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Effects of World War 1 and the Post War Settlement


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Title: Effects of World War 1 and the Post War Settlement

Effects of World War 1 and the Post War Settlement
  • IB History HL

Main themes Choosing sides
  • The three big European players in the Middle East
    are allies in World War 1.
  • The competition between the three is decreased
    due to the greater problem of fighting Germany
    and the Austrian Empire removing all motivation
    for supporting the Ottoman Empire
  • The Ottoman Empire joins the enemy coalition

Main themes Ottoman Empire joins the Triple
  • Out of fear of a Russian invasion
  • Continuous wars with Russia for the past 100
  • Attempt to regain traditional territory in the
  • Attempt to maintain control over other minority
    groups still in the Empire
  • Armenians, Arabs, Kurds

Main themes Post-War Settlement
  • A product of great power politics believed that
    they were the only effective administrators
  • Did not provide the area with political stability
    because the administration did not reflect the
    areas inhabitants
  • Growing sense of Arab nationalism due to
    increased expectations - Wilson 14 Points, war

Main themes Post War Settlements
  • Dramatically altered the political map of the
    Arab world
  • Set the state for many of todays conflicts
  • Many of todays modern states did not exist prior
    to World War 1

Map of the Middle East and Africa 1914
The Allied Wartime Promises
  • A. The nature of British Middle Eastern Policy
  • Design to foster Arab support against the Ottoman
  • Ottoman Sultan also the Caliph fear of general
    Muslim uprising/support particularly in India
  • Policy formation lacked a common direction
    resulting in contradictory policies. Policy was
    being directed by three different ministries
  • Foreign Affairs
  • The Indian Office
  • The Arab Bureau

The Allied Wartime Promises
  • B. Constantinople Agreement (March 1915)
  • Russia to be given Constantinople and the
    Turkish Straits
  • Russia
  • wanted recognition of their interests before any
    collapse of the OE due to the lack of a military
    presence in the region.
  • Promised to recognize British and French

The Allied Wartime Promises
  • C. The Hussein-McMahon correspondence of 1915
  • Letter http//www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1915mcm
  • Main goal was to attempt to incite a revolt and
    collapse the OE
  • Hussein governor of the Holy Cities
  • British concerns
  • Hussein may join the Triple Alliance and call for
    a holy war against the Allied powers
  • Promise an independent Arab state

The Allied Wartime Promises
  • D. The Hussein-McMahon correspondence of 1915
  • Husseins demands
  • Large territorial concessions that covered most
    of the Arab world in the Middle East
  • British response
  • Vague ran with British administrative advice
  • French interests were to be protected, Lebanon
  • Large territorial demand not rejected outright
    nothing soled or settled

The Allied Wartime Promises
  • E. Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916

The Allied Wartime Promises
  • E. Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916
  • A secret agreement between the European Powers
    that divided up the Middle East between them.
    Conducted during the war and before the war is
  • Agreement http//www.lib.byu.edu/rdh/wwi/1916/sy
  • Post-war plan that was to take place in case a
    sudden collapse of the Ottoman Empire
  • France and Britain try to avoid post-war
    fighting and disputes over territory. Agreement
    to honor each others interests

The Allied Wartime Promises
  • Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916 Details of the
  • Creation of an independent Armenian state
    Armenian revolt and genocide
  • http//www.armenian-genocide.org/encyclopedia/inde
  • Human tragedy and mutual murder rather than
    genocide http//www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/myth/carth
  • shall be allowed to establish such direct or
    indirect administration or control as they desire
    and as they may think fit to arrange with the
    Arab State or Confederation of Arab States.
  • France Syria, Lebanon and Southern Turkey
  • Britain South Iran, Jordan, West coast of Saudi
    Arabia, Iraq, Aden or Eastern Yemen,
    long-standing obsession with the protection of
    the sea routes to India

