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Internationalism, Multiculturalism, and Global Collaboration in 21st-Century Higher Education

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INTERNATIONALISM, MULTICULTURALISM, AND GLOBAL COLLABORATION IN 21ST-CENTURY HIGHER EDUCATION H. Stephen Straight, Professor of Anthropology and of Linguistics and – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Internationalism, Multiculturalism, and Global Collaboration in 21st-Century Higher Education


1
Internationalism, Multiculturalism, and Global
Collaboration in 21st-Century Higher Education
  • H. Stephen Straight, Professor of Anthropology
    and of Linguistics and
  • Senior Adviser for International Initiatives,
    Binghamton University
  • Tenth Annual Fall Research and Creativity Forum
  • Buffalo State College, 29 October 2009

2
1905-1995
3
J. William Fulbright
  • We must try and expand the boundaries of human
    wisdom, empathy, and perception,

4
J. William Fulbright
  • We must try and expand the boundaries of human
    wisdom, empathy, and perception,
  • and there is no way of doing that except through
    education.

5
Outline of Todays Talk
  • Part One The Global Context for Higher Education
    in the 21st Century
  • Global Megatrends
  • Critical Issues
  • Global Trends in Higher Education
  • Part Two Internationalization, Multiculturalism,
    and Global Collaboration in 21st-Century Higher
    Education
  • Is Internationalism the Enemy of
    Multiculturalism?
  • Language as a Key Variable in Curricular
    Internationalization
  • Internationalization and Collaboration as Key
    Ingredients in 21st Century Higher Education

6
The Global Context for Higher Education in the
21st Century
  • Global Megatrends and Associated Student Learning
    Outcomes
  • Critical Issues and Associated Student Learning
    Outcomes
  • Global Trends in Higher Education and U.S.
    Institutional Responses

7
The Recognized Imperative
  • It is important that our country prepare our
    young people for the challenges of competing in
    an increasingly globalized marketplace. America
    will be served well by taking steps to ensure our
    students the future leaders of our nation
    have a higher level of foreign language
    proficiency and international and cultural
    knowledge.
  • Roger Wicker (R-MS), co-sponsor (with Dick
    Durbin, D-IL) of the Paul Simon Study Abroad
    Foundation Act
  • http//durbin.senate.gov/showRelease.cfm?releaseId
    308696

8
The Rise of Asia
9
Global Megatrends and Associated Student Learning
Outcomes
  • Rise of Asia
  • Acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes
    regarding Chinese, Indian, and other cultures and
    languages of Pan-Asia (including Russia and
    Turkey),
  • while also broadening and strengthening study of
    all of the worlds cultures and languages.
  • Newly confirmed Under Secretary of State for
    Public Diplomacy Judith McHale has already stated
    that we need to go beyond traditional
    government-to-government diplomacy and seek
    innovative ways to communicate and engage
    directly with foreign publics.
  • Titles in red correspond to items drawn from a
    November 2008 presentation by Dr. JoAnn McCarthy,
    noted international educator, to which I
    responded with the points herein.

10
The Impact of Globalization
11
Global Megatrends and Associated Student Learning
Outcomes
  • Rise of Asia
  • Acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes
    regarding Chinese, Indian, and other cultures and
    languages of Pan-Asia while also broadening and
    strengthening study of all of the worlds
    cultures and languages.
  • Impact of globalization
  • Explore the ecological and sociocultural as well
    as economic effects of a fully globalized world,
    which is
  • spiky (Richard Florida)with peaks, hills, and
    valleys,
  • Post-American (Fareed Zakaria), and
  • hot, flat, crowded (Thomas Friedman).

12
Challenges to Governance
13
Global Megatrends and Associated Student Learning
Outcomes
  • Rise of Asia
  • Acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes
    regarding Chinese, Indian, and other cultures and
    languages of Asia.
  • Impact of globalization
  • Explore the ecological and sociocultural as well
    as economic effects of the new spiky (Florida),
    Post-American (Zakaria), hot, flat, crowded
    (Friedman) world.
  • Challenges to governance
  • Understand the role of nation-states of varied
    political types (democracies, monarchies,
    plutocracies, theocracies) in creating world
    problems
  • and the role of transnational movements to
    counteract (or sometimes exacerbate) their
    inadequacies and abuses.

