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MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY

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Title: MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY


1
MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY
  • AN OVERVIEW

2
MMPI
  • ORIGINAL INSTRUMENT DEVELOPED IN LATE 1930S
  • MOST WIDELY USED AND EXTENSIVELY RESEARCHED OF
    ALL PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS
  • REVISED IN 1989--MMPI-2

3
MMPI
  • POPULARITY OF THE INSTRUMENT DUE TO 3 ASPECTS OF
    ITS DEVELOPMENT
  • MULTIPHASIC NATURE OF THE TEST
  • FORMAL ASSESSMENT OF TEST TAKING ATTITUDE
  • EMPIRICAL BASIS FOR ITEM SELECTION

4
MMPI CLINICAL SCALE DEVELOPMENT
  • AUTHORED BY HATHAWAY AND S McKINLEY AT THE
    UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA HOSPITALS
  • SELECTED A POOL OF OVER 1000 ITEMS FROM A VARIETY
    OF SOURCES, PSYCH TEXTS, INTERVIEWS, AND THEIR
    OWN CLINICAL EXPERIENCE

5
MMPI CLINICAL SCALE DEVELOPMENT
  • DELETED DUPLICATE ITEMS AND ELIMINATED THOSE NOT
    USEFUL FOR THEIR PURPOSES LEAVING A POOL OF 504
    ITEMS
  • THESE ITEMS PRESENTED AS FIRST PERSON DECLARATIVE
    STATEMENTS TO WHICH SUBJECT RESPONDED EITHER TRUE
    OR FALSE

6
MMPI CLINICAL SCALE DEVELOPMENT
  • TESTED A GROUP OF NORMALS AND COMPARED THEIR
    RESPONSES WITH THOSE OF CAREFULLY IDENTIFIED
    GROUPS OF PATIENTS FROM SPECIFIC DIAGNOSTIC
    CATEGORIES

7
MMPI CLINICAL SCALE DEVELOPMENT
  • ORIGINAL 8 DIAGNOSTIC COMPARISON CATEGORIES WERE
  • HYPOCHONDRIASIS, DEPRESSION, HYSTERIA,
    PSYCHOPATHIC DEVIATE, PARANOIA, PSYCHASTHENIA,
    SCHIZOPHRENIA, AND HYPOMANIA

8
MMPI CLINICAL SCALE DEVELOPMENT
  • THE PROPORTION OF TRUE VS. FALSE RESPONSES GIVEN
    BY THE PATIENT GROUP WAS COMPARED TO THE
    PROPORTION OF TRUE VS. FALSE GIVEN BY THE
    NORMAL GROUP
  • TESTED FOR SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES AT .05 LEVEL

9
MMPI CLINICAL SCALE DEVELOPMENT
  • RETAINED ITEMS THAT WERE SIGNIFICANT AND
    CROSS-VALIDATED THEM AGAINST 4 ADDITIONAL
    REFERENCE GROUPS
  • TO BE RETAINED AN ITEM HAD TO DISCRIMINATE
    BETWEEN THE PATIENT GROUP AND PRIMARY NORMAL
    GROUP CROSS VALIDATE

10
MMPI CLINICAL SCALE DEVELOPMENT
  • EACH SCALE WAS THEN NORMED BY CALCULATING THE
    MEAN AND SD IN THE PRIMARY NORM GROUP
  • MASCULINITY-FEMININITY SCALE AND SOCIAL
    INTROVERSION SCALES WERE DEVELOPED LATER AND
    DIFFERENTLY THAN THE ORIGINAL 8 SCALES

11
MMPI Mf SCALE DEVELOPMENT
  • 55 ITEMS RELATING TO SEXUAL ORIENTATION OR GENDER
    INTEREST PATTERNS WERE ADDED TO THE POOL
  • TEST WAS ADMINISTERED TO AN IDENTIFIED GROUP OF
    MALE HOMOSEXUALS AND A GROUP OF MALE SOLDIERS

12
MMPI Mf SCALE DEVELOPMENT
  • FEW ITEMS ACTUALLY DISCRIMINATED BETWEEN THE TWO
    GROUPS SO ITEMS THAT DISCRIMINATED BETWEEN MEN
    AND WOMEN WERE USED FOR THE Mf SCALE

