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THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

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Title: THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR


1
THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON CONSUMER BUYING
BEHAVIOUR
2
WHAT IS CULTURE
  • A system of values and norms that are shared
    among a group of people and that when taken
    together constitute a design for living.
  • Hofstede, Namenwirth and Weber

3
There are more than 160 definitions of culture
Communicable knowledge, learned behavior passed
on from generation to generation
An Integrated system of learned behavior
patterns that are distinguishing characteristic
of the members of a given society
The collective programming of the mind which
distinguishes the members of one group or
category from those of another
4
WHAT IS CULTURE?
  • It is the sum total of learned beliefs, values,
    and
  • customs that serve to direct the consumer
  • behaviour of members of a particular society.
  • The belief and value components of our definition
    refer to the accumulated feelings and priorities
    that individuals have about things and
    possessions.
  • More precisely, beliefs consist of the very large
    number of mental or verbal statements that
    reflect a persons particular knowledge and
    assessment of something.
  • Values also are beliefs. Values differ from other
    beliefs, however, because they meet the following
    criteria
  • They are relatively few in number
  • They serve as a guide for culturally appropriate
    behaviour
  • They are enduring or difficult to change
  • They are not tied to specific objects or
    situations
  • They are widely accepted by the members of a
    society.

5
  • Therefore, in a broad sense, both values and
    beliefs are mental images that affect a wide
    range of specific attitudes that, in turn,
    influence the way a person is likely to respond
    in a specific situation. For example, the
    criteria a person uses to evaluate alternative
    brands in a product category (such as Volvo
    versus Jaguar automobiles), or his or her
    eventual preference for one of these brands over
    the other, are influenced by both a persons
    general values ( perceptions as to what
    constitutes quality and the meaning of country of
    origin) and specific beliefs ( particularly
    perceptions about the quality of Swedish-made
    versus English-made cars).
  • In contrast to beliefs and values, customers are
    overt modes of behaviour that constitute
    culturally approved or acceptable ways of
    behaving in specific situations.
  • Customs consist of everyday or routine behaviour.
    For example, a consumers routine behaviour, such
    as adding sugar and milk to coffee, putting
    ketchup on hamburgers, putting mustard on
    frankfurters, and having a salad after rather
    than before the main course of a meal, are
    customers. Thus, whereas beliefs and values are
    guides for behaviour, customs are usual and
    acceptable ways of behaving.
  • By our definition, it is easy to see how an
    understanding of various cultures of a society
    helps marketers predict consumer acceptance of
    their products.

6
  • To produce and sell internationally, you must
    think of what the culture in that particular
    country demands.
  • Businesses need to advertise and in order for
    customers to get the message of advertisement, it
    must be said in a language that can be easily
    understood.
  • For example a multinational company advertising
    its products in China, has to use a language that
    can
  • easily be understood ( of course Chinese), when
    advertising in Japan ( Japanese) , in Korea
    (Korean
  • Language), in England ( English) in France
    (French), in the USA (English) in Brazil
    (Brazilian), in
  • Malaysia ( Malaysian), in Portugal ( Portuguese),
    in Italy (Italian) etc.
  • In producing products, businesses have to think
    of the components, aesthetics, Shape, size,
    quality, texture etc. For example British cars
    are different from other cars because of the
    positioning of the stirring. In other countries
    say France, USA etc the stirring appears to the
    left, but in Britain, it appears to the right.
    The style of driving differs in Britain compared
    to other countries say France, USA. For example
    cars are driven to the left but in France, USA,
    Cameroon etc cars are driven to the right. These
    are a few examples
  • Therefore when designing cars for the British
    market, the car should be designed to suit the
    British culture and when designing cars for say
    the US, French or Japanese market etc, it should
    be designed to fit the culture.

