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Teaching Writing Skills Effectively Developed and Presented

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Title: Teaching Writing Skills Effectively Developed and Presented


1
Teaching Writing Skills Effectively
  • Developed and Presented by
  • Steck-Vaughn

2
Keys to GED Success
  • Youve asked the question.
  • Here is the answer for which youve been waiting!

3
Keys to GED Success
  • GED Testing Service (GEDTS) researched targeted
    areas of most missed questions based on 2007
    data.
  • Steck Vaughn was provided with the data to
    develop a new GED series targeted to the most
    missed questions.

4
  • Getting Started with GED Key Skills

5
Instructional Features
  • 20 targeted skills in each book identified by a
    special symbol
  • Teaching Tips
  • Pretest with a Performance Analysis Chart
  • Four-page skill lessons with step-by-step
    strategies and GED practice questions
  • Official GED Practice Test Form PA
  • Answers and explanations

6
Sample GED Key Skills
  • Sentence Fragments
  • Integrating Outside Information
  • Graphic Literacy
  • Recognizing Faulty Logic and Misconception
  • Elapsed Time
  • Lines and Angles

7
Keys to GED Success
  • Three questions to be answered
  • What do students need to understand and be
    able to do?
  • What learning experiences and instruction will
    promote that understanding?
  • What changes need to occur to the existing
    curriculum to ensure students have the right
    learning experiences and instruction?

8
GED Writing Skills Test
  • Question Types
  • Correction 45
  • What correction should be made to a sentence or
    paragraph?
  • Revision 35
  • What is the best way to write the underlined
    selection?
  • Construction Shift 20
  • What is best way to rewrite an entire sentence,
    or combine two sentences?

9
Language Arts, Writing
  • Key Skills
  • Organization
  • Sentence Structure
  • Comma Splice
  • Construction Shift
  • Independent Clauses
  • Sentence Fragment
  • Usage
  • Verb Tense
  • Subject-Verb Agreement
  • Pronoun Case
  • Mechanics
  • Homonyms

10
Sample Question
  • Sentences 1 and 2 I need a copy of my birth
    certificate. In order to apply for Social
    Security.
  • The most effective combination of sentences 1
    and 2 would include which group of words?
  • a copy, birth certificate, and ordering
  • applying for a certificate with Social Security
  • certificate, but the reason why is because
  • certificate in order
  • to apply and to need
  • Option (4) certificate in order

11
Sample Question
  • Sentence 13 Because you get textbooks,
    assignments, and consultation for only 450.00,
    and this includes employment counseling after you
    graduate, this will surprise you.
  • The most effective revision of sentence 13 would
    begin with which group of words?
  • Youre in for a surprise and because you get
  • Surprise with your textbook
  • Because you are getting many things that will
    surprise you
  • Is a result of the surprise and 450.00
  • Youre in for a surprise! You get
  • Option (5) Youre in for a surprise! You get

12
Sentence Fragments
  • Read one sentence at a time.
  • Does it make sense without other information?
  • Does it have a subject and a verb?
  • Can it stand alone?
  • If not, it is probably a sentence fragment.

13
Sentence Fragments
  • Ways to correct a sentence fragment
  • Supply a subject or a verb to make a complete
    thought.
  • Rushing like a maniac to the car, late as usual.
  • I was rushing like a maniac to the car, late as
    usual.

14
Sentence Fragments
  • Ways to correct a sentence fragment
  • Join dependent and independent clauses with a
    comma.
  • Whenever I regret the past. I focus on the
    present and the future.
  • Whenever I regret the past, I focus on the
    present and the future.

15
Sentence Fragments
  • Ways to correct a sentence fragment
  • Combine sentence fragments with related sentences
    to form complete ideas.
  • The music on the radio today. It is often an
    expression of anger.
  • The music on the radio today is often an
    expression of anger.

16
Sentence Fragments
  • Celebrities such as movie stars, royalty, and
    rock bands often have difficulty living private
    lives. So many photographers and fans. They
    invade a stars privacy. The public demands to
    know about personal milestones such as marriage
    and the birth of children.
  • Identify the fragment.

17
Comma Splices
  • A comma splice occurs when 2 independent clauses
    are joined with a comma.
  • Can the words on either side of the comma stand
    alone as complete sentences?