The Allied Wartime Promises
  • Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916 Details of the
  • Britain South Iran, Jordan, West coast of Saudi
    Arabia, Iraq, Aden or Eastern Yemen,
    long-standing obsession with the protection of
    the sea routes to India
  • Italy Southern Turkey
  • International administration Palestine, Central
  • New British PM (1916) Lloyd George was a fierce
    critic of the plan

The Allied Wartime Promises
  • F. The Balfour Declaration http//www.lib.byu.edu/
  • Letter from the British Foreign Secretary Lord
    Balfour to the leader of the Zionist movement
    indicating the creation of a homeland for the
    Jewish people.
  • Vague wording does not promise a homeland
  • Conditions applied not to prejudice the rights
    of the existing people
  • Territory is seen as the territories lying
    between the Jordan and the eastern borders of
    Palestine. (Includes Jordan)

Balfour Declaration
  • Foreign OfficeNovember 2nd, 1917
  • Dear Lord Rothschild,
  • I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on
    behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following
    declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist
    aspirations which has been submitted to, and
    approved by, the Cabinet.
  • "His Majesty's Government view with favour the
    establishment in Palestine of a national home for
    the Jewish people, and will use their best
    endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this
    object, it being clearly understood that nothing
    shall be done which may prejudice the civil and
    religious rights of existing non-Jewish
    communities in Palestine, or the rights and
    political status enjoyed by Jews in any other
  • I should be grateful if you would bring this
    declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist
  • Yours sincerely,Arthur James Balfour

Problems with Allied Wartime Promises
  • Many ambiguous problems begin unprepared for
    the collapse of the Ottoman Empire by the same
    plans that were suppose to have prepared them.
  • Huge problems of process and perceptions
  • Arab nationalism interpretation vague promises
    as the right to national agenda
  • Imperialism mindset European administration was
    beneficial to the local inhabitants and would be
    appreciated. Arab independence does not mean

Problems with Allied Wartime Promises
  • Arab Revolt cont.
  • Lead by Emir al Fasial and T.E. Lawerence
  • Degree of impact/significance
  • British minor success that had little
    significance to the fall of the Ottoman Empire
  • Arab perspective major role that fulfilled
    their end of the deal, a war of independence

Problems with Allied Wartime Promises
  • Reading assignment What was the military or
    political significance of the Arab Revolt?
  • Cleveland 150-153, 157-159
  • Karsh 185-187 (p) Bottom of 192

Problems with Allied Wartime Promises
  • Dividing up territory not controlled
  • Since they didnt own it easier to give it away
  • The Arab revolt
  • Early British failures Gallipoli and Kut
  • Tied up the Ottoman Empire
  • Blew up sections of the Medina-Damascus railway
    stopping the flow of Turkish supplies

Significance of the Arab Revolt
  • What are the similarities and differences between
    Cleveland and Mansfield?
  • Military
  • Broke the Medina-Damascus Railway link and
    prevented Turo-German forces from getting to
    Yemen (East Africa and Red Sea shipping)
  • Diverted Turkish resources from Palestine/Egypt.
    30,000 troops along Hejaz rail line
  • British forces captured major cities (Jerusalem,
    Damascus, Baghdad)
  • Arab forces needed military and weapons supplies
    from the British
  • Irregular army of armed tribesmen insignificant
    compare to the huge 3m British forces in Egypt,
    Palestine and Mesopotamia
  • Turks surrendered to the British
  • Collapse of the Ottoman Empire was due more to
    the events of World War 1
  • Weakness seen in eventual defeat and loss of
    Hejaz territory

Significance of the Arab Revolt
  • Political
  • Only acted when Turo-German forces were move
    towards the Hejaz
  • Insignificant ally of the British in their global
  • Widespread condemnation of revolt (opportunistic
    and divisive)
  • Not a revolutionary for national self
    determination imperialist aspirant
  • Willing to make deal with Ottomans
  • Religious hesitation in fighting fellow Muslims
  • Little support offered by other Arab leaders
  • Letters were from a low level British officer not
    a formal treaty