13
MMPI SI SCALE DEVELOPMENT
  • MMPI ITEMS THAT DISCRIMINATED BETWEEN STUDENTS
    SCORING ABOVE THE 65TH PERCENTILE FROM THOSE
    SCORING BELOW THE 65TH PERCENTILE ON THE
    MINNESOTA T-S-E, A TEST OF SOCIAL
    INTROVERSION-EXTRAVERSION WERE INCLUDED ON SI
    SCALE

14
MMPI VALIDITY SCALE DEVELOPMENT
  • ? CANNOT SAY SCALE IS NOT ACTUALLY A SCALE BUT
    SIMPLY THE NUMBER OF TEST ITEMS EITHER OMITTED OR
    DOUBLE MARKED
  • L (LIE) SCALE CONSIST OF 15 ITEMS ORIGINALLY
    CONSTRUCTED TO DETECT DELIBERATE LYING, USING A
    RATIONAL SELECTION PROCESS

15
MMPI VALIDITY SCALE DEVELOPMENT
  • F SCALE CONSISTS OF 60 ITEMS ENDORSED ONLY RARELY
    BY NORMALS
  • SCALE DERIVED BY INCLUDING THOSE QUESTIONS FROM
    THE NORMING SAMPLE THAT WERE RESPONDED TO IN THE
    SCORED DIRECTION BY lt 10 OF NORMALS

16
MMPI VALIDITY SCALE DEVELOPMENT
  • K (CORRECTION SCALE) CONSISTS OF 30 ITEMS TO
    DETECT MORE SUBTLE ATTEMPTS TO DENY FAULTS OR
    PRESENT ONESELF FAVORABLY
  • DERIVED FROM THOSE QUESTIONS THAT COULD
    DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN NORMALS AND PATIENTS WITH
    KNOWN PATHOLOGY WHO PRODUCED NORMAL PROFILES

17
MMPI
  • FINAL VERSION OF MMPI CONSISTED OF 566 ITEMS ON
    10 CLINICAL SCALES AND FOUR VALIDITY SCALES

18
MMPI
  • VALIDITY SCALES
  • CANNOT SAY ?
  • LIE L
  • FREQUENCY F
  • CORRECTION K

19
MMPI
  • CLINICAL SCALES
  • HYPOCHONDRIASIS Hs 1
  • DEPRESSION D 2
  • HYSTERIA Hy 3
  • PSYCHOPATHIC DEVIATE Pd 4
  • MASCULINITY-FEMININITY Mf 5

20
MMPI
  • PARANOIA Pa 6
  • PSYCHASTHENIA Pt 7
  • SCHIZOPHRENIA Sc 8
  • HYPOMANIA Ma 9
  • SOCIAL INTROVERSION Si 0

21
MMPI-2
  • AN OVERVIEW

22
MMPI-2
  • NORMING SAMPLE PROBLEMATIC
  • MINNESOTA NORMALS
  • WHITE
  • RURAL BACKGROUND
  • FARMERS/BLUE COLLAR WORKERS
  • PROTESTANT
  • SCANDANAVIAN BACKGROUND
  • 35 YEARS OLD W/ 8TH GRADE EDUC

23
MMPI-2
  • ORIGINAL ITEMS OBSOLETE, POLITICALLY INCORRECT,
    OR OFFENSIVE
  • ELIMINATED AND/OR REWORDED ITEMS ADDED ITEMS TO
    INCLUDE AREAS SUCH AS SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND MARITAL
    RELATIONSHIPS TO GET POOL OF 704 ITEMS

24
MMPI-2
  • EXPERIMENTAL FORM WAS ADMINISTERED TO NEW
    STANDARDIZATION SAMPLE
  • NEW SAMPLE
  • AGE 18-90
  • WIDE GEOGRAPHIC AREA
  • GENERALLY COMPARES WELL WITH US CENSUS DATA

25
MMPI-2
  • FINAL VERSION CONSISTS OF 567 ITEMS
  • ORIGINAL 4 VALIDITY SCALES AND 10 CLINICAL SCALES
    (ALL IN FIRST 370 ITEMS) IN ADDITION TO NEW
    VALIDITY SCALES
  • RESULTS ARE EXPRESSED AS UNIFORM T SCORES

26
MMPI-2
  • ADMINISTRATION
  • RECOMMENDED FOR USE WITH PERSONS 18 YEARS OLD OR
    OLDER
  • NEED AT LEAST 8 YEARS OF EDUCATION
  • MOST ITEMS WRITTEN 6TH-8TH GRADE READING LEVEL
  • NORMAL TESTING TIME 60-90 MINUTES