18
Comma Splices
  • Ways to correct a comma splice
  • Make two sentences.
  • Our car broke down, we were stranded in the
    middle of nowhere.
  • Our car broke down. We were stranded in the
    middle of nowhere.

19
Comma Splices
  • Ways to correct a comma splice
  • Join with a comma and a coordinating conjunction.
  • Our car broke down, so we were stranded in the
    middle of nowhere.

20
Comma Splices
  • Ways to correct a comma splice
  • Relate one clause to another by using a
    subordinating conjunction.
  • When our car broke down, we were stranded in the
    middle of nowhere.

21
Comma Splices
  • Ways to correct a comma splice
  • If the ideas in the clauses are closely related,
    join them with a semicolon.
  • Our car broke down consequently, we were
    stranded in the middle of nowhere.

22
Comma Splices
  • An ordinary kitchen timer can be used in an
    unexpected way. Some couples use this simple
    household item as a timekeeper, it may be used
    when there is a disagreement. This practice may
    help to keep a simple difference of opinion from
    turning into a nasty argument.
  • Fix the comma splice.

23
Combining Sentences
  • Combining short sentences can improve the style
    and clarity of writing.
  • Decide what relationship exists between the ideas
    in the sentences.
  • Be sure to combine the sentences in a way that
    keeps the ideas related.

24
Combining Sentences
  • Ways to combine sentences
  • Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction.
  • She looked for an apartment. She couldnt find
    one.
  • She looked for an apartment, but she couldnt
    find one.

25
Combining Sentences
  • Ways to combine sentences
  • Use a subordinating conjunction and a comma.
  • He wanted a new car. He couldnt afford one.
  • Although he wanted a new car, he couldnt afford
    one.

26
Combining Sentences
  • Ways to combine sentences
  • Turn one sentence into a prepositional phrase.
  • The dog ran very fast. The dog wore a red
    collar.
  • The dog with the red collar ran very fast.

27
Combining Sentences
  • Ways to combine sentences
  • Use a semicolon with closely related sentences.
  • She went to work. She did her job.
  • She went to work she did her job.

28
Verb Tenses
  • Verb tenses signal when events happen.
  • Clue words such as now, last week, and next year
    help readers and writers know when an action
    takes place.
  • Pay attention to all the clue words in a
    paragraph so you can choose correct verb tenses.

29
Verb Tenses
  • Last week, my supervisor will ask me about
    overtime work.
  • Change will ask to asked.
  • Last week, my supervisor asked me about overtime
    work.

30
Subject-Verb Agreement
  • These errors are common in sentences that begin
    with There is or There are.
  • Look ahead to the subject, which comes after the
    verb in this type of sentence.
  • Errors are also common in sentences with compound
    subjects.
  • Students need to learn the rules for these types
    of sentences.

31
Pronouns
  • Common errors
  • Julie and me are going to the game.
  • Johnny told the story to Mark and I.
  • We like to shop at that store because they dont
    pressure you.
  • Incorrect use of reflexive pronouns.

32
Spelling Homonyms
  • Edit the following real-world writings for
    homonym bloopers!
  • If your interested in learning more about our
    Websight, e-mail us.
  • This product comes with an unconditional
    guarantee. It's high quality will make you're
    life better!
  • Body fat problems? We can help. Of coarse you
    need patients when it comes to reducing the
    access around you're waste.
  • I don't want to loose you to. Its much to much
    too bear.

33
Problem Words
34
Organization
  • Teach students how to
  • Organize words and phrases into effective
    sentences.
  • Organize sentences into effective paragraphs.
  • Organize paragraphs into effective paragraphs.
  • Organize sentences in order and then divide into
    paragraphs to create an effective passage.