Significance of the Arab Revolt
  • Political
  • While never promised King of all Arab countries
    He was never discouraged from thinking this by
    the British
  • Great Britain is prepared to recognize and
    uphold the independence of the Arabs in all the
    regions lying within the frontiers proposed by
    the Sharif of Mecca
  • Reason to believe that he was promised an Arab
    State Cleveland (157)
  • Held prestigious position of Amir of Mecca,
    protector of the Holy Cities. Used religious
    influence to reduce impact of call for jihad
  • Support grows after the collapse of the Ottoman
    Empire becomes apparent

Views from Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
  • Motive
  • The formerly cosmopolitan and tolerant Ottoman
    Empire began overtly discriminating against its
    non-Turkish inhabitants. Arabs in particular were
    faced with political, cultural and linguistic
  • Support
  • During this time, Arab nationalist groups in
    Syria, Iraq and Arabia began to rally behind the
    Hashemite banner of Abdullah and Faisal, sons of
    Sharif Hussein bin Ali, King of the Arabs.
  • Military significance
  • At the end of the war, Arab forces controlled
    all of modern Jordan, most of the Arabian
    peninsula and much of southern Syria.

Views from Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
  • Political significance
  • Much of the trauma and dislocation suffered by
    the peoples of the Middle East during the 20th
    century can be traced to the events surrounding
    World War I.
  • victors reneged on their promises to the Arabs,
    the interests of the colonial powers took
    precedence over promises made to the Arabs
  • political aspirations of the Arabs were not to be
    realized, however, due to the conflicting
    promises made by the British to their wartime
  • totally deceitful move
  • clearly contradicted the promises made to Sharif
    Hussein of Mecca
  • effectiveness of the Great Arab Revolt that the
    Hashemite family was able to secure Arab rule
    over Transjordan, Iraq and Arabia.
  • Arab nationalists in the Fertile Crescent and the
    Arabian Peninsula found in the Hashemite
    commanders of the Great Arab Revolt the
    leadership that could realize their aspirations,
    and thus coalesced around them.
  • British government ignored the will of the Iraqi

The Post War Settlement Process Problem of
Expectations vs. Reality
  • The 14 Points as the guiding principles of the
    Post War Wilson declaration to the Right to self
    determination set high expectations
  • It will be our wish and purpose that the
    processes of peace, when they are begun, shall be
    absolutely open, and that they shall involve and
    permit henceforth no secret understandings of any
    kind.... What we demand in this war ... is that
    the world be made fit and safe to live in and
    particularly that it be made safe for every
    peace-loving nation which, like our own, wishes
    to live its own life, determine its own
    institutions, be assured of justice and fair
    dealing by the other peoples of the world...the
    only possible program as we see it, is this

The Post War Settlement Process Problem of
Expectations vs. Reality
  • V. Free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial
    adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a
    strict observance of the principle that in
    determining all such questions of sovereignty the
    interests of the populations concerned must have
    equal weight with the equitable claims of the
    government whose title is to be determined.
  • XII. The Turkish portions of the present Ottoman
    Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty,
    but the other nationalities which are now under
    Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted
    security of life and an absolutely unmolested
    opportunity of autonomous development, and the
    Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a
    free passage to the ships and commerce of all
    nations under international guarantees.

The Post War Settlement Process Problem of
Expectations vs. Reality
  • B. Anglo-French Declaration of November 1918
  • The goal envisaged by France and Great
    Britain.... is the complete and final
    liberation of the peoples who have for so long
    been oppressed by the Turks, and the setting up
    of national governments and administrations that
    shall derive their authority from the free
    exercise of the initiative and choice of the
    indigenous population."
  • http//www.btinternet.com/e.c.apling/Kosovo/Pal

The Post War Settlement Process Problem of
Expectations vs Reality
  • C. Declaration to the Seven (1918)
  • British government meets with seven Arab leaders
    in Cario
  • Future government of Arab territory liberated by
    the action of Arab armies would be based on the
    principle of the consent of the governed