14
Global Megatrends and Associated Student Learning
Outcomes
  • Rise of Asia
  • Acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes
    regarding Chinese, Indian, and other cultures and
    languages of Asia.
  • Impact of globalization
  • Explore the ecological and sociocultural as well
    as economic effects of the new spiky (Florida),
    Post-American (Zakaria), hot, flat, crowded
    (Friedman) world.
  • Challenges to governance
  • Understand the role of nation-states of varied
    political types in creating world problems and
    the role of transnational movements to counteract
    (or sometimes exacerbate) their inadequacies and
    abuses.
  • Pervasive economic, political, and cultural
    insecurity
  • exacerbated by global disparities in income and
    access
  • Study
  • the history of industrial development and
  • its transformation in the age of multinational
    corporations
  • and worldwide technological transfer
  • along with unstoppable and growing global
    interdependencies.

15
Global Megatrends and Associated Student Learning
Outcomes
  • Rise of Asia
  • Acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes
    regarding Chinese, Indian, and other cultures and
    languages of Asia.
  • Impact of globalization
  • Explore the ecological and sociocultural as well
    as economic effects of the new spiky (Florida),
    Post-American (Zakaria), hot, flat, crowded
    (Friedman) world.
  • Challenges to governance
  • Understand the role of nation-states of varied
    political types in creating world problems and
    the role of transnational movements to counteract
    (or sometimes exacerbate) their inadequacies and
    abuses.
  • Pervasive economic, political, and cultural
    insecurity exacerbated by global disparities in
    income and access
  • Study industrial development and worldwide
    technological transfer
  • along with unstoppable and growing global
    interdependencies.
  • The global knowledge-based economy
  • Analyze the shift toward science and technology
    and intercultural understanding (i.e.
    knowledge) as the primary products of human
    labor.

16
Critical Issues
17
Critical Issues and Associated Student Learning
Outcomes
  • Environmental degradation
  • Study the causes and possible treatments of same.
  • Consider adopting Friedmans Code Green
    solution.
  • Armageddon was yesterdaytoday we have a serious
    problem.

18
Critical Issues and Associated Student Learning
Outcomes
  • Environmental degradation
  • Study the causes and possible treatments of same.
  • Consider adopting Friedmans Code Green
    solution.
  • Rapid urbanization and the need for
    infrastructure
  • Survey this global crisis and ways to overcome it.

19
Critical Issues and Associated Student Learning
Outcomes
  • Environmental degradation
  • Study the causes and possible treatments of same.
  • Consider adopting Friedmans Code Green
    solution.
  • Rapid urbanization and the need for
    infrastructure
  • Survey this global crisis and ways to overcome
    it.
  • Literacy and access to education
  • Enhance, sometimes by means of service-learning
    (highlighted in NAFSAs March 2009 position
    statement), this essential ingredient to deal
    with many of the other issues at hand.

20
Critical Issues and Associated Student Learning
Outcomes
  • Environmental degradation
  • Study the causes and possible treatments of same.
  • Consider adopting Friedmans Code Green
    solution.
  • Rapid urbanization and the need for
    infrastructure
  • Survey this global crisis and ways to overcome
    it.
  • Literacy and access to education
  • Enhance, sometimes by means of service-learning
    (highli.ghted in NAFSAs March 2009 position
    statement), this essential ingredient to deal
    with many of the other issues at hand.
  • Aging populations
  • Explore ways to keep economic advances from
    leading inexorably to the enslavement and
    impoverishment of the young by the old.

21
Critical Issues and Associated Student Learning
Outcomes
  • Environmental degradation
  • Study the causes and possible treatments of same.
  • Consider adopting Friedmans Code Green
    solution.
  • Rapid urbanization and the need for
    infrastructure
  • Survey this global crisis and ways to overcome
    it.
  • Literacy and access to education
  • Enhance, sometimes by means of service-learning
    (highlighted in NAFSAs March 2009 position
    statement), this essential ingredient to deal
    with many of the other issues at hand.
  • Aging populations
  • Explore ways to keep economic advances from
    leading inexorably to the enslavement and
    impoverishment of the young by the old.
  • Global health issues
  • Identify ways in which preventive health care and
    improved nutrition can complement treatment and
    quarantine in the interest of global health.
  • An example wipe out malaria before 2012!

22
Global Trends in Higher Education and U.S.
Institutional Responses
  • Shifting Demand and Capacity
  • Recruit international students,
  • engage in exchange and study abroad, and
  • establish international joint- and dual-degree
    programs.
  • On 20 May 2009 the House Foreign Affairs
    Committee approved the Foreign Relations
    Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 2010 and 2011
    (H.R. 2410), which includes
  • establishment of the Senator Paul Simon Study
    Abroad Foundation and
  • a major increase to the Peace Corps budget to
    support President Obamas goal of doubling the
    number of Peace Corps volunteers.
  • Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, in her
    commencement address at NYU, said that study
    abroad is like spring training for this century.