27
MMPI-2
  • SUBECTS SHOULD BE INFORMED WHY THE TEST IS BEING
    ADMINISTERED
  • SHOULD BE GIVEN FEEDBACK RE/ RESULTS
  • AVOID PROVIDING DIRECT HELP
  • EMPHASIZE THAT THEY SHOULD RESPOND IN WAY THAT
    REFLECTS THEIR CURRENT THOUGHTS, FEELINGS,
    BEHAVIORS, AND EXPERIENCES

28
MMPI-2
  • SCORING
  • HAND SCORING INVOLVES USE OF SEMI-TRANSPARENT
    TEMPLATES PLACED OVER THE ANSWER SHEET
  • EXAMINE ANSWER SHEET FOR DOUBLE MARKED OR OMITTED
    ITEMS CIRCLE
  • SEPARATE ANSWER SHEETS BY SEX
  • COUNT OF RESPONSES IN BOXES

29
MMPI-2
  • THIS BECOMES THE RAW SCORE FOR THAT SCALE WHICH
    IS ENTERED IN APPROPRIATE SPACE ON PROFILE SHEET
  • PROFILE SHEETS ARE TWO SIDED-M/F
  • PLOT VALIDITY SCALE SCORES BY MARKING AT THE
    ELEVATION THAT REFLECTS THE RAW SCORE. CONNECT
    VALIDITY SCALES WITH A LINE

30
MMPI-2
  • BEFORE PLOTTING CLINICAL SCALES ADD APPROPRIATE
    K CORRECTION TO SCALES 1,4,7,8, AND 9.
  • MARK THE ELEVATION OF THE 10 CLINICAL SCALES ON
    PROFILE SHEET.
  • CONNECT WITH A LINE
  • RECORD THE UNIFORM T SCORE FOR EACH SCALE (ON FAR
    LEFT AND RIGHT COLUMN OF PROFILE SHEET)

31
MMPI-2 INTERPRETATION
  • FIRST, DETERMINE THE VALIDITY OF THE PROFILE (
    TEST TAKING ATTITUDE OF THE SUBJECT)
  • EXAMINE BASIC SCALES FOR CLINICAL MEANING
  • Tgt65 IS ELEVATED
  • Tlt40 LOW

32
MMPI-2-CANNOT SAY SCALE
  • NOT A SCALE BUT THE OF ITEMS DOUBLE MARKED OR
    OMITTED
  • gt 30 ITEMS INVALIDATES PROFILE
  • HIGH SCORE
  • READING PROBLEM
  • CARELESSNESS
  • OCD/INDECISIVENESS
  • QUESTIONS DO NOT APPLY/LACK INFO

33
MMPI-2 LIE (L) SCALE
  • ORIGINALLY CONSTRUCTED TO DETECT A DELIBERATE AND
    UNSOPHISTICATED ATTEMPT TO PRESENT ONESELF IN A
    POSITIVE LIGHT
  • 15 ITEMS
  • HIGH SCORE INDICATES DENIAL AS A PROMINENT
    DEFENSE MECHANISM

34
MMPI-2 LIE (L) SCALE
  • HIGH SCORES
  • CLERGY
  • LIMITED SOCIAL AWARENESS
  • SOCIOPATHS
  • LIMITED INSIGHT, DENIAL, POOR TOLERANCE FOR
    STRESS
  • PRESENTING SELF IN UNREALISTICALLY POSITIVE LIGHT

35
MMPI-2 LIE (L) SCALE
  • LOW SCORES
  • BETTER EDUCATED, BRIGHTER, MORE SOPHISTICATED
    PERSONS TEND TO SCORE LOWER
  • SCORES lt45 SUGGEST THAT SUBJECT RESPONDED FRANKLY
    TO ITEMS AND WAS COMFORTABLE ENOUGH TO ADMIT TO
    MINOR FAULTS AND SHORTCOMINGS

36
MMPI-2 INFREQUENCY (F) SCALE
  • ELEVATIONS ON F gt 65
  • SCORING ERRORS
  • POOR READING ABILITY
  • FAKING BAD (Tgt95)
  • EXAGGERATING SYMPTOMS
  • EXPRESSION OF DEFIANCE, HOSTILITY, NEGATIVITY
  • T 70-95 MOST SIGNIFICANT PATHOLOGY

37
MMPI-2 INFREQUENCY (F) SCALE
  • LOW SCORES
  • ABSENCE OF BIZARRE OR UNUSUAL THINKING
  • MAY BE ATTEMPT TO FAKE GOOD