7
Element of Culture
A. Language
  • Spoken Language
  • Written Language
  • Official Language
  • Body Language eye contact, posture, gesture,
    distance, dressing,
  • Movement, facial expression
  • International Language

B. Religion
  • Beliefs and Norms
  • Sacred Objects
  • Philosophical Systems
  • Prayer/ Rituals
  • Leading Religious of the World

8
C. Values and Attitudes
Toward
  • Time (Monochromic (V.S) Polychromic)
  • Achievement
  • Work
  • Change
  • Risk Taking

D. Education
  • Literacy Level
  • Formal Education
  • Vocational Training
  • Human Resource Planning
  • Primary / Secondary / High education

9
E. Social Organization
  • Social Institutions
  • Authority Structure
  • Interest Groups
  • Status Systems
  • Social Mobility

F. Technology and Material Culture
  • Science
  • Invention
  • Energy Systems
  • Communications
  • Tools and Objects
  • Urbanization

10
G. Politics
  • Nationalism
  • National Interests
  • Power
  • Ideologies
  • Political Risks
  • Sovereignty

H. Law
  • Common Law
  • Code Law
  • Foreign law
  • Home / Host Country Law
  • Regulation / Antitrust Policy
  • International Law

11
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE
  • Values Abstract ideas/assumptions about what a
    group believes to be good, right and desirable
  • Norms social rules and guidelines that prescribe
    appropriate behavior in particular situations
  • Folkways Routine conventions of everyday life.
  • Little moral significance
  • Generally, social conventions such as dress
    codes, social manners, and neighborly behavior
  • Mores Norms central to the functioning of
    society and its social life
  • Greater significance than folkways
  • Violation can bring serious retribution
  • Theft, adultery, incest and cannibalism

12
DETERMINANTS OF CULTURE
  • Social structure
  • Religion
  • Language
  • Education
  • Economic philosophy
  • Political philosophy

13
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14
THE INVISIBLE HAND OF CULTURE
  • Consumers both view themselves in the context of
    their culture and react to their environment
    based upon the cultural framework that they bring
    to that experiences. Each individual perceives
    the world through his own cultural lens.
  • The impact of culture is so natural and automatic
    that its influence on behaviour is usually taken
    for granted. For instance, when consumer
    researchers ask people why they do certain
    things, they frequently answer, because its the
    right thing to do. This seemingly superficial
    response partially reflects the ingrained
    influence of culture on our behaviour. Often it
    is only when we are exposed to people with
    different cultural values or customs ( as when
    visiting a different region or a different
    country) that we become aware of how culture has
    molded our own behaviour. Thus a true
    appreciation of the influence that culture has on
    our daily life requires some knowledge of at
    least one other society with different cultural
    characteristics. For example, to understand that
    brushing our teeth twice a day with flavoured
    toothpaste is a cultural phenomenon requires some
    awareness that members of another society either
    do not brush their teeth at all or do so in a
    distinctly different manner than or own society.

15
CULTURE SATISFISES NEEDS
  • Culture exists to satisfy the needs of the people
    within a society. It offers order, direction, and
    guidance in all phases of human problem solving
    by providing tried and-true methods of
    satisfying physiological, personal, and social
    needs. For example, culture provides standards
    and rules about when to eat , where to eat what
    to eat, what is appropriate to eat for
    breakfast, lunch and dinner what to eat at a
    wedding or even at a picnic.
  • Culture is also associated with what a societys
    members consider to be a necessity and what they
    view as a luxury. For instance, 55 of American
    adults consider a microwave to be a necessity,
    and 36 consider a remote control for a TV or VCR
    to be a necessity.

16
  • Similarly, culture also provides insights as to
    suitable dress for specific occasions ( such as
    what to wear around a house, what to wear to
    school, to work, to church, at a fast-food
    restaurant, or to a movie theatre). Dress codes
    have shifted dramatically people are dressing
    more casually most of the time.
  • Cultural beliefs, values and customs continue to
    be followed as long as they yield satisfaction.
    When a specific standard no longer satisfies the
    members of a society, however it is modified or
    replaced, so that the resulting standard is more
    in line with current needs and desires.