23
Global Trends in Higher Education and U.S.
Institutional Responses
  • Shifting Demand and Capacity
  • Recruit international students, engage in
    exchange and study abroad, and establish
    international joint- and dual-degree programs.
  • Widening Gap Between Developing and Developed
    Nations
  • Seek ways to support students and faculty from
    developing nations
  • First by means of ubiquitous Internet
    connectivity and then by means of F2F
    collaboration.
  • Secretary of State Hillary Clintons NYU
    commencement speech included mention of a
    Virtual Student Foreign Servicedetails to
    follow.

24
Global Trends in Higher Education and U.S.
Institutional Responses
  • Shifting Demand and Capacity
  • Recruit international students, engage in
    exchange and study abroad, and establish
    international joint- and dual-degree programs.
  • Widening Gap Between Developing and Developed
    Nations
  • Seek ways to support students and faculty from
    developing nations
  • First by means of ubiquitous Internet
    connectivity and then by means of F2F
    collaboration.
  • Explosion of Knowledge
  • Move toward e-publication and away from
    (expensive, slow-moving) print.
  • Make scholarship available everywhere and at low
    cost, and redefine its contents.

25
Global Trends in Higher Education and U.S.
Institutional Responses
  • Shifting Demand and Capacity
  • Recruit international students, engage in
    exchange and study abroad, and establish
    international joint- and dual-degree programs.
  • Widening Gap Between Developing and Developed
    Nations
  • Seek ways to support students and faculty from
    developing nations
  • First by means of ubiquitous Internet
    connectivity and then by means of F2F
    collaboration.
  • Explosion of Knowledge
  • Move toward e-publication and away from
    (expensive, slow-moving) print.
  • Make scholarship available everywhere and at low
    cost, and redefine its contents.
  • Lifelong Learning
  • See above two items.

26
Global Trends in Higher Education and U.S.
Institutional Responses
  • Shifting Demand and Capacity
  • Recruit international students, engage in
    exchange and study abroad, and establish
    international joint- and dual-degree programs.
  • Widening Gap Between Developing and Developed
    Nations
  • Seek ways to support students and faculty from
    developing nations
  • First by means of ubiquitous Internet
    connectivity and then by means of F2F
    collaboration.
  • Explosion of Knowledge
  • Move toward e-publication and away from
    (expensive, slow-moving) print.
  • Make scholarship available everywhere and at low
    cost, and redefine its contents.
  • Lifelong Learning
  • See above two items.
  • Anglicization
  • Let English become a world possession, with full
    acceptance that native speakers no longer control
    it (TOEFL beware!).
  • Support study and use of national and indigenous
    languages to benefit from the worlds diverse
    cultural traditions.

27
Global Trends in Higher Education and U.S.
Institutional Responses
  • Shifting Demand and Capacity
  • Recruit international students, engage in
    exchange and study abroad, and establish
    international joint- and dual-degree programs.
  • Widening Gap Between Developing and Developed
    Nations
  • Seek ways to support students and faculty from
    developing nations
  • First by means of ubiquitous Internet
    connectivity and then by means of F2F
    collaboration.
  • Explosion of Knowledge
  • Move toward e-publication and away from
    (expensive, slow-moving) print.
  • Make scholarship available everywhere and at low
    cost, and redefine its contents.
  • Lifelong Learning
  • See above two items.
  • Anglicization
  • Let English become a world possession, with full
    acceptance that native speakers no longer control
    it (TOEFL beware!).
  • Support study and use of national and indigenous
    languages to benefit from the worlds diverse
    cultural traditions.
  • Americanization
  • Make this a multi-connective, interactive
    process, as it has historically been, and we may
    all benefit.
  • Americans may be forced to live up to their
    professed ideals.

28
Global Trends in Higher Education and U.S.
Institutional Responses
  • Shifting Demand and Capacity
  • Recruit international students, engage in
    exchange and study abroad, and establish
    international joint- and dual-degree programs.
  • Widening Gap Between Developing and Developed
    Nations
  • Seek ways to support students and faculty from
    developing nations
  • First by means of ubiquitous Internet
    connectivity and then by means of F2F
    collaboration.
  • Explosion of Knowledge
  • Move toward e-publication and away from
    (expensive, slow-moving) print.
  • Make scholarship available everywhere and at low
    cost, and redefine its contents.
  • Lifelong Learning
  • See above two items.
  • Anglicization
  • Let English become a world possession, with full
    acceptance that native speakers no longer control
    it (TOEFL beware!).
  • Support study and use of national and indigenous
    languages to benefit from the worlds diverse
    cultural traditions.
  • Americanization
  • Make this a multi-connective, interactive
    process, as it has historically been, and we may
    all benefit.
  • Americans may be forced to live up to their
    professed ideals.
  • Multinationalization, Privatization, and
    For-Profit Enterprises
  • Fine, as long as the plebians fare as well as the
    plutocrats
  • Enlightened self-interest has yet to realize its
    full potential among the wealthy elites. (Read
    Currently, Greed Rules!)