38
MMPI-2 CORRECTION (K) SCALE
  • ITEMS DETECT MORE SUBTLE OR SOPHISTICATED
    ATTEMPTS TO DENY FAULTS AND PRESENT ONESELF
    FAVORABLY
  • HIGH SCORES NOT CORRELATED WITH SPECIFIC
    BEHAVIORS BUT INSTEAD REFLECT A RELUCTANCE TO
    ADMIT TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

39
MMPI-2 CORRECTION (K) SCALE
  • HIGH SCORES gt65 INDICATIVE OF PERSONS WHO ARE
    VERY GUARDED AND DEFENSIVE AND SHOW MARKED
    RESISTENCE TO PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBING AND
    ASSESSMENT
  • MINIMIZE AND OVERLOOK FAULTS IN SELF AND FAMILIES

40
MMPI-2 CORRECTION (K) SCALE
  • K SCALE SCORES INFLUENCED BY SETTING,
    SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, AND EDUCATION LEVEL. HIGHER
    SCORES OCCUR NORMALLY IN
  • WELL EDUCATED PERSONS
  • HIGH SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS
  • LOW SCORES MAY BE FAKE BAD OR DETERIORATED
    DEFENSES

41
MMPI-2 NEW VALIDITY SCALES
  • BACK F (Fb) SCALE
  • designed to identify a fake-bad mode of
    responding for last 197 items
  • TRUE RESPONSE INCONSISTENCY SCALE (TRIN)
  • designed to detect yeasaying/naysaying
  • VARIABLE RESPONSE INCONSISTENCY SCALE (VRIN)
  • designed to detect inconsistent responding

42
INTERPRETATION OF VALIDITY
  • K gt 65 MAY SUGGEST A DEFENSIVE PROFILE
  • FAKE BAD (OVERREPORTING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY)
  • T SCORE gt 95 ON F (T SCORES gt 85 ON 6,7,AND 8)
    WITH L AND K lt 45

43
INTERPRETATION OF VALIDITY
  • FAKING GOOD (UNDERREPORTING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY)
  • K gt 65 AND MOST CLINICAL SCALES AND F lt 45
  • F-K INDEX
  • RAW F SCORE - RAW K SCORE
  • 11OR MORE SUGGESTS FAKING BAD
  • -11 OR LESS SUGGEST FAKING GOOD

44
SCALE 1-HYPOCHONDRIASIS
  • DESIGNED TO INDICATE A VARIETY OF PERSONALITY
    CHARACTERISTICS CONSISTENT WITH BUT NOT
    NECESSARILY DIAGNOSTIC OF HYPOCHONDRIASIS

45
SCALE 1-HYPOCHONDRIASIS
  • HIGH SCORES SUGGESTIVE OF
  • HIGH CONCERN WITH ILLNESS OR DISEASE
  • SOMATIZATION AS DEFENSE MECHANISM
  • SOUR, WHINY, COMPLAINING ATTITUDE
    HOSTILITY/CYNICISM EXPRESSED INDIRECTLY

46
SCALE 1-HYPOCHONDRIASIS
  • LOW SCORES SUGGESTIVE OF
  • CHEERFUL, OPTIMISTIC ATTITUDE
  • NON ENDORSEMENT OF SOMATIC COMPLAINTS

47
SCALE 2-DEPRESSION
  • DESIGNED TO MEASURE SYMPTOMATIC DEPRESSION, AN
    ATTITUDE CHARACTERIZED BY POOR MORALE, LACK OF
    HOPE FOR THE FUTURE, AND A GENERAL
    DISSATISFACTION WITH LIFE

48
SCALE 2-DEPRESSION
  • ITEMS DEAL WITH VARIOUS ASPECTS OF DEPRESSION-
    DENIAL OF HAPPINESS PERSONAL WORTH, PSYCHOMOTOR
    RETARDATION, LACK OF INTEREST, SOCIAL WITHDRAWAL,
    PHYSICAL COMPLAINTS, EXCESSIVE WORRY
  • STATE MEASURE--SITUATIONAL

49
SCALE 2-DEPRESSION
  • HIGH SCORES SUGGESTIVE OF
  • DEPRESSED
  • WORRY
  • PESSIMISM
  • INDECISION, DOUBT
  • HOPELESSNESS, SUICIDAL IDEATION