17
CULTURE IS LEARNED
  • Unlike innate biological characteristics (e.g.
    gender, skin, hair colour, or intelligence),
    culture is learned. At an early stage, we begin
    to acquire from our social environment a set of
    beliefs, values, and customs that make up our
    culture. For children, the learning of these
    acceptable cultural values and customs is
    reinforced by the process of playing with their
    toys. As children play, they act out and rehearse
    important cultural lessons and situations. This
    cultural learning prepares them for later
    real-life circumstances

18
HOW IS CULTURE LEARNED
  • Anthropologists have identified three distinct
    forms of cultural learning
  • Formal learning in which adults and other
    siblings teach a young family member how to
    behave
  • Informal learning, in which a child learns
    primarily by imitating the behaviour of selected
    others, such as family, friends or TV heroes
  • Technical learning, in which teachers instruct
    the child in an educational environment about
    what should be done, how it should be done, and
    why it should be done. Although a firms
    advertising can influence all three types of
    cultural learning, it is likely that many product
    advertisements enhance informal cultural learning
    by providing the audience with a model of
    behaviour to imitate. This is especially true for
    visible or conspicuous products that are
    evaluated in public settings ( such as designer
    clothing, cell phones, or status golf clubs),
    where peer influence is likely to play an
    important role.

19
HOW CULTURE IS LEARNED
  • We learn to do the following from childhood
  • Speak our language
  • Write
  • Eat
  • Sing
  • Play
  • Drink
  • Talk
  • Dress
  • Cook
  • Drive
  • Do politics
  • Acquire knowledge
  • Produce goods and services
  • Serve customers
  • These are examples of aspects of culture which we
    all have learned to perform
  • especially from childhood.

20
ENCULTURATION AND ACCULTURATION
  • When discussing the acquisition of culture,
    anthropologists often distinguish between the
    learning of ones own, or native, culture and the
    learning of some new (other) culture. The
    learning of ones own culture is known as
    enculturation while the learning of a new or
    foreign culture is known as acculturation.
  • Acculturation is an important concept for
    marketers who plan to sell their products in
    foreign or multinational markets. In such cases,
    marketers must study the specific culture (s) of
    their potential target markets to determine
    whether their products will be acceptable to its
    members and if so, how they can best communicate
    the characteristics of their products to persuade
    the target market to buy.

21
LANGUAGE AND SYMBOLS
  • To acquire a common culture, the members of a
    society must be able to communicate with each
    other through a common language. Without a common
    language, shared meaning could not exist, and
    true communication would not take place.
  • To communicate effectively with their audiences,
    marketers must use appropriate symbols to convey
    desired product images or characteristics. These
    symbols can be verbal or nonverbal. Verbal
    symbols may include a television announcement or
    an advertisement in a magazine. Nonverbal
    communication includes the use of such symbols as
    figures, colours, shapes, and even textures to
    lead additional meaning to print or broadcast
    advertisements, to trademarks, and to packaging
    or product designs.
  • A symbol is any that stands for something else.
    Any word is a symbol. The word hurricane calls
    forth the notion of wind and rain and also has
    the power to stir us emotionally, arousing
    feelings of danger and the need for protection
    and safety.
  • Similarly, the word jaguar has symbolic meaning
    To some it suggests a fine luxury automobile, to
    others it implies wealth and status to some it
    suggests a sleek, wild animal to be seen in the
    zoo.

