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Nutrition through the Ages


Nutrition Through The Ages Infant Nutrition: 0-12 months Good nutrition is essential for infants. During first year, infants grow and develop faster than at any ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nutrition through the Ages

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Nutrition Through The Ages
Infant Nutrition 0-12 months
  • Good nutrition is essential for infants.
  • During first year, infants grow and develop
    faster than at any other time.
  • For their size, infants require more calories.

Nutrient Needs for Infants
  • Calories
  • High-calorie needs based on body weight.
  • Infants gain weight very quickly.
  • Protein
  • Critical for infant growth.
  • Infants who breastfeed or drink recommended
    amount of formula consume adequate protein.

Nutrient Needs for Infants
  • Fat
  • Do not limit for children under 2.
  • Needed to support an infants rapid growth.
  • More than 50 of calories should come from fat.
  • Vitamins and minerals
  • Vitamin and mineral needs are based on the
    average amount consumed by thriving infants
    breastfed by well-nourished mothers.

Infants First Food
  • For the first 4-6 months an infants nutritional
    needs can be met by breast milk, infant formula
    or a combination.
  • Breast milk or formula should continue throughout
    the first year of life.

Introducing Solid Foods
  • Signs that infant is ready for solid foods
  • Sits with little support
  • Shows interest in food
  • Can move foods from the front to the back of the
  • Can turn away to signal enough

Introducing Solid Foods
  • Generally start at 4-6 months with
    iron-fortified, single-grain infant cereal
  • Strained baby meats, vegetables and fruits 100
    fruit juices plain toast and teething biscuits
    7-9 months.
  • Chopped soft fruits and vegetables meats
    unsweetened dry cereals plain soft bread and
    pasta 10-12 months.

Birth to 1 Year
  • Introduce challenge of drinking from sippy cup
    around 6 to 9 months.
  • Limit amount of juice (AAP does not recommend
    juice for infants under 6 months and no more than
    6 ounces a day for older infants.
  • One by one, offer a variety of foods to baby.
  • Begin with single foods.
  • Plain tastes best.
  • Increase amount of solid foods as baby grows.

Toddler Nutrition 12 months 2 years
  • Adequate nutrition is necessary for toddlers to
    achieve their full growth and developmental

Transition to Table Food
  • Introduce new table foods slowly and add only one
    food at a time.
  • Finger foods can help in the transition from
    pureed foods to table foods.
  • Nutritious snacks should be used instead of
    sweetened beverages, snack foods or desserts.

Toddlers and Preschoolers
  • Set a schedule.
  • Keep serving sizes child friendly.
  • Rule of thumb 1 tablespoon of food per year of
  • Listen to childrens hunger cues.
  • Avoid forcing membership into the clean-plate
  • Learn about the feeding relationship between
    parents and child.
  • Lifetime eating habits and attitudes are formed
    during these early years of childhood.

Nutrient Needs of Toddlers
  • Appetite
  • Toddlers growth rate slows, which results in
    decreased appetite and interest in food.
  • It is important to understand a decreased
    appetite is normal.
  • Toddlers can self-regulate their calorie intake.

  • Providing variety of foods by following MyPyramid
    every day is best assurance of getting adequate
    calories, vitamins and minerals needed.
  • Recommendations for MyPyramid are only for
    individuals 2 years and above.
  • My Pyramid Plan based on 1,000 calories for
    toddler 2 years of age
  • Grains 3 ounces (1.5 ounces whole grains)
  • Vegetables 1 cup (2 servings)
  • Fruit 1 cup (2 servings)
  • Milk 2 cups
  • Meat Beans 2 ounces
  • Oils 3 teaspoons daily
  • Extra Fats Sugars - limited

  • Concern during transition from strained foods to
    regular table foods.
  • Foods that are hard, tough to chew, small and
    round or sticky are most often choked on, unless
    the shape or texture can be modified.
  • Hot dogs Whole grapes
  • Tough stringy meats Hard, raw vegetables
  • Chunks of meat Popcorn
  • Fish with bones Small or hard candies
  • Peanut butter Jelly beans
  • Nuts Gum
  • Hard raw fruits Gummy textured candy
  • Marshmallows Raisins

Preventing Overweight in Infants and Toddlers
  • Avoid overfeeding.
  • Do not force infants to eat.
  • Wait until 4-6 months before adding solid foods.
  • Limit juice to 3-4 ounces.
  • Do not use food as a reward.
  • Encourage physical activity.

School-age Nutrition Needs
  • Follow MyPyramid.
  • 6-11 year olds need 1,200 to 2,200 calories
    depending on age, gender and activity level.
  • In general, boys require slightly more than girls
    and active kids require more than inactive kids.