50
SCALE 2-DEPRESSION
  • LOW SCORES SUGGESTIVE OF
  • LACK OF DEPRESSION, WORRY, PESSIMISM
  • TENDENCY TO FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH LIFE
  • CHEERFULNESS, BUOYANCY, OPTIMISM

51
SCALE 3-HYSTERIA
  • ITEMS TAP TWO BROAD AREAS SPECIFIC SOMATIC
    COMPLAINTS AND DENIAL OF PSYCHOLGICAL OR
    EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS AND OF DISCOMFORT IN SOCIAL
    SITUATIONS

52
SCALE 3-HYSTERIA
  • HIGH SCORES SUGGESTIVE OF
  • IMMATURITY, EGOCENTRICITY, DEMANDING
  • HISTRIONIC CHARACTERISTICS AND REPRESSIVE
    DEFENSIVES
  • VANITY, LACKING IN INSIGHT
  • SHALLOW INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS

53
SCALE 3-HYSTERIA
  • LOW SCORES SUGGESTIVE OF
  • CONSTRICTED, CONFORMING, OVERLY CONVENTIONAL
    SUSPICIOUS INDIVIDUAL
  • REALISTIC, LOGICAL, LEVEL HEADED
  • NOT PRONE TO IMPULSIVE DECISIONS

54
SCALE 4-PSYCHOPATHIC DEVIATE
  • ITEMS REFLECT A PRIMARY DIMENSION RANGING FROM
    CONSTRICTED SOCIAL CONFORMITY TO ANTISOCIAL
    ACTING-OUT IMPULSES

55
SCALE 4-PSYCHOPATHIC DEVIATE
  • HIGH SCORES SUGGESTIVE OF
  • GENERAL MALADJUSTMENT
  • ANGRY DISIDENTIFICATION WITH CONVENTION AND NORMS
  • IMPULSE CONTROL PROBLEMS
  • DISREGARD FOR RIGHTS OF OTHERS
  • UNWILLING TO ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR BEHAVIORS

56
SCALE 4-PSYCHOPATHIC DEVIATE
  • LOW SCORES SUGGESTIVE OF
  • OVERLY CONVENTIONAL, CONFORMING, MORALISTIC
  • AVOID COMPETITIVE SITUATIONS
  • STRONG GUILT OVER MINOR INFRACTIONS

57
SCALE 5 MASCULINITY-FEMININITY (Mf)
  • 56 ITEMS MEASURE THE EXTENT TO WHICH SUBJECT
    ENDORSES OR IDENTIFIES WITH CULTURALLY
    STEREOTYPIC MASCULINE OR FEMININE INTEREST
    PATTERNS, VOCATIONAL CHOICES, ASTHETIC INTERESTS
    AND AN ACTIVITY-PASSIVITY DIMENSION

58
SCALE 5 MASCULINITY-FEMININITY (Mf)
  • A HIGH SCORE FOR EITHER SEX IS INDICATIVE OF
    DEVIATION

59
SCALE 5 MASCULINITY-FEMININITY (Mf)
  • MALES WITH HIGH SCORES TEND TO BE RATHER PASSIVE,
    DEPENDENT, AMBITIOUS, SENSITIVE, AND INTERESTED
    IN CULTURAL AND AESTHETIC PURSUITS
  • MALES WITH LOW SCORES TEND TO BE STEREOTYPICALLY
    MASCULINE AND PLACE GREAT EMPHASIS ON
    TRADITIONALLY MASCULINE BEHAVIORS

60
SCALE 5 MASCULINITY-FEMININITY (Mf)
  • FEMALES WITH HIGH SCORES HAVE REJECTED
    TRADITIONAL FEMININE ROLE. DESCRIBED AS ACTIVE,
    AGGRESSIVE, ASSERTIVE, COMPETITIVE, UNINHIBITED,
    AND DOMINEERING
  • FEMALES WITH LOW SCORES ARE PASSIVE, SUBMISSIVE
    YIELDING AND DEMURE

61
SCALE 6-PARANOIA (Pa)
  • 40 ITEMS MEASURES IDEATION RANGING FROM OBVIOUSLY
    PSYCHOTIC TO SUSPICIOUSNESS AND
    SELF-RIGHTEOUSNESS.
  • CONTENT OF ITEMS IS OBVIOUS MAKING IT EASIER TO
    FAKE THAN MOST

