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1. Rapid urbanization and resource-intensive economic growth have become large-scale biogeophysical forces on earth.

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Title: 1. Rapid urbanization and resource-intensive economic growth have become large-scale biogeophysical forces on earth.


1
1. Rapid urbanization and resource-intensive
economic growth have become large-scale
biogeophysical forces on earth.
2
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3
Week 1 Readings
  • Costanza, R., R. d'Arge, et al. (1997). "The
    value of the world's ecosystem services and
    natural capital." NATURE 387 253-260.
    http//www.esd.ornl.gov/benefits_conference/nature
    _paper.pdf
  • Naidoo, R., Balmford, A., Costanza, R., Fisher,
    B., Green, R. E., Lehner, B., Malcolm, T. R. and
    Ricketts, T. H. (2008) "Global mapping of
    ecosystem services and conservation priorities."
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,
    105, 9495-9500.
  • Staff of World Resources Program (2001) Wasting
    the Material World The Impact of Industrial
    Economies. Updated material from World Resources
    1998-99 excerpts from Resource Flows The
    Material Basis of Industrial Economies and The
    Weight of Nations Material Outflows from
    Industrial Economies. World Resources Institute.
    http//earthtrends.wri.org/pdf_library/feature/ene
    _fea_materials_complete.pdf.
  • United Nations Human Settlements Programme
    (2006). The State of the World's Cities
    2006/2007 The Millennium Development Goals and
    Urban Sustainability, 30 Years of Shaping the
    Habitat Agenda. Sterling, Va., Earthscan.
    Overview 1.1-1.2.
  • Wackernagel, Mathis, Niels B. Schulz, Diana
    Deumling, Alejandro Callejas Linares, Martin
    Jenkins, Valerie Kapos, Chad Monfreda, Jonathan
    Loh, Norman Myers, Richard Norgaard and Jorgen
    Randers. 2002. "Tracking the ecological overshoot
    of the human economy." PNAS 999266-9271.

4
FOUR FEATURES OF GLOBALIZATION
  • No matter what political perspective colors one's
    analysis, the past half-century of globalization
    can be viewed as having four fundamental
    features.

5
  • (1) Globalization is dynamic. Over the past 200
    years, periods of rapid growth as well as periods
    of decline, crisis and restructuring across
    micro, meso and macro scales have characterized
    world development.
  • (2) Globalization increases functional
    integration of the world economy, along with
    deepening international flows of people, culture,
    information, social and human capital.
  • (3) Globalization is an uneven process. The costs
    and benefits of development are unequally
    distributed.
  • (4) Globalization is an ecological process as
    well as a socio-economic and political process.
    As the world's growing economy draws more and
    more of the earths total ecosystem into itself,
    concern about the sustainability of planetary
    economic-ecological transactions is rising.

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The National Academies National Academy of
Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute
of Medicine National Research Council Calls for
the development of Integrative Science,
science committed to bridging barriers that
separate traditional modes of inquiry.
8
Identifies four interlocked, components of
sustainability science Highlights the REGION as
the most amenable geographic scale for
integrating theory and practice
Source National Research Council (1999) Our
Common Journey A Transition Toward
Sustainability.
9
  • Emphasis on sustainability puts
    Environment-Development interdependencies in a
    new light.
  • from D? E (1960s-1980s)
  • to E ? D (1980s-2000)

10
Week 1 OverviewHuman Activity is significantly
altering many of the planets life support
systems and material cycles including the
atmospheric system and the carbon, nitrogen,
sulpher, biologic and hydrologic cycles. There
has been a five-fold increase in the scale of
human economic activity in the post-WWII period.
A recent study of Germany, Japan, the
Netherlands, and the US documents the immense
volume of natural resources required to run a
developed economy it is in the range of 45 to 85
metric tons of material per person each year
(Staff of World Resources Program, 2001 1). Much
of this material flowincluding mine tailings,
eroded soil, logging debris, and excavated earth
and rockdoes not end up in final products, nor
does it ever enter into public view. We will
refer to these as "invisible flows" in class.
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Tire Piles
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http//www.urbanworldsystem.org/index.php/study_gu
ide/apple/
15
1. Think of the earth as an apple./ Slice an
apple into quarters and set aside three of the
quarters. These three pieces represent the oceans
of the world. The fourth quarter roughly
represents the globe's total land area.
16
2. Slice this "land" in half. Set aside one of
the pieces. The portion set aside represents the
land area that is inhospitable to people (e.g.,
the polar areas, deserts, wetlands, very high or
rocky mountains). The piece that is left is land
where people live, but do not necessarily grow
the foods needed for life.
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3. Slice the 1/8 piece into four sections and set
aside three of these. The 3/32 fraction set aside
represent those areas too rocky, wet, cold,
steep, infertile to actually produce food. They
also contain the cities, suburban sprawl,
highways, shopping centers, schools, parks,
factories, parking lots, and other places where
people live, but don't grow food.4. Carefully
peel the 1/32 slice of the apple. This tiny bit
of peeling represents our arable land, the land
upon which we depend for our food. Estimates
suggest that we loose 25 billion tons of precious
topsoil each year from erosion, yet we must feed
an additional 71 million people each year on this
diminishing resource.
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  • WATER¾ - Water1/8 - Food-Producing Areas3/32 -
    Coastal Areas1/32 - N. American Pacific
    Coastline world's most productive ocean
    region1/32 Peel - Photic Zone top 100 meters,
    habitat of most marine lifeSliver of Peel -
    Freshwater only .003 of all Earth's water (only
    3/100 of 1 of all the earth water is fresh)