Grains Vegetables Fruits Milk Meat/Beans
1,200 4 oz. 1.5 cups 1 cup 2 cups 3 oz.
1,400 5 oz. 1.5 cups 1.5 cups 2 cups 4 oz.
1,600 5 oz. 2 cups 1.5 cups 3 cups 5 oz.
1,800 6 oz. 2.5 cups 1.5 cups 3 cups 5 oz.
2,000 6 oz. 2.5 cups 2 cups 3 cups 5.5 oz.
2,200 7 oz. 3 cups 2 cups 3 cups 6 oz.
School Age Nutrition Needs
  • Children need to make their own
  • food decisions
  • Breakfast Breakfast Breakfast
  • A well-nourished child is ready to learn.
  • Regular breakfast skipping is linked to less
    school achievement and performance.
  • Kids who eat breakfast are less likely to be
    overweight and more likely to get enough calcium.
  • Beating the time barrier
  • Keep quick-to-fix healthy foods on hand
    ready-to-eat whole-grain cereals, bagels, toaster
    waffles and breads yogurt, fresh fruit, low-fat
    milk and cheeses, peanut butter.

School-age Nutrition Needs
  • The Vegetable Challenge
  • Add veggies to kid favorites.
  • Fortify ready-to-eat soup with
  • extra vegetables or canned beans.
  • Offer raw finger-food veggies.
  • Serve vegetables with bright colors and crisp
  • Start a veggie club.
  • Nothing works offer more fruit.

  • Important part of a balanced diet for a
  • child.
  • Growing kids need extra energy during
  • the day to support growth and development.
  • Planning can help ensure that snacks eaten will
    be healthier ones.
  • Can cut down on feelings of hunger and less
    likelihood of overeating at mealtimes.
  • Keep serving sizes in mind as well as nutrient
  • Keep in mind to choose those that are low in fat,
    added sugars and calories.

Healthy Snack Choices
  • Low-fat milk
  • Low-fat yogurt with fruit
  • String cheese
  • Instant pudding made with nonfat milk
  • Frozen fruit bars
  • Fresh fruit
  • Individual servings of applesauce or fruit
  • Raisins
  • Cut-up fresh vegetables with low-fat salad
  • Baby carrots
  • Graham crackers
  • Pretzels
  • Dry cereal
  • Vanilla wafers
  • Animal crackers
  • Plain popcorn

Picky! Picky!! Picky!!!
  • Relax. Picky eating is often a normal phase.
  • Kids sometimes need 10 or more exposures to a
    food before they will take their first bite.
  • Recognize importance of family meals.
  • Kids need positive role models for healthy eating
    and physical activity.
  • Prepare foods in a variety of ways.

Picky! Picky!! Picky!!!
  • Involve kids in food-related activities.
  • Catch kids when they are hungry.
  • Make sure there are plenty of healthy choices
  • Encourage kids to drink water when thirsty.
  • Keep regular checks on growth.
  • Daily multivitamin/mineral supplement??

Unplug Kids
  • 60 minutes of activity most days is recommended
  • Walking
  • Bike riding
  • Skating or skate boarding
  • Playing basketball or soccer
  • Swimming
  • Jumping rope
  • Reduce time spent with the
  • television, computer or
  • video games

Slim Down an Overweight Child
  • Seek professional advice.
  • Encourage activity and participate with them.
  • Avoid severe food restrictions or fad diets.
  • Offer lower fat, lower calorie foods all the time
    meals and snacks.
  • Tailor portion sizes for the child not an adult.
  • Make meals and snacks enjoyable.
  • Avoid labeling foods as good or bad.

Slim Down an Overweight Child
  • Teach to eat slowly and chew food well.
  • Set time limits on TV, computer or video games.
  • Make a house rule eat only in the kitchen or
    dining room.
  • Talk to child about his or her feelings.
  • Be aware that sometimes kids say theyre hungry
    when theyre really bored or looking for
  • Offer a snack like an apple, crackers or even a
    glass of water.

  • Estimated daily calories for teens 14-18
  • Girls 1,800 to 2,400 (inactive ? active)
  • Boys 2,200 to 3,200 (inactive ? active)

Grains Vegetables Fruits Milk Meat/Beans
1,800 6 oz. 2.5 cups 1.5 cups 3 cups 5 oz.
2,000 6 oz. 2.5 cups 2 cups 3 cups 5.5 oz.
2,200 7 oz. 3 cups 2 cups 3 cups 6 oz.
2,400 8 oz. 3 cups 2 cups 3 cups 6.5 oz.
2,800 10 oz. 3.5 cups 2.5 cups 3 cups 7 oz.
3,200 10 oz. 4 cups 2.5 cups 3 cups 7 oz.
Apples, Pretzels and Ice Cream
  • Teens are typically missing certain nutrients in
    their daily diets.
  • The 3 most important ones are
  • Calcium.
  • Iron.
  • Zinc.

