA National Organic
    Standard)
  • Organic GMO free

20
Concerns
  • Ability for increased supply to outpace increase
    in demand (e.g. apples)?
  • Foreign competition
  • Industrial organic, consolidation
  • More scrutiny and criticism of organic (e.g.
    pathogens, pesticide use)
  • Convergence of conventional and organic on the
    farm for some systems

21
Estimated World Organic Apple and Pear Acreage -
2001
Certified Acres Apple Pear U.S.
17,572 2,798 Europe 8,675 3,665 New Zealand
2,873 163 South America 1,385
932 Canada 800 60 Total
31,005 7,618 China, Turkey ?? Europe data
from 2000

22
U.S. Organic Tree Fruit Acreage - 2001
Apple Pear Cherry All fruit WA
6540 1308 303 8436 CA 4529 842
179 8662 AZ 2800 -- 30
2830 CO 1535 100 133 1923 ID
503 -- -- 506 OR 350
500 25 1180 Others 1015 48
57 1198 Total US 17,272 2798
727 23,835
23
Organic Tree Fruit Acreage in WA - 2002
Cert. Trans. Total Apples 8075
1786 9861 Pears 1771 192 1963 Cherries
501 184 685 Apricots 90 12
102 Peaches 195 4 199 Nectarines
78 3 81 Plums 46 3
49 Other 17 2 19 Total
10,773 2,186 12,959
24
Organic Apple Acreage in Washington State
Pheromone MD
Alar
25
WA Organic Apple Acreage by Variety 2002
26
Organic Pear and Stone Fruit Acreage in
Washington State
27
WA Organic Pear Acreage by Variety 2002
28
Washington Organic Soft Fruit Acreage 2002
29
WA Organic Cherry Acreage
30
Price Trends
Org
Org
Conv
Fuji
Conv
Gala
31
Price Trends
Org
Conv
Bartlett
DAnjou
32
Organic Cherry Production
  • Winter pruning
  • Fall or spring fertilization BioGro 1000
    lb/ac (90 lb N/ac) chicken compost 1.5-2 T/ac
    (90-120 lb N/ac)
  • Foliar feed soluble fish, kelp
  • GA
  • Dormant oil scale, aphid
  • Late fall, early spring copper for Coryneum
    blight, bacterial gumosis

33
Organic Cherry Production
  • Cherry fruit fly formerly rotenone,
    pyrethrums no effective formulations waiting
    for spinosad (Entrust) 7 d interval, but 7 d PHI
  • Black cherry aphid formerly controlled by CFF
    spray (Pyrenone) no effective control rely on
    biocontrol ?
  • Mildew Stylet oil, M-Pede, sulfur, potassium
    bicarbonate
  • Brown rot copper, sulfur
  • Weeds tillage, flaming, mulch

34
Organic Tree Fruit Research Needs
All regions fruit thinning weed control
fertility rootstock and variety evaluation
influence of organic production on fruit quality,
nutrition production and price
statistics Semi-arid regions (western North
America, Argentina) insect pests, replant
disease Humid regions (Michigan, NY) scab,
insect pests WSU/WTFRC priority setting with
growers
35
Research Response
  • Insect Pests
  • Pheromone mating disruption for codling moth
  • New biorational pest control tools (Spinosad,
    kaolin, neem, oils, repellents)
  • Habitat manipulation cover crops, border
    vegetation, mowing regime

Pheromone dispensers for codling moth mating
disruption
36
Research Response
  • Diseases and Weeds
  • Biocontrol of Replant Disease
  • Scab resistant varieties
  • Mulching systems for weed control
  • Tree tolerance of weeds
  • Thermal weed control
  • Organic herbicides
  • Cover crops

37
Growth of Gala Apple Seedlings in CV Orchard
Replant Soil Following Planting with Different
Wheat Cultivars
(M. Mazzola, USDA-ARS)
38
Clover Living Mulch
Spray-on Paper Mulch
Wood Chip Mulch
39
Research Response
  • Soils, Crop Load
  • Cover crops
  • Organic amendments
  • Soil quality
  • Natural blossom and fruit thinners

40
How Do Conventional, Organic, and Integrated
Apple Production Systems Compare? A Seven Year
Study in the Yakima Valley Preston Andrews, John
Reganold, Jerry Glover WSU Pullman
41
STUDY SITE
  • Yakima Valley (46o30N)
  • Sandy loam texture
  • Planted 1994
  • Golden Delicious/M.9
  • 2240 trees per hectare (1.2 m x 3 m)
  • Four, replicated, 0.14 hectare plots (RCB)
  • On-farm, grower/scientist managed
  • Funded by USDA-NRICGP

42
ORGANIC MATTER
43
NITROGEN
0-15 cm
A
A
A
B
AB
B
A
B
A
A
B
B
44
MINERALIZABLE NITROGEN
NS
NS
45
MICROBIAL BIOMASS
0-7.5 cm
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
B
B
B
B
46
EARTHWORMS
A
A
AB
B
B
B
47
SOIL QUALITY INDEX
1998
1999
A
A
A
AB
B
B











48
TREE GROWTH
49
FRUIT YIELDS
A
A
NS
A
AB
A
AB
B
B
B
A
B
C
A
B
B
50
WSU Orchard Systems Trial Zillah, WA
Costs (/acre) Variable Fixed
Total 1998 1999 1998 1999 1998 1999 Conv.
3849 4366 3146 3492 6995 7858 IFP 3682
4145 3315 3644 6997 7789 Organic 3877
3511 3356 3371 7232 6883 (Glover et al.,
2002)
51
CONCLUSIONS
  • Organic integrated systems produced better soil
    quality
  • Greater organic matter micro/macro fauna
    activity
  • Yields tree growth were comparable among
    systems
  • Non-limiting water, nutrients light
  • Organic fruit were smaller
  • Lack of chemical thinners or lower fruit N
  • Organic fruit were firmer sweeter after storage
  • Lower fruit N

52
Areawide Organic Pest Mgt. Pears John Dunley,
WSU Wenatchee
Three systems conventional, soft, organic 300
contiguous acres CM MD on soft, organic No sign.
differences in pest damage psylla, mites,
codling moth No sign. differences in natural
enemies Pest mgt. costs Trend for organic lt
soft lt conventional
53
Other Organic Tree Fruit Research
Switzerland FiBL (Organic Farming Research
Institute) scab resistance archetype varieties
Sandwich system fruit quality
analysis Netherlands Louis Bolk Institute
cover crops soil management fruit
quality France INRA enhanced biocontrol
hedgerow design New Zealand HortResearch
orchard floor management organic systems
development Argentina INTA orchard floor
management biocontrol
54
Other Organic Tree Fruit Research
UC Davis organic comparison studies mating
disruption enhancing beneficial insects
biodiversity Michigan State soil management
weed management organic orchard systems
multi-functional diversity agroecosystem
studies Colorado weed control soil quality
2nd National Organic Tree Fruit Research
Symposium May 28-30, 2003, Grand Junction, CO
55
Looking Ahead
Questions to consider How do we make organic
systems more sustainable (energy, water) ?
What do organic farms contribute to society other
than food (ecosystem services, social impacts) ?
What happens when organic becomes conventional
(Beyond Organic, industrialization ) ?
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