The Post War Settlement Process Problem of
Expectations vs. Reality
  • D. Nationalist groups believed the conference
    would be supportive of its goals
  • Various Nationalist groups showed up to make
    claims huge undertaking that would have
    required large amounts of political, economic and
    military support
  • Conflicting claims 40 different Armenian
    groups, Palestine, Kurdistan Proposed map of
    Kurdistan http//www.cool.mb.ca/kakel/kurdistan.h
  • Map of current Kurdish population distribution
  • Note the similarity of Population distribution
    and proposed state.

Map of proposed Kurdish state
Kurdish Population Distribution
The Post War Settlement Process Problem of
Expectations vs. Reality
  • E. Past diplomatic practices
  • Previous British deals with the coastal Arabian
    Skeikhs allowed for a level of autonomy with a
    political and military alliance

The Post War Settlement Process Problem of
Expectations vs Reality
  • F. The King Crane Commission (June to August
    1919) http//www.hri.org/docs/king-crane/
  • Investigatory committee whose mandate was to
    study the people and the situation of the Eastern
    part of the Ottoman Empire and make
    recommendation to the League of Nations.
  • Europeans boycotted the commission leaded by two
  • Focused primarily on the areas to be controlled
    by the French
  • Meet exclusively with member of the elite class,
    stayed only six weeks.

The Post War Settlement Process Problem of
Expectations vs Reality
  • King Crane Commissions report
  • Found overwhelming majority of inhabitants did
    not want a mandate system
  • Conformed closely to the boundaries of the
    Sykes-Picot agreement
  • Emphasized the possibility of the Arab self
    government in the near future
  • Assumed that there would be a mandate system
    imposed, focused on what shape it should take
  • Widespread opposition to Zionism and the Jewish
  • in Palestine. The majority of the inhabitants,
    both Moslems and Christians, opposed the
    usurpation of their homeland, and preferred
    either independence or unity with Greater Syria
  • Desire for large single mandate rather than
    smaller mandate units
  • Emir Feisal as the most popular leader for the
    Syria state/mandate

The Post War Settlement Process Problem of
Expectations vs Reality
  • King Crane Commissions report
  • Implementation
  • Memo written to Wilson before the trip the
    Syrian mandate should go to France not on the
    primary desires of the people, but on the
    international need of preserving friendly
    relations between France and Great Britain.
  • Report was simply forgotten

Post War Settlement Reality
  • A. Paris Peace Conference
  • Faisal given a 20 minute audience
  • USA/Wilson removed from the process
  • Russia excluded due to the revolution
  • Britain and France set the agenda
  • Two year process drawn out process that in the
    end confirms the reality on the ground
  • Division of territory between France and Britain
  • Creation of modern territories of the Middle East

Post War Settlement Reality
Compare the two maps
  • E. Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916

  • B. The Mandate System and Article 22 of the
    Covenant of the League of Nations
  • White Mans Burden mentally
  • which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to
    stand by themselves under the strenuous
    conditions of the modern world, there should be
    applied the principle that the well-being and
    development of such peoples form a sacred trust
    of civilisation and that securities for the
    performance of this trust should be embodied in
    this Covenant.
  • entrusted to advanced nations who by reason of
    their resources, their experience or their
    geographical position can best undertake this
    responsibility, and who are willing to accept

Mandate system
  • Three types
  • Class A Mandatory was to give advice and
    assistance with the goal of self government. All
    of the Middle East mandates were class A.
  • Class B Mandatory must be responsible for the
    administration of the territory
  • Class C best administered under the laws of
    the Mandatory as integral portions of its
  • Class A mandates were legally veiwed as
    tempopary entities. Mandatory governments were
    required to report on their progress to self
    government on an annual basis

Reality White Mans Burden
  • Take up the White Man's burden--
  • Send forth the best ye breed--
  • Go, bind your sons to exile
  • To serve your captives' need
  • To wait, in heavy harness,
  • On fluttered folk and wild--
  • Your new-caught sullen peoples,
  • Half devil and half child.
  • Take up the White Man's burden--
  • In patience to abide,
  • To veil the threat of terror
  • And check the show of pride
  • By open speech and simple,
  • An hundred times made plain,
  • To seek another's profit
  • And work another's gain.