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http//www.millenniumassessment.org/en/About.aspx

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  • Where We Stand Today Environmentally (WDR 2003)
  • Air choking pollution (PM 10) in many
    developing country cities is multiples of WHO
    standards emissions from fossil fuels have
    breached the biospheres CO2 absortive capacity.
  • Water evaporating 33 of people live in
    countries experiencing moderate to high water
    shortages and this percentage is increasing.
  • Soil degrading 23 of agricultural land
    (cropland, pasture, and woodland) worldwide has
    been degraded - - 39 lightly 46 moderately
    and 16 severely.
  • Biodiversity disappearing - 33 of terrestrial
    biodiversity is in hotspots (at risk), covering
    1.4 of earths surface.
  • Fisheries declining - 70 of world fisheries
    fully or over exploited, 58 of coral reefs
    destroyed, critical or threatened
  • Forests being cut - 20 of tropical forests have
    been cleared since 1960.
  • These patterns of degrading or depleting
    environmental stocks cannot be repeated.

21
The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL)
22
From Robert Costanza, et al. (1997). The value
of the worlds ecosystem services and natural
capital. NATURE. Vol 387 253-260. The authors
estimate the current economic value of 17
ecosystem services for 16 biomes, for the entire
biosphere, to be in the range of US1654
trillion per year, with an average of US33
trillion per year. Global gross national product
total is around US18 trillion per year.
23
Source Adapted from R. Costanza et al., "The
Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and
Natural Capital," Nature, Vol. 387 (1997), p.
256, Table 2.
24
Wackernagel, Mathis, Niels B. Schulz, Diana
Deumling, Alejandro Callejas Linares, Martin
Jenkins, Valerie Kapos, Chad Monfreda, Jonathan
Loh, Norman Myers, Richard Norgaard and Jorgen
Randers. 2002. "Tracking the ecological overshoot
of the human economy." PNAS 999266-9271.
25
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26
  • United Nations Human Settlements Programme
    (2006). The State of the World's Cities
    2006/2007 The Millennium Development Goals and
    Urban Sustainability, 30 Years of Shaping the
    Habitat Agenda. Sterling, Va., Earthscan.
    Foreword, Introduction, Overview 1.1-1.2.
  • Foreword (1-foreword.pdf)Introduction
    (2-introduction.pdf)
  • 1.1. "City-zens" of the World Urban Trends in
    the 21st Century1.2. Putting Slums on the Map"
    A Global and Regional Overview Urbanization A
    Turning Point in History, 3-urban_turning
    point.pdfMega and Meta Cities, New City States?
    4-urban_megacities.pdfSlums Some Definitions,
    7-slums-definitions.pdfSlums Past, Present and
    Future, 6-Slums_past.pdf
  • Link to UN Millennium Development Goals
    http//www.un.org/millenniumgoals/
  • The Millennium Declaration was adopted by Member
    States of the United Nations in September 2000.
    It contains eight Millennium Development Goals
    (MDGs), ranging from eradicating extreme poverty
    to combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
    diseases.
  • The MDGs detail out 18 specific development
    targets, each of which has a target figure, a
    time frame, and indicators designed to monitor
    the extent to which the target has been achieved.
  • United Nations Inter-Agency and Expert Group on
    the Millennium Development Goals Indicators and
    United Nations Millennium Indicators Database
    http//millenniumindicators.un.org

27
Some of the major urbanisation trends in the 21st
century highlighted in the UN-Habitat 2006/2007
report include
  • By 2030
  • There will be 5 billion people living in cities
  • Cities of the developing world will account for
    95 of urban expansion in the next two decades
    and by 2030 will be home to 80 of the worlds
    urban population (4 billion people).
  • Sub-Saharan Africa has the worlds highest
    annual urban growth rate (4.58) and highest slum
    growth rate (4.53).
  • Over half the worlds urban population will be
    living in Asia (2.66 billion)

28
Slums Some Definitions
  • UN-HABITAT defines a slum household as a group of
    individuals living under the same roof in an
    urban area who lack one or more of the following
  • 1. Durable housing of a permanent nature that
    protects against extreme climate conditions.
  • 2. Sufficient living space which means not more
    than three people sharing the same room.
  • 3. Easy access to safe water in sufficient
    amounts at an affordable price.
  • 4. Access to adequate sanitation in the form of a
    private or public toilet shared by a reasonable
    number of people.
  • 5. Security of tenure that prevents forced
    evictions.