62
SCALE 6-PARANOIA (Pa)
  • HIGH SCORES IN RANGE OF Tgt60-70 INDICATES
    HYPERSENSITIVITY TO CRITICISM, BASIC MISTRUST,
    TENDENCY TO HARBOR GRUDGES, ANGER, HOSTILITY,
    E.G. PARANOID TENDENCES AND /OR PARANOID
    PERSONALITY DISORDER

63
SCALE 6-PARANOIA (Pa)
  • HIGH SCORES BEYOND 75 THE POSSIBILITY OF
    PSYCHOSIS BECOMES MORE LIKELY
  • LOW SCORES lt35 SUGGEST 1) SELF CENTERED,
    STUBBORN, UNAWARE 2) COLD AND CALLOUS
    PRESENTATION 3) OVERTLY PARANOID, DELUSIONAL,
    DEFENSIVE, AND EVASIVE

64
SCALE 7 PSYCHASTHENIA (Pt)
  • 48 ITEMS REFLECTING CHRONIC ANXIETY, GENERAL
    DISSATISFACTION WITH LIFE, INDECISIVENESS,
    DIFFICULTY WITH CONCENTRATION, SELF DOUBT,
    RUMINATION AND AGITATED CONCERN ABOUT SELF AND
    THE OBSESSIONAL ASPECTS OF OCD

65
SCALE 7 PSYCHASTHENIA (Pt)
  • GOOD INDEX OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TURMOIL AND
    DISCOMFORT
  • HIGH SCORES ARE DESCRIBED AS RIGID, METICULOUS,
    MORALISTIC AND DISSATISFIED WITH THEIR PRESENT
    LIFE SITUATION. ANXIETY IS PRONOUNCED.
    GENERALIZED PHYSICAL COMPLAINTS ARE COMMON

66
SCALE 8 SCHIZOPHRENIA (Sc)
  • 78 ITEMS TAP DIMENSIONS OF SCHIZOID MENTATION,
    FEELINGS OF BEING DIFFERENT, ISOLATED, BIZARRE
    THOUGHT PROCESSES, POOR FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS,
    SEXUAL IDENTITY CONCERNS, TENDENCY TO WITHDRAW
    INTO WISH FULFILLING FANTASY

67
SCALE 8 SCHIZOPHRENIA (Sc)
  • HIGH SCORES INDICATIVE OF THOUGHT DISTURBANCES ,
    LOOSE ASSOCIATIONS, POOR JUDGEMENT,
    MISINTERPRETATION OF REALITY
  • OTHER NON-PSYCHOTIC HIGH SCORERERS TEND TO FEEL
    LONELY ALIENATED, ISOLATED, MISUNDERSTOOD, NOT
    PART OF SOCIAL GROUP

68
SCALE 8 SCHIZOPHRENIA (Sc)
  • LOW SCORES TEND TO BE INTERESTED IN PEOPLE AND
    PRACTICAL MATTERS TO THE EXCLUSION OF THEORETICAL
    AND PHILOSOPHICAL CONCERNS, CONCRETE THINKERS,
    COMPLIANT, SUBMISSIVE, OVERLY ACCEPTING OF
    AUTHORITY

69
SCALE 9 HYPOMANIA (Ma)
  • 46 ITEMS THAT ARE A DIRECT MEASURE OF ENERGY
    LEVEL
  • T SCORES gt85 SUGGESTIVE OF MANIC DISORDER.
  • T SCORES IN RANGE OF 70-85 ARE RESTLESS,
    ENTHUSIASTIC, IMPATIENT, ENERGETIC, GREGARIOUS,
    EXAGGERATED SENSE OF SELF WORTH AND IMPORTANCE

70
SCALE 9 HYPOMANIA (Ma)
  • LOW SCORES lt40 ARE LISTLESS, LETHARGIC, LOW IN
    DRIVE, DIFFICULT TO MOTIVATE, LACK INTEREST,
    INITIATIVE AND INVOLVEMENT SHOW CHRONIC FATIGUE
    AND EVEN PHYSICAL EXHAUSTION

71
SCALE 0-SOCIAL INTROVERSION (Si)
  • 69 ITEMS ASSESSING INTROVERSION-EXTROVERSION
    DIMENSION WITH HIGH SCORES INDICATIVE OF
    INTROVERSION
  • HIGH SCORES INTROVERTED, SHY, SOCIALLY INEPT WITH
    TENDENCY TO WITHDRAW
  • LOW SCORES ADEPT IN SOCIAL SITUATIONS,
    GREGARIOUS, EXTROVERTED
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