35
Sample Question
  • Which revision should be made to sentence 4?
  • move sentence 4 to the beginning of paragraph A
  • move sentence 4 to follow sentence 1
  • move sentence 8 to beginning of paragraph C
  • move sentence 4 to follow sentence 9
  • remove sentence 4
  • Which revision would improve the effectiveness of
    the document?
  • remove paragraph A
  • remove paragraph E
  • join paragraphs A and B
  • join paragraphs C and D
  • join paragraphs D and E

36
Sample Question
  • Sentence 13 Because you get textbooks,
    assignments, and consultation for only 450.00,
    and this includes employment counseling after you
    graduate, this will surprise you.
  • The most effective revision of sentence 13
    would begin with which group of words?
  • Youre in for a surprise and because you get
  • Surprise with your text book
  • Because you are getting many things that will
    surprise you
  • Is a result of the surprise and 450.00
  • Youre in for a surprise! You get

37
Combining Sentences
  • Your flight to Chicago will take six hours. You
    may want to bring reading material or work to
    pass the time.
  • Your flight to Chicago will take six hours, so
    you may want to bring

38
Topic Sentences
  • State the main idea of the paragraph
  • Read all the supporting details and sentences of
    the paragraph.
  • Try to summarize the main idea in one sentence.
  • Ask yourself, Could a reader predict what the
    paragraph is about based only on that sentence?

39
Irrelevant Sentences
  • Do not relate to the topic, either by providing
    detail about the topic or by providing a
    transition to another paragraph
  • Unnecessary information
  • Personal information
  • Misplaced information

40
Text Divisions within Paragraphs
  • If the paragraph contains more than 6 sentences,
    should it be divided into 2 paragraphs?
  • Are all sentences related to the same topic?
  • Is there a sentence that just doesnt fit?
  • Is the paragraph logically organized?

41
Activity 1
  • Now its time to try an activity.
  • Open your envelopes.
  • Put the sentences in the correct order.

42
Activity 1
  • And the answer is
  • Scientists are learning a great deal about the
    aging process.
  • With the increasing number of baby boomers who
    are reaching maturity, this is an important area
    of research for todays world.
  • The knowledge that is being learned will allow
    doctors to help their patients live longer and
    better lives.
  • They will be able to defeat diseases associated
    with the aging process and perhaps even delay the
    onset of old age.
  • Although the answers to the aging process may not
    exist today, they may be very much of the world
    of tomorrow.

43
Text Divisions within Documents
  • Errors to correct on GED Writing Test
  • No topic sentence
  • Misplaced sentences
  • Very short paragraphs
  • Paragraphs that are short and undeveloped
  • Each paragraph must contain a topic sentence and
    supporting details.

44
Teaching Tips
  • Interactive Organizational Activities
  • Combining and dividing sentences and paragraphs
  • Identifying topic sentences
  • Removing irrelevant information
  • Contextualized (Real-Life) Situations
  • Editing authentic materials for errors and error
    patterns
  • Using homonyms correctly in real-world writing

45
Teaching Tips
  • Have students search for error patterns in
    authentic materials, such as newspapers, ads.
  • Teach grammar and punctuation through discussion
    and explanation.
  • Have students read aloud passages that have been
    written or choices made on a question.
  • Have students keep a journal of grammar rules and
    application learned from their studies.
  • When editing text, have students read back-wards
    to make sure they havent missed a word.

46
Improving the Essay Score
  • Read the essay prompt carefully.
  • Write down key words from the topic.
  • Plan your essay.
  • Make your case.
  • Avoid making lists of reasons.
  • Use paragraphs to divide text.

47
Improving the Essay Score
  • Write legibly.
  • Avoid repetition.
  • Avoid using big words just for the sake of using
    them.
  • Edit your essay.
  • Use your time wisely.

48
Websites
  • www.rhlschool.com/english.htm
  • www.usingenglish.com/handouts/index.php
  • www.ket.org/ged2002/writing
  • www.grammar-monster.com
  • www.able.state.pa.us/able/cwp/view.asp?a138Q716
    97

49
RHLSchool.com
50
UsingEnglish.com
51
Pre-GED Writing Skills
  • Use TABE to identify problem areas.
  • Practice Practice Practice!!!

52
TABE 9 10 Levels M D
  • New skills tested
  • Progressive tense
  • Subordinating clauses (even in Level M)
  • Transitional devices
  • Appositives
  • Misplaced modifiers
  • Inflectional endings

53
TABE 9 10 Level A
  • New items on Level A
  • Relative pronouns
  • Reflexive pronouns
  • Demonstrative pronouns
  • Adverb comparatives
  • Punctuation in compound sentences

54
TABE Fundamentals
  • 10 books with
  • Relevant content
  • Real-life examples
  • Reproducible student answer sheets
  • Students progress through NRS levels more quickly.

55
  • Questions

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