29
Part One What Ive Talked About So Far
  • Global Megatrends and Associated Student Learning
    Outcomes
  • Critical Issues and Associated Student Learning
    Outcomes
  • Global Trends in Higher Education and U.S.
    Institutional Responses

30
Part Two Internationalism, Multiculturalism,
Collaboration
  • Is Internationalism the Enemy of
    Multiculturalism?
  • Language as a Key Variable in Curricular
    Internationalization
  • Internationalization and Collaboration as Key
    Ingredients in 21st Century Higher Education

31
Is Internationalism the Enemy of Multiculturalism?
  • Complaint
  • Curricular internationalization can lead some to
    view white bourgeois monocultural identity as the
    norm for the U.S. in contrast to the (often
    equally monoculturally defined) identities of the
    inhabitants of the other nations of the world.
  • Globalization is sometimes viewed as an unalloyed
    good.
  • Internationalization is sometimes seen primarily
    through the plutocratic and militaristic lenses
    of economic competitiveness and international
    security.
  • These complaints have spurred the American
    Council on Education to give increasingly close
    attention to the potential divide between
    internationalism and multiculturalism.
  • The Bridging the Gap Symposium in 2008 and
  • The At Home in the World Institute in 2009.

32
Is Internationalism the Enemy of Multiculturalism?
  • Solution
  • Recognize that multiculturalism is global (and
    ubiquitous) and that internationalism is local
    (and enriching).
  • Multicultural societies are in fact common around
    the world they typically include
  • Dispossessed indigenous people and
  • Oppressed ethnic and racial minorities (or even
    majorities!).
  • Global multicultural diversity results in the
    need for
  • Close study of past, present, and future global
    migration and international relations, and
  • Shared international struggle for social and
    economic justice in multicultural societies.
  • Internationalism can thus be an ally and even a
    beneficiary rather than an enemy of
    multiculturalism.

33
Part Two
  • Is Internationalism the Enemy of
    Multiculturalism?
  • Answer Not at all!
  • Language as a Key Variable in Curricular
    Internationalization
  • The Global Rise of English
  • Language Study in U.S. Higher Education
  • Cultures and Languages Across the Curriculum
    (CLAC)

34
Fareed Zakaria, Author of The Post-American
World (2008)
35
The Global Rise of English Hegemonic or
Pragmatic?
  • This year an estimated 200 million Chinese will
    be studying English in school, but only 50,000
    Americans will be studying Chinese.
  • At the rate theyre going in 20 years there will
    be more second-language speakers of English in
    China than first-language speakers in the rest of
    the worlda situation that is already true in
    India.

36
But English Only wont do!
  • Universities dont think globally its not
    ingrained in their philosophy and curriculum to
    create the global worker.
  • Respondent to RAND Corporation Survey
  • We had terrific situational awareness what we
    lacked was cultural awareness.
  • General David Petraeus
  • CED recommends that international content be
    taught across the curriculum and at all levels of
    learning
  • Committee for Economic Development report, 2006

37
U.S. language skills largely lacking
  • A recent RAND Corporation survey of sixteen of
    the worlds largest global corporations found
    most of them to be highly critical of U.S.
    college graduates skills in languages other than
    English.
  • One marketing manager referred to them as
    linguistically deprived.
  • The Committee for Economic Development estimates
    that U.S. companies lose 2 billion a year
    because of employees inadequate language skills
    and poor cultural competence.

