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Sustainable tourism

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Tourism impacts * Solutions? - Destination management Destination Management or Marketing Organisations (DMO)? The concept of the DMO (where M stands for ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sustainable tourism


1
Tourism impacts
2
Tourism impacts
3
The next generation
4
The technology fix - Ski Dubai , United Arab
Emirates
5
Or is the answer in Sustainable Destination
Management?
6
Sustainable Tourism and the role of Tourism in
Sustainable Development
  • International declarations Brundtland 1987
    Agenda 21 - for tourism 1995.
  • Sustainable development
  • Development that meets the needs of the present
    without compromising the ability of future
    generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987)

7
Sustainable Tourism
  • Sustainable development is simply one step
    beyond what was traditionally termed conservation
    - wise use of resources. ..... development based
    on acceptable levels of social and
    environmental change.
  • Gunn, 1994.

8
WTO definition of Sustainable Tourism
  • Sustainable tourism development meets the needs
    of present tourists and host regions while
    protecting and enhancing opportunity for the
    future. It is envisaged as leading to management
    of all resources in such a way that economic,
    social, and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled
    while maintaining cultural integrity, essential
    ecological processes, biological diversity, and
    life support systems

(World Tourism Organisation, 1997)
9
  • Break sustainable tourism down into three core
    elements
  • The holistic approach environment, economy and
    society/culture
  • The time dimension long term
  • Include all stakeholders

10
CORE 1 THE HOLISTIC APPROACH
  • Sustainable tourism development sustainable in
    terms of
  • Economy
  • Environment
  • Society and culture

11
Sustainable tourism
  • The holy grail of tourism?
  • Tourism that is
  • Environmentally
  • Economically
  • Socio-culturally
  • Sustainable

12
Society culture
Environment
Economy
Integration, communication, collaboration
13
Economic health
Well-being of society
Guest satisfaction
protection of natural resources
Healthy culture
Balanced priorities in sustainable tourism
14
Balancing Objectives in Tourism Development
  • For example, is it possible to balance and
    trade-off between the following objectives?
  • Economic Growth
  • Preservation of Ecology / Biodiversity
  • Preservation of Cultural Heritage
  • Social Welfare
  • Regional Development Imbalance

15
Balancing Objectives in Tourism Development
  • The above objectives are often included in the
    holistic approach to sustainable tourism
    development.
  • (Muller, 1994.)

16
BEST Business Enterprises for Sustainable
Tourism
17
Ethics and tourismWhat is the role of the
individual?
  • How do I behave when on holiday?
  • Do I interact with the local people and local
    environment from a basis of respect, or use them
    simply for my convenience?
  • Can I make a more positive contribution to the
    local economy?
  • How ethical are my tour companys policies?

http//www.tourismconcern.org.uk
18
Would you be more likely to book a holiday with a
company if they had a written code of ethics?
  • Yes
  • No
  • Dont know

19
Would you be more likely to book a holiday with a
company if they had a written code of ethics
Tearfund (2002)
20
Who is driving the ethics debate?
  • Global organisations (e.g. UNESCO, WTO, UNEP)
  • International NGOs (e.g. WTO, Tourism Concern)
  • Charities (e.g. VSO)
  • Christian organisations (e.g. Tearfund)
  • Industry organisations (e.g. AITO, ABTA)

21
WTO Global Code of Ethics Principles
  • ARTICLE 1Tourism's contribution to mutual
    understanding and respect between peoples and
    societiesARTICLE 2Tourism as a vehicle for
    individual and collective fulfilmentARTICLE
    3Tourism, a factor of sustainable
    developmentARTICLE 4 Tourism, a user of the
    cultural heritage of mankind and contributor to
    its enhancement
  • ARTICLE 5Tourism, a beneficial activity for host
    countries and communitiesARTICLE 6Obligations
    of stakeholders in tourism developmentARTICLE
    7Right to tourismARTICE 8Liberty of tourist
    movementsARTICLE 9Rights of the workers and
    entrepreneurs in the tourism industry

See http//www.world-tourism.org/code_ethics/eng/p
rinciples.htm
22
Issues of ethical concern for tour operators
  • Relationship with host community
  • Treatment of employees
  • Marketing of products
  • Attitude to the natural environment

Weeden (2002)
23
Utilising ethical credentials
  • Use of locally owned organisations
  • Keep group sizes small
  • Treat all employees fairly
  • Promote packages truthfully

Weeden (2002)
24
Using ethical credentials pays off
Meyer et al. (2004)
25
  • ACTIVITY 1 20 MINUTES
  • YOUR VIEWS ON ETHICAL ISSUES

26
Ethical questions for you and your company
  • Would your guests be willing to pay more money
    for their holiday if workers at the destination
    were guaranteed good wages and working
    conditions?
  • Would your guests be willing to pay more money
    for their holiday if the hotel served locally
    produced food?
  • Would your guests be willing to pay more money
    for their holiday if some of the money went to a
    local charity?