22
RITUAL
  • WHAT IS RITUAL?
  • Ritual is a type of symbolic activity consisting
    of a
  • series of steps occurring in a fixed sequence and
  • repeated over time.
  • RITUAL CAN ALSO STAND FOR THE FOLLOWING
  • 1. established formal behavior an established
    and prescribed pattern of observance, for
    example, in a religion
  • 2. actions done formally and repeatedly the
    performance of actions or procedures in a set,
    ordered, and ceremonial way (often used before a
    noun)
  • 3. unchanging pattern a formalized pattern of
    actions or words followed regularly and precisely
    (informal)

23
Examples of RITUALS
  • The way religious and other festivities are
  • celebrated
  • Confirmation
  • Baptism
  • Christmas
  • Easter
  • Marriage
  • Birthday
  • New year
  • Graduation

24
CULTURE IS SHARED
  • To be a cultural characteristic, a particular
    belief, value, or practice must be shared by a
    significant portion of the society. Thus culture
    frequently is viewed as group customs that link
    together the members of a society. Of course,
    common language is the critical component that
    makes it possible for people to share values,
    experiences, and customs.
  • EXAMPLES TO SHOW HOW CULTURE IS SHARED
  • In the UK the language shared by its people is
    English
  • In France it is French
  • In US it is English
  • In China it is Chinese
  • In Japan it is Japanese.
  • This is important to marketers because when
    considering production, and
  • advertisement of products, they should consider
    that culture is shared by so
  • many people. If the company decides to advertise
    its products, then the
  • language shared by the people should be used
    because it can be understood
  • by a vast majority of people.

25
CULTURE IS SHARED
  • In China, their food is eaten using chop sticks
    by vast majority of people.
  • Still in China they consume Chinese food
  • While in Japan, Japanese food is consumed
  • In UK vast majority of people belong to
    Christianity as a religion.
  • In Iran, Dubai, United Arab Emirate etc the
    people belong to the Islamic religion
  • Religious rituals are shared by vast majority of
    people in these different countries.

26
CULTURE IS DYNAMIC
  • To fulfill its need-gratifying role, culture
    continually must evolve if it is to function in
    the best interest of a society. For this reason,
    the marketer must carefully monitor the
    sociocultural environment in order to market an
    existing product more effectively or to develop
    promising new products.
  • Many factors are likely to produce cultural
    changes within a given society ( new technology,
    population shifts, resource shortages, wars,
    changing values, and customs borrowed from other
    cultures, political and legal factors)
  • The changing nature of culture means that
    marketers have to consistently reconsider why
    consumers are now doing what they do, who the
    purchasers and the users of their products are (
    males only, females only, or both), when they do
    their shopping, how and where they can be reached
    by the media, and what new product and service
    needs are emerging.
  • Marketers who monitor cultural changes also often
    find new opportunities to increase corporate
    profitability. For example, marketers of such
    products and services as life insurance,
    financial and investment advice, casual clothing,
    toy electric trains, and cigars are among those
    who have attempted to take advantage of shifts in
    what is feminine and how to communicate with
    female consumers.

27
THE MEASUREMENT OF CULTURE.
  • A wide range of measurement techniques are used
    in the study of culture.
  • Projective techniques
  • Attitude measurement methods
  • Field observation
  • Participant observation
  • Content analysis
  • Value measurement survey instruments (technique).
  • Consumer fieldwork

28
American core values
  • Achievement and success
  • Activity
  • Efficiency and practicality
  • Progress
  • Material comfort
  • Individualism
  • Freedom
  • External conformity
  • Humanitarianism
  • Youthfulness
  • Fitness and Health
  • Core values are not an American phenomenon

29
  • SUBCULTURE AND
  • CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

30
WHAT IS SUBCULTURE?
  • Subculture is a distinct cultural group that
    exists as an identifiable segment within a
    larger, more complex society.
  • Thus the cultural profile of a society or nation
    is a composite of two distinct elements ( 1. the
    unique beliefs, values, and customs subscribed to
    by members of specific subcultures and (2) the
    central or core cultural themes that are shared
    by most of the population, regardless of specific
    subcultural membership.

31
Examples of Subcultures
  • NATIONALITY SUBCULTURE

32
RELIGIOUS SUBCULTURES
33
GEOGRAPHIC AND REGIONAL SUBCULTURES.
34
RACIAL SUBCULTURES.
35
AGE SUBCULTURE
36
Sex as a subculture
  • SEX ROLES AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
  • CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND SEX ROLES
  • THE WORKING WOMAN

37
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