  • Function
  • Gives strength to bones and teeth
  • Helps your muscles contract
  • Helps blood to clot
  • Food Sources
  • Milk, yogurt, cheese, ice cream, frozen yogurt,
    foods made with mild or other dairy products
  • Orange juice fortified with calcium, dark green,
    leafy vegetables, broccoli, soybeans, canned fish
    with bones like salmon and sardines
  • How much is needed a day?
  • 1,300 mg a day
  • No more than 2,500 mg a day

  • How do you know how much calcium a food has?
  • Look at the daily value next to calcium on the
    food label
  • Try to eat and drink foods with 20 or more DV
    for calcium
  • Only 14 of girls and 36 of boys age 12 to 19
    get enough calcium every day

  • Typical amounts of calcium found in foods
  • 1 cup of milk, whole or low-fat 300 mg
  • 1 ½ oz. cheddar cheese
  • 1 cup low-fat fruit yogurt
  • 1 cup orange juice, calcium fortified
  • 3 oz. canned salmon 205
  • ½ cup pudding 150
  • ½ cup frozen yogurt 105
  • ½ cup ice cream 85
  • ½ cup broccoli 45

Solving the Calcium Crunch
  • Think of ways to incorporate milk and other
    calcium foods into meals and snacks.
  • Keep foods with calcium in the house and put them
    on the table during meals and snacks.
  • Keep drinking milk throughout life.
  • Lay off soft drinks as much as possible they
    pull calcium and phosphorous from bones.

Ideas for High-Calcium Snacks
  • Milk or flavored milk beverage
  • Frozen yogurt
  • Low-fat cheese cubes and pretzels
  • Mini pizzas
  • Fruit flavored yogurt
  • You name a few - - -

  • Function
  • Forms hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in blood
  • Helps prevent infection and anemia
  • Helps body use food for energy
  • Food sources
  • Meat, poultry, eggs
  • Dried fruit
  • Fortified breads and cereals
  • Dark green vegetables
  • How much is needed each day?
  • 15 mg each day for girls
  • 11 mg each day for boys

Counting Up Iron
  • 3 oz. beef liver 5.8 mg
  • 3 oz. lean ground beef 1.8
  • 3 oz. chicken 1.0
  • 1 cup fortified cereal 4.5 18
  • ½ cup red kidney beans 2.6
  • 1 oz. pretzels 1.3

Spiking Iron Absorption
  • To increase the absorption of iron
  • Eat or drink a source of vitamin C with iron food
  • Dont drink tea with iron foods it decreases
    the absorption.
  • 17 of all adolescent girls are anemic.
  • Tired, pale, hands stay cold, nail beds turn
    blue, catch infections quickly.

Ideas for High-Iron Snacks
  • Dried fruits like apricots, bananas, raisins,
  • Pretzels or other enriched-grain products
  • Nuts
  • You name a few - - -

Zinc Also Essential
  • Often comes up short for teens.
  • Essential for growth and sexual maturation.
  • Food sources meats and animal-based foods.
  • Lack of zinc may affect development.

Fast Food
  • 2-3 fast-food meals a week.
  • More schools are serving fast food-
  • type meals.
  • Usually very high in fat and sodium.
  • Children develop a taste preference for high-fat
    and high-sodium foods.
  • Look at nutrition and make healthier choices.
  • Side salad vs. fries.
  • Grilled chicken sandwich vs. burger.
  • Low-fat milk vs. regular soft drink.

Nutrition for the Older Adults
Dietary Quality
  • Dietary quality plays a major role in preventing
    or delaying the onset of chronic diseases.
  • Older persons living in poverty are not as likely
    to have a healthy diet.

Eating for Healthy Aging...
  • Older adults need protein, carbohydrate, fat,
    vitamins, minerals and water.
  • Getting enough of the nutrients may be
  • Some nutrients that may require special
  • - Vitamin D, vitamin C, iron, vitamin A, folic
    acid, vitamin B-12, zinc and water.

