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Archaeological Survey and Excavation

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Archaeological Survey and Excavation Survey and Excavation Research Design Finding Archaeological Sites Excavation Types of Sites Research Design Design and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Archaeological Survey and Excavation


1
Archaeological Survey and Excavation
2
Survey and Excavation
  • Research Design
  • Finding Archaeological Sites
  • Excavation
  • Types of Sites

3
Research Design
  • Design and Formulation
  • Background Research
  • Research design
  • Implementation
  • Funding
  • Research team members
  • Permission
  • Data Acquisition
  • Field Research
  • Conservation
  • Initial Artifact processing
  • Processing and Analysis
  • Lab analysis
  • Curation
  • Interpretation
  • Final Report

4
Finding Sites
  • Aerial Photography
  • mounds
  • crop marks
  •  Satellite Imagery
  •  Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
  • Accidentally
  • Iceman-1991
  • Lascaux
  • Archaeological Survey
  • surface survey
  • subsurface excavation
  • stp
  • auger
  • bank cuts
  • Remote Sensing
  • Ground penetrating radar
  • Electrical resistivity
  • Magnetometry

5
Accidental finding Iceman-1991 Austrian/Italian
Alps
6
Accidental The Paleolithic Cave Paintings of
Lascaux, France
7
Great Hall of Bulls Lascaux, France
8
Survey
  • Surface
  • Monitoring surface for artifacts, architecture
  • Subsurface
  • Shovel test pits-small tests into the ground
  • Augering-using soil augers to test under ground
  • Bank cuts-walking along river banks

9
Reading the Landscape
  • Archaeological Survey Design
  • Purpose of surveying is to map the physical
    remains of human activity
  • Surveys must be designed with project goals in
    mind
  • Geological Factors
  • Geological factors that affect preservation and
    visibility of sites must be considered

10
Reading the Landscape
  • Archaeological Survey Recovery Methods
  • Variety of techniques used including
  • Walkover or shovel testing
  • Remote sensing
  • Magnetometry and ground-penetrating radar
  • Geographical Information Systems
  • GIS are software applications that enable
    archaeologists to bring together different types
    of spatial data and examine them together

Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers
help archaeologists determine the precise
locations of archaeological sites
11
GeographicalInformationSystems
Geographical information system (GIS) works by
creating a series of georeferenced overlays.
12
Eastern Korinthia Archaeological Survey
  • Korinthia was one of the most important sources
    of trade and transport in the ancient Greek world
  • a source of raw materials and manufactured goods
  • a rich agricultural region.
  • The Eastern Korinthia Archaeological Survey
    Project
  • multidisciplinary regional study in this
    historically rich region.
  • expands upon previous scholarly research and add
    to the theory and practice of archaeological
    survey in an environmentally sensitive area.

http//eleftheria.stcloudstate.edu/eks/
13
Study Area
14
Research Questions
  • The particular research question is the
    relationship between eastern Korinthia, its main
    urban center, and the broader Mediterranean
    world.
  • For example, was the countryside cultivated
    mainly to serve the needs of an urban population
    or to produce a surplus for export?
  • If the latter, who was responsible public
    officials, wealthy landowners, or individuals
    with small holdings?
  • Any of these possibilities may be in use at a
    given period. If the function of the agricultural
    sector changed over time, how can we track the
    process?
  • Equally relevant is the exploitation of natural
    resources such as fine limestone, iron ore, and
    high-grade clay.

15
Ground Penetrating Radar
  • Ground penetrating radar is a nondestructive
    geophysical method that produces a continuous
    cross-sectional profile or record of subsurface
    features, without drilling, probing, or digging.
  • Ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles are used
    for evaluating the location and depth of buried
    objects and to investigate the presence and
    continuity of natural subsurface conditions and
    features.
  • Ground penetrating radar operates by transmitting
    pulses of ultra high frequency radio waves
    (microwave electromagnetic energy) down into the
    ground through a transducer or antenna.
  • The transmitted energy is reflected from various
    buried objects or distinct contacts between
    different earth materials. The antenna then
    receives the reflected waves and stores them in
    the digital control unit.

http//www.geomodel.com/gprtext.htm
16
Ground Penetrating Radar
17
Electrical Resistivity
  • The resistance meter passes a small electrical
    current through the earth via a series of metal
    probes and measures the resistance of the earth
    to that current.
  • Although the earths resistance may vary according
    to a wide variety of factors, archaeological
    remains may be detected because of their effect
    on local resistance to a current.
  • Stone structures are relatively poor conductors.
  • Consequently, the presence of a wall may increase
    resistance and the feature will be represented as
    a positive anomaly.
  • Alternatively, a ditch or pit will usually allow
    a current to pass with relative ease (this is the
    result of the relatively high water content of
    such features).
  • These features will be shown as low resistance
    anomalies.
  • The depth to which the resistance meter can
    identify archaeological features when using a two
    probe array is dependant on the mobile probe
    separation.

18
Electrical Resistivity
http//www.arch-ant.bham.ac.uk/bufau/research/bury
_walls/technologies.htm
19
Magnetometry
  • The basis of survey using this instrument is very
    different to resistance survey. The magnetometer
    detects small changes in the earths magnetic
    field.
  • Although the earth has a permanent magnetic field
    which is subject to almost continuous global
    variations in direction and intensity, there are
    many localized factors which may also affect the
    field.
  • Many of these factors are natural in origin (the
    presence of volcanic rocks, for instance).
    However, part of this variation may have an
    archaeological origin and magnetometers may be
    used to detect this.
  • In particular burning may cause changes in iron
    compounds and transform them from non or weakly
    magnetic to magnetic forms.
  • Hearths and kilns, burnt clay and soil, bricks
    and tiles are good examples of archaeological
    objects or material which may cause such changes.
    Features such as pits and ditches may be filled
    with archaeological material and may be located
    because the contents of the features cause
    localized magnetic anomalies.

20
Magnetometry
21
Aerial Photography
Samarra' is a town on the east bank of the middle
Tigris in Iraq, 125 km north of Baghdad, Between
A.D. 836 and 892 it was the capital of the
Abbasid Caliphs. Samarra expanded to an occupied
area of 57 km², one of the largest cities of
ancient times.
22
Excavation
  • Vertical Excavation
  • Digging limited areas for info on stratigraphy
    and dating
  • Test Trenching
  • Area Excavation
  • Horizontal excavation
  • Block Areas
  • Underwater
  • Tools
  • Backhoes, Bulldozers
  • Picks, shovels, trowels
  • Dental picks, brushes
  • Recording
  • Stratigraphy
  •  

23
ControllingHorizontal andVertical Space
A datum point provides a point of reference for
measuring depth while a grid provides a means of
controlling horizontal space.
24
Vertical Excavation
25
Area Excavation
26
Underwater Archaeology
27
Types of Sites
  • Habitation Sites
  • Open campsites
  • Villages
  • Caves Rockshelters
  • Earthworks
  • Mounds
  • Forts
  • First Warburton Excavation
  • Shell Middens
  •  Ceremonial Sites
  • Architectural Sites
  • Burials and Cemeteries
  • Historic Sites
  •  

http//www.youtube.com/watch?v8hdPj9KwHJ0
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