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Problem-Based Learning

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Problem-Based Learning Presented by STEVE COXON Most s in this presentation were originally created by Janice Robbins, Ph.D. and Kimberly Chandler, Ph.D. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Problem-Based Learning


1
Problem-Based Learning
  • Presented by
  • STEVE COXON
  • Most slides in this presentation were originally
    created by
  • Janice Robbins, Ph.D.
  • and Kimberly Chandler, Ph.D.

2
Curriculum Framework
3
Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM)
Process-Product Dimension
Advanced Content Dimension
Issues/Themes Dimension
(VanTassel-Baska, 1986)
4
(No Transcript)
5
Science Curriculum Framework
The Problem
Concept
Process
Understanding Systems or Change
Using and Conducting Scientific Research
Content
Learning Science
Center for Gifted Education
College of William and May
6
Learner Characteristics and Corresponding
Emphases in the Curriculum
  • THE LEARNER
  • Precocity
  • Intensity
  • Complexity
  • THE CURRICULUM
  • Advanced Content
  • Process/product depth considerations
  • Issues/concepts/themes/
  • ideas across domains of learning

7
Learner Characteristics and Corresponding
Emphases in the Curriculum
  • THE CURRICULUM
  • Advanced content (Provides opportunities for new
  • learning)
  • Process/product depth considerations (Enhances
  • engagement and creative production allows
  • utilization of information in a generative way )
  • Issues/concepts/themes/ideas across domains of
  • learning (Allows students to make connections
  • across areas of study and to work at a level of
  • deep understanding)
  • THE LEARNER
  • Precocity
  • (Advanced development in some
  • curricular area)
  • Intensity
  • (Capacity to focus and
  • concentrate for long periods of time)
  • Complexity
  • (Can engage in high level
  • and abstract thinking)

8
Science curriculum and Problem-based Learning
What teachers need to understand
What students need to do
  • PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING Present
    resolution
  • Reach
    consensus on problem resolution
  • CONCEPT OF SYSTEMS Seek new
    information as necessary
  • Redefine problem as necessary
  • UNIT CONTENT Design and conduct
    experiments
  • Find and analyze information
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Apply systems
    concept to problem
  • Collaborate
  • Understand the concept of
    systems
  • Assume stake holder viewpoint
  • Define the problem

Active Interplay
The Problem
Adapted from Novak, J.D., Gowin, G. B. (1984).
Learning how to learn. New York Cambridge
University Press.
Center for Gifted Education The College of
William and Mary
9
Opening example
10
Acid, Acid Problem Statement
  • You are the supervisor of the day shift of the
    Virginia State Highway Patrol in Williamsburg,
    Virginia. It is 600 a.m. on a steamy June
    morning. You are awakened by the ringing phone.
    When you answer you are told, Come to the
    Queens Creek overpass on eastbound Interstate
    64. There has been a major accident and you are
    needed.
  • Quickly you dress and hurry to the overpass. As
    you approach the bridge, you see an overturned
    truck that is completely blocking both eastbound
    lanes of the freeway. You see CORROSIVE on
    small signs on the side and rear of the truck.
    The truck has lost at least one wheel and is
    resting on the freeway guard rail. There is a
    large gash in the side of the truck from this
    gash, a clear liquid is running down the side of
    the truck, onto the road, and down the hill into
    Queens Creek. Steam is rising from the creek.
    All traffic has been halted and everyone has been
    told to remain in their cars. Many of the
    motorists in the traffic jam appear to be angry
    and frustrated. Police officers, firemen, and
    rescue squad workers are at the scene. They are
    all wearing coveralls and masks. The rescue squad
    is putting the unconscious truck driver onto a
    stretcher. Everyone seems hurried and anxious.

Center for Gifted Education
College of William and May
11
Need to Know Board
Center for Gifted Education
College of William and May
12
PBL Overview
13
What is PBL?
  • Problem-based learning is an instructional
    strategy (a curricular framework) that, through
    student and community interests and motivation,
    provides an appropriate way to teach
    sophisticated content and high-level process all
    while building self-efficacy, confidence, and
    autonomous learner behaviors.

14
PBL is
  • an instructional method that challenges students
    to "learn to learn," working cooperatively in
    groups to seek solutions to real world problems.

15
History of PBL
  • Medical school model (Barrows)
  • Used in both elementary and secondary classrooms
    with gifted students
  • Adapted for use with all learners
  • Used to educate school administrators

16
PBL
  • engages students' curiosity and initiates
    learning the subject matter.
  • provides excellent opportunities for students to
    think critically and analytically, and to find
    and use appropriate learning resources
  • promotes autonomous learning

17
Research on PBL
  • Students show significant learning gains in
    experimental design through a PBL approach
    (VanTassel-Baska, et al. 2000)
  • Students show enhanced real world skills with
    no loss in content knowledge as a result of
    using PBL (Gallagher Stepein, 1996 Gallagher
    Gallagher, 2003)
  • Students teachers are motivated to learn using
    the PBL approach (VanTassel-Baska, 2000)
  • Students show enhanced higher order skill
    development using PBL over other approaches to
    teaching science (Dods,1997)

18
  • Students should be given problems at levels
    appropriate to their maturity that require them
    to decide what evidence is relevant and to offer
    their own interpretations of what the evidence
    means. This puts a premium, just as science does,
    on careful observations and thoughtful analysis.
    Students need guidance, encouragement, and
    practice in collecting, sorting, and analyzing
    evidence, and in building arguments based on it.
    However, if such activities are not to be
    destructively boring, they must lead to some
    intellectually satisfying payoff that students
    care about.
  • -- from Science for All Americans, Project 2061

19
Features of PBL
  • Learner-centered
  • Real world problem
  • Teacher as tutor or coach
  • Emphasis on collaborative teams
  • Employs metacognition
  • Uses alternative assessment
  • Embodies scientific process

20
PBL Roles
  • Teacher
  • Present an ill-structured problem
  • Act as a metacognitive coach
  • Student
  • Create a precise problem statement