Energy Spending Calories Wisely...
  • Most elderly use less energy or calories.
  • Need the same amount of nutrients but few
  • Choose nutrient-dense food.
  • Most need about 1,600 calories daily.
  • No more than 30 of calories from fat.
  • Most energy should be obtained from complex

Protein An Issue for Some...
  • Need 2 servings of food from the Meat and Bean
  • Elderly may have a problem chewing protein-rich
  • Elderly may have a problem digesting protein
  • Limited-income might avoid meat, poultry or fish
    because they often cost more than many other

How to get enough protein...
  • If on a budget keep portions small or stretch
    in a casserole dish.
  • Consider other less expensive sources.
  • Chop meat or poultry well, if need to.
  • Trouble chewing have teeth or dentures checked.
  • Include dairy products.

Calcium As Important As Ever...
  • Calcium needs go up as we get older.
  • To help maintain bone mass, calcium
    recommendations increase by 20.
  • Men and women need 1,200 mg calcium daily.
  • Risk for osteoporosis goes up with age.
  • Many elderly dont consume enough calcium-rich

  • Many elderly dont get enough weight-bearing
    exercise like walking or strength training.
  • Milk, cheese and yogurt best source of calcium.
  • Other sources dark green, leafy vegetables,
    fish with edible bones and tofu made with calcium.

Vitamin D The Sunshine Vitamin...
  • Calcium and vitamin D are partners.
  • Helps deposit calcium into bones.
  • Helps to protect us from bone disease.
  • Body makes vitamin D after sunlight hits the
  • As we age, our bodies dont seem to make vitamin
    D from sunlight as easily.
  • Need for vitamin D goes up after 50.

The Iron-Vitamin C Connection
  • Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron from plant
    sources of food.
  • Poor diet may lead to deficiency in one or both
    of the nutrients.
  • To avoid iron-deficiency
  • Choose economical sources of iron.
  • Add vitamin C food to meal to boost iron
  • Add meat fish or poultry to grain-based meals.

Thirst-Quenchers...Drink Fluids
  • Adults use up abut 2 ½ quarts of fluids a day.
  • Thirst is bodys signal to drink more.
  • With age, sense of thirst diminishes.
  • Elderly may not be able to count on thirst as a
    reminder to drink fluids.
  • As we age, kidneys do not conserve fluids as they
    once did.
  • Elderly may deliberately avoid fluids.

Water and the Health Connection...
  • Dehydration common problem among elderly.
  • Less fluids chances of constipation rises.
  • Drinking liquids at meals makes eating easier.
  • Taking medication drinking water has an
    important role.
  • Older adults need 8 to 12 cups.

Warning Signs of Poor Nutritional Health...
  • I have an illness or condition that made me
    change the kind and/or amount of food I eat.
  • I eat fewer than 2 meals per day.
  • I eat few fruits or vegetables or milk products.
  • I have 3 or more drinks of beer, liquor or wine
    almost every day.

  • I have tooth or mouth problems that make it hard
    for me to eat.
  • I dont always have enough money to buy the food
    I need.
  • I eat alone most of the time.
  • I take 3 or more different prescribed or
    over-the-counter drugs a day.
  • Without wanting to, I have lost or gained 10
    pounds in the last 6 months.
  • I am not always physically able to shop, cook
    and/or feed myself.

D E T E R M I N E Your Nutritional Health...
  • D isease...
  • Any disease that puts your nutritional health at
    risk 4 out of 5 have chronic diseases that are
    affected by diet.
  • Confusion or memory loss that keeps getting
    worse affects 1 out of 5.
  • Feeling sad or depressed affects 1 in 8 older

  • E ating Poorly...
  • - Eating too little or eating too much.
  • - Eating the same foods day after day.
  • - Not eating fruits, vegetables and milk
    products daily.
  • - Skipping meals 1 in 5 adults skip meals
  • - 1 in 4 older adults drink too much alcohol.

  • T ooth Loss/Mouth Pain...
  • - Healthy mouth, teeth and gums are needed to
  • - Missing, loose or rotten teeth or dentures
    that dont fit well can make chewing or
    swallowing painful.

  • E conomic Hardship...
  • 40 of older Americans have incomes of less than
    6,000 per year.
  • Having less...or choosing to spend less...than
    25-30 per week for food makes it very hard to
    get food needed to stay healthy.

  • R educed Social Contact...
  • 1/3 of older Americans live alone.
  • Being with people daily has a positive effect on
    morale, well-being and eating.

  • M ultiple Medicines...
  • Almost ½ of older Americans take multiple
    medicines daily.
  • Elderly may respond differently to drugs.
  • The more medicine taken by the elderly the
    greater chance of side effects.
  • Vitamins and minerals taken in large doses acts
    like drugs and can cause harm.
  • - Tell doctor everything taken.