27
CORE 2 TIME DEMENSION
  • Time dimension long lasting (inter-generational
    equity)
  • Tourism viable over an indefinite period and
    does not degrade or alter the environment (human
    and physical) Butler 1993
  • Ensure that productivity can be sustained into
    the long term future

28
  • How long is long term?
  • What is the average business investment time
    scale?
  • What is the normal political timescale?

29
Complication to core 2 the present??
  • Social equity dimension (intra-generational
    equity)
  • spread wealth more evenly throughout current
    generations throughout the world
  • Provide for a better level of fairness and
    opportunity between different countries

30
CORE 3 - INCLUDE ALL STAKEHOLDERS
  • Holistic includes all aspects and stakeholders
  • Cooperation, partnerships and compromises
  • Facilitate and engage public participation

31
  • Participation all interest groups affected by a
    development should be involved in the decision
    making process.

32
The key stakeholders in sustainable tourism
Tourism Industry
Governmental Bodies
The Host Community
Tourists
Sustainable Tourism
Pressure Groups
Voluntary Sector/NGOs
Experts
Media
33
  • ACTIVITY 2 20 MINUTES
  • YOUR VIEWS ON WHO SHOULD TAKE THE LEAD IN
    DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

34
Solutions? - Destination management
35
Destination Management or Marketing Organisations
(DMO)?
  • The concept of the DMO (where M stands for
    management rather than simply marketing)- a quite
    recent form of organizing the destination
    management.
  • DMO - responsible for well-being of all aspects
    of the destination
  • marketing is no longer the sole purpose

36
Linking competitiveness with sustainability
Ritchie and Crouch, (2003)
37
4 Pillars of sustainability (Ritchie Crouch,
200344-47)
  • Ecological sustainability
  • Economic sustainability
  • Socio-cultural sustainability
  • Political (governance) sustainability

38
Political sustainability (governance)
  • Political sustainability is rarely identified as
    one of the pillars of sustainability.
  • However-critical to the acceptability of any
    solution.
  • Problem lies on how one determines
    sustainability.
  • A philosophical question a political debate.
  • Who decides? Power structures, elites and
    democracy.
  • (Ritchie Crouch 2003.)

39
A framework for monitoring destination impacts
  • Six factors
  • Economic and regional development benefits
  • Adverse environmental effects
  • Quality of life employment opportunities
  • Improved community environment
  • Cultural erosion
  • Crime

40
Core indicators of sustainable tourism
  • Site protection
  • Stress
  • Use intensity
  • Social impact
  • Development control
  • Waste management
  • Planning processes
  • Critical ecosystems
  • Consumer satisfaction
  • Local satisfaction
  • Tourisms contribution
  • to local economy

41
What is important in the definition of indicators?
  • Relevance to the issue
  • Data availability (capacity to collect and
    process)
  • Credibility of the information
  • Clarity and understandability to users
  • Comparability over time and across jurisdictions
    or regions

42
A WTO guidebook on indicators
43
Other issues in sustainable tourism debate
  • To name some of the key issues in the sustainable
    tourism debate
  • visitor management
  • concept of carrying capacity
  • role of public sector planning
  • role of industry
  • tourist education
  • private versus public transportation
  • value judgment and lack of factual evidence etc.

44
Also - Links to Ecotourism
  • Looks at -
  • policy frameworks
  • conservation management frameworks
  • WTO ecotourism
  • Definitions of ecotourism

45
Further websites to assist benchmarking your
destination
  • United Nations Environment Program
  • See more about sustainable tourism from the
    following webpages
  • www.uneptie.org/pc/tourism/sust-tourism
  • The impacts of tourism in environment
  • http//www.uneptie.org/pc/tourism/sust-tourism/env
    ironment.htm

46
  • Too much for a one day workshop!!
  • BUT for today, lets concentrate on practical
    ways forward what can you do?

47
  • ACTIVITY 3 Think of over Lunch
  • PRACTICAL WAYS FORWARD
  • THE ROLE OF INDUSTRY WHAT CAN YOU DO IN YOUR
    BUSINESS TO CONTRIBUTE TO SUSTAINABLE TOURISM?

48
  • Thank You!
  • Discussion
  • .
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