Reality White mans burden
  • Take up the White Man's burden--
  • The savage wars of peace--
  • Fill full the mouth of Famine,
  • And bid the sickness cease
  • And when your goal is nearest
  • (The end for others sought)
  • Watch sloth and heathen folly
  • Bring all your hope to nought.
  • Take up the White Man's burden--
  • No iron rule of kings,
  • But toil of serf and sweeper--
  • The tale of common things

Reality White Mans Burden
  • Take up the White Man's burden--
  • Ye dare not stoop to less--
  • Nor call too loud on Freedom
  • To cloak your weariness.
  • By all ye will or whisper,
  • By all ye leave or do,
  • The silent sullen peoples
  • Shall weigh your God and you.

  • B. The Mandate System and Article 22 of the
    Covenant of the League of Nations cont.
  • Not control just advice
  • Certain communities formerly belonging to the
    Turkish Empire will be given administrative
    advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such
    time as they are able to stand alone.
  • When will they be ready?
  • To be determined by Mandatories on behalf of the

  • B. The Mandate System and Article 22 of the
    Covenant of the League of Nations cont.
  • Historical Interpretations
  • The Arab world was the great loot of the war
  • Imperialism with a new name Gelvin writes,
    sought to consolidate and guarantee those
    imperialist interests within the framework of
    the new international order.
  • Long-term plan to create weak states that are
    easy to dominate
  • Genuine desire to promote self-government and
    provide a smooth transition to a radically new
    situation. Stability and economic opportunities
    are related and greater chaos did exist.
  • mandate system for colonies became Trustee
    System of the United Nations

(No Transcript)
  • C. San Remo Agreement (April 18, 1920)
  • Agreement http//www.lib.byu.edu/rdh/wwi/1918p/s
  • Territorial agreements
  • Growing revolts, high financial costs, low troop
    moral emphasized the need for the Europeans to
    quickly settle their territorial disputes.
  • British in the strongest bargaining position
    because of the presence of troops already.
    Estimated 3 million soldiers in the region
  • Stresses that the Arab territories were not yet
    prepared to govern themselves and would be guided
    by European powers during an unspecified length
    transitional period
  • Creates the mandate system which transfers all
    administrative powers to the British and the

  • D. Treaty of Sevres (Oct 10, 1920)
  • Treaty http//www.lib.byu.edu/rdh/wwi/versa/sevr
  • Agreed to by remnants of the collapsed Ottoman
    Empire a formalization of the Armistice of
    Mudros which ended the fighting of WW1
  • Extremely limited sovereignty and the division of
    most of its territory among the victorious
  • Only one third of Anatolia remained free of
    direct occupation
  • Creation of autonomous countries of Kurdistan and
    Armenia with international assistance with
    their formation.
  • Ottoman ceded their claim to Arab by recognizing
    San Remo agreement and the Hashemite Kingdom of
    the Hijaz.
  • Article 6 states the British commitment to the
    establishment of Jews in close settlement in
    Palestine but Article 26 states the right to
    postpone or withhold application of this
    provision depending on local conditions.

Peace Treaty? Conditions for a just and lasting
  • Both sides must agree to terms
  • Violence must end
  • Respect for core values
  • Support of a critical mass of the population
  • A leadership that promotes the new peace
  • Forgiveness and trust building
  • Some form of compromise and power sharing between
    disputing parties
  • Ability to enforce (security etc)

  • Read pages 175 -178
  • Provide examples and determine the extent in what
    each of the conditions of peace were meet.
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