  • I nvoluntary Weight Loss/Gain...
  • Losing or gaining weight when not trying is a
    warning sign that must not be ignored.
  • Being overweight also increases chance of poor

  • N eeds Assistance to Self-Care...
  • Most older people are able to eat.
  • 1 out of 5 elderly have trouble walking,
    shopping, buying and cooking food.

  • E lder Years Over 80...
  • Most older people lead full, productive lives.
  • As age increases, risk of frailty and health
    problems increase.
  • Check nutritional health regularly.

Eating Well As We Age...
  • Staying Strong and Healthy

Problem change in the kind and or amount of food
eaten because of illness.
  • Adults need over 40 different nutrients each day
    to stay healthy and to be able to care for
  • What to do
  • Ask doctor if illness or drug taken each day make
    it hard to eat the foods needed.
  • Eat six small meals instead of three large ones.
  • Eat snacks between meals or before bed time.
  • Read food labels.
  • Keep food fixed and easily available.

Problem Eating Fewer Than Two Meals a Day
  • As we age fewer calories are needed.
  • Still need same amount of (if not more) protein,
    vitamins and minerals.
  • What to do
  • Hard to cook...use frozen dinners, pre-cooked
    food or salad bar from grocery store.
  • Cook meals ahead.
  • Eat out at a senior center.
  • Share shopping and cooking duties with a friend
    or neighbor.

Problem Eat Few Fruits, Vegetables or Milk
  • Fruits and vegetables are high in fiber, vitamins
    and minerals.
  • Milk and milk products contain calcium.
  • What to do
  • Buy only the amount needed.
  • Keep dried, canned or frozen fruit.
  • Add vegetables to soups, stews and other mixed
  • Look for low-fat dairy products.

  • Use cheese sauce or dip to add flavor and calcium
    to fruits and vegetables.
  • Dont like milkeat cheese or yogurt.
  • Make a shake or sundae mixed with fruit and milk.
  • If milk or milk products cause gas or diarrhea,
    ask for help to prevent problems.

Problem 3 or More Drinks of Beer, Liquor or Wine
Almost Every Day.
  • Alcohol is high in calories and robs body of
  • Can harm brain, heart, liver and other vital
  • What to do
  • Drink in moderation.
  • Dont mix drugs and alcohol.

Problem Tooth or Mouth Problems That Make It
Hard to Eat
  • Changing the kind of food eaten can sometimes
  • What to do
  • Eat food that is easy-to-chew.
  • Chop or grind food.
  • Add gravy or sauce to make it moist.
  • Eat thick soups, fruit smoothies and milkshakes.
  • Use medical nutritional products.
  • Eat hot cereals.

Problem No Appetite
  • Loneliness can make you lose your appetite.
  • May not feel like fixing meals for self.
  • Food has no flavor or tastes bad.
  • What to do
  • Eat with family or friends.
  • Take part of group meal programs.
  • Increase flavor by adding spices and herbs.
  • If medicine is the problem ask to have it
  • Serve food hotget digestive juices flowing.

Problem Short on Money
  • What to do...
  • Buy low-cost foods dried beans, peas, rice and
  • Or buy foods containing these items.
  • Use coupons for money off on foods you like.
  • Buy foods on sale or store-brand foods.
  • Find out what organization offers free or
    low-cost meals.
  • Take part in group meal program.
  • Get food stamps.

Problem Eat Alone Most of the Time
  • Seniors often eat snacks rather than a meal.
  • Snacks may be high in salt, sugar and fat.
  • What to do
  • Join a senior center that offers meals.
  • Watch TV while you eat.
  • Share meals with a friend.

Problem Take 3 or More Different Prescribed or
Over-the-Counter Medicines Daily
  • Medicines may increase or decrease the appetite.
  • May change the way food taste or smell.
  • May affect need for vitamins or minerals.
  • Can result in a person not getting enough food
    and fluids.
  • What to do
  • Ask if drugs can affect eating habits.
  • Make sure to understand when and how to take the

  • Never take someones elses prescription drugs.
  • Buy all the drugs in the same place.
  • Let doctor know of changes in weight, appetite,
    sense of taste or smell, energy level or sleeping

Problem Lost or Gained 10 Lb. in Last 6 Months
  • Keeping weight stable is a sign of good health.
  • What to do
  • Always tell doctor about weight change.
  • Ask for help in planning meals to meet health
  • Dont use fat diets or herbal cures.

  • Complete Food and Nutrition Guide by the American
    Dietetic Association

Prepared by Terri Crawford
Extension Agent (Nutrition)
Northeast Region
(No Transcript)