38
CED, 2006
  • CED believes that the international studies and
    foreign language of all of our students must be
    strengthened to prepare todays students to
    become tomorrows global leaders.
  •  
  • Committee for Economic Development, 2006

39
paucity of language study and use in U.S. higher
education
  • Little diversity in languages offered
  • Decline of The Big Two (French and German)
  • Hegemony of The Big One (Spanish)
  • Rise of LCTLs (Less Commonly Taught Languages)
  • Low enrollments (esp. in LOTS languages other
    than Spanish)
  • Upshot American college graduates typically
    possess less skill in a LOTE than they did when
    they were admitted.
  • Limited variety of specialized disciplinary
    expertise in LOTEs, even at graduate level

40
Cultures and Languages Across the Curriculum
(CLAC)
  • Emphasizes cultural content even in supposedly
    universal disciplines (i.e., disciplines
    allegedly free of cultural content, such as
    sciences engineering).
  • Helps students identify cultural content within
    all disciplines and develop essential
    cross-cultural interpretive skills.
  • Instills appreciation of differing cultural
    perspectives, interdependencies among all nations
    and regions, and issues of long-term
    sustainability of proposed solutions.
  • Fosters commitment to responsible global
    citizenship.
  • Introduces flexible cross-cultural navigation
    strategies.
  • First, seek to understand then, seek to be
    understood (Stephen Covey).

41
CLAC General Principles
  • Focus on communication, not grammar.
  • Emphasize meaningful use, not language
    instruction.
  • Gauge language advances via proficiency, not seat
    time.
  • Use language as a tool for intellectual
    integration.
  • Synthesize knowledge produced in multiple
    languages and cultures.
  • Develop high-level critical thinking skills.
  • Challenge faculty to empower students to employ
    their existing linguistic and cultural knowledge.
  • Provide heritage learners with the tools they
    need to bridge the gap between work/school and
    home.
  • Provide non-heritage learners with the tools they
    need to bridge the gaps between work/school,
    home, and the FL classroom and/or study abroad
    experience.

42
Part Two
  • Is Internationalism the Enemy of
    Multiculturalism?
  • Answer Not at all!
  • Language as a Key Variable in Curricular
    Internationalization
  • Internationalization and Collaboration as Key
    Ingredients in 21st Century Higher Education

43
Internationalization as a Key Ingredient in 21st
Century Higher Education
  • The 21st century requires education that opens
    the peoples of the world up to each other,
    research that sees both the local and the global
    aspects of every research question, and
    problem-solving that expands across artificial
    national and regional boundaries.
  • The worlds peoples need to enjoy using each
    others languages, experiencing each others
    cultures, and solving their shared problems,
    regardless of national or other identity.
  • Global Anglicization and Americanization are
    myths.
  • Scholarship can and should include
  • The theories, methods, and findings of all of the
    worlds intellectual traditions, and
  • Recent and current work by all the worlds
    scholars, researchers, and creative artists.

44
Collaboration as a Key Ingredient in 21st Century
Higher Education
  • Enlightened national (and other group-focused)
    interests demand compassionate assistance and
    cooperation rather than competition.
  • The peoples of the world will either rise or
    fall, together.
  • To serve the aforementioned purposes, the worlds
    colleges and universities need to partner with
    each other.
  • Every IHE has resources and strengths of value to
    global partners.
  • Partnering can and should serve the full gamut of
    the partners research, service, and teaching
    missions.
  • Information technology can make this partnering
    efficient and effective.

45
What I Talked About in Part Two
  • Is Internationalism the Enemy of
    Multiculturalism?
  • Answer Not at all!
  • Language as a Key Variable in Curricular
    Internationalization
  • Internationalization and Collaboration as Key
    Ingredients in 21st Century Higher Education

46
Outline of Todays Talk
  • Part One The Global Context for Higher Education
    in the 21st Century
  • Global Megatrends
  • Critical Issues
  • Global Trends in Higher Education
  • Part Two Internationalization, Multiculturalism,
    and Global Collaboration in 21st-Century Higher
    Education
  • Is Internationalism the Enemy of
    Multiculturalism?
  • Language as a Key Variable in Curricular
    Internationalization
  • Internationalization and Collaboration as Key
    Ingredients in 21st Century Higher Education

47
(No Transcript)
48
J. William Fulbright
  • Education is a slow-moving but powerful force.

49
J. William Fulbright
  • Education is a slow-moving but powerful force.
  • It may not be fast enough or strong enough to
    save us from catastrophe, but it is the strongest
    force available for that purpose.

50
J. William Fulbright
  • Education is a slow-moving but powerful force.
  • It may not be fast enough or strong enough to
    save us from catastrophe, but it is the strongest
    force available for that purpose
  • and in its proper place, therefore, is not at the
    periphery, but at the center of international
    relations.

51
Internationalism, Multiculturalism, and Global
Collaboration in 21st-Century Higher Education
  • H. Stephen Straight, Professor of Anthropology
    and of Linguistics and
  • Senior Adviser for International Initiatives,
    Binghamton University
  • Tenth Annual Fall Research and Creativity Forum
  • Buffalo State College, 29 October 2009
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