29
Slums Neither Bricks nor Mortar, Non-Durable
Housing
  • Worldwide, 18 of all urban housing units (some
    125 million units) are non-permanent structures
    and at least 25 of all housing (175 million
    houses) does not meet urban construction codes.
    This figure, in reality, is probably much higher.
  • For every 10 non-permanent houses in the cities
    of developing countries, 3 or 4 are located in
    areas prone to floods, landslides, hurricanes and
    earthquakes.
  • More than 10 of the urban population in
    Sub-Saharan Africa lives in non-durable housing.
  • But in North Africa, 99 of the total urban
    population lived in durable houses in 2003.

30
UN Millennium Development Goals
  • http//www.un.org/millenniumgoals/
  • The Millennium Declaration was adopted by Member
    States of the United Nations in September 2000.
    It contains eight Millennium Development Goals
    (MDGs), ranging from eradicating extreme poverty
    to combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
    diseases.
  • The MDGs detail 18 specific development targets,
    each of which has a target figure, a time frame,
    and indicators designed to monitor the extent to
    which the target has been achieved.

31
UN Millennium Development Goals
  • Goal 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  • Goal 2 Achieve universal primary education
  • Goal 3 Promote gender equality and empower women
  • Goal 4 Reduce child mortality
  • Goal 5 Improve maternal health
  • Goal 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
    diseases
  • Goal 7 Ensure environmental sustainability
  • Goal 8 Develop a Global Partnership for
    Development

32
Global Facts and Figures (UN Habitat 2006)
  • The year 2007 marks a turning point in history.
    One out of every two people will be living in a
    city.
  • Between 2005 and 2030, the worlds urban
    population is expected to grow at an average
    annual rate of 1.78 percent, almost twice the
    growth rate of the worlds total population
  • By 2030 there will be 5 billion people living in
    cities
  • Cities of the developing world will account for
    95 of urban expansion in the next two decades
    and by 2030 will be home to 80 of the worlds
    urban population (4 billion people).
  • One out of every three city dwellers lives in
    slum conditions.
  • More than 53 per cent of the worlds urban
    population lives in cities of fewer than 500,000
    inhabitants, and another 22 per cent of the
    global urban population lives in cities of 1 to 5
    million inhabitants.
  • By 2020, Mumbai, Delhi, Mexico City, Sao Paulo,
    New York, Dhaka, Jakarta and Lagos all will have
    achieved metacity status.
  • The vast majority of slums, more than 90 per
    cent, are located in cities of the developing
    world, where urbanization has become virtually
    synonymous with slum formation.

33
Urbanization Process
  • Three important trends characterize the
    urbanization process in this new urban era
  • The biggest cities in the world metacities will
    be found mainly in the developing world, having
    profound environmental impacts.
  • Despite the emergence of metacities, the majority
    of urban migrants will be moving to small towns
    and cities of less than a million inhabitants.
    These intermediate cities are predicted to grow
    at a faster rate than any other type of city. The
    relative absence of infrastructure such as roads,
    water supply, and communication facilities, in
    many small and intermediate-sized cities make
    these cities less competitive locally, nationally
    and regionally, and leads to a lower quality of
    life for their citizens.
  • Cities of the developing world will absorb 95
    percent of urban growth in the next two decades,
    and by 2030, will be home to almost 4 billion
    people, or 80 percent of the worlds urban
    population.

34
Urbanization Process (cont.)
  • Informal-or illegal-growth has become the most
    common form of housing production in the
    developing world.
  • Improved infrastructure between rural areas and
    cities increase rural production and enhances
    rural residences access to education,
    healthcare, markets, credit, information and
    other services. Enhanced urban-rural linkages
    also benefit cities through increased rural
    demand for urban goods and services and added
    value derived from agricultural produce
  • Key ingredients for sustainable urban
    development
  • Inclusive and visionary urban planning and
    governance that includes slum upgrading and
    prevention.
  • Pro-poor urban development policies that expand
    and improve opportunities for employment
  • Experts have described the unprecedented rise in
    the number of evictions (6.7 million people in 60
    counties between 2000 and 2002) as a global
    epidemic. This can be attributed to a variety of
    factors including globalization, which is putting
    pressure on national and local governments to
    beautify or clean-up their cities in order to
    become more competitive in the global economy.
  • Metacities are defined as massive conurbations of
    more than 20 million people above and beyond
    megacities that will be found mainly in the
    developing world. They are currently gaining
    ground in Asia Latin America and Africa and are
    expected to cause significant environmental
    impacts. Also called hypercities, they gradually
    swallow up rural areas, cities and towns,
    becoming multi-nuclear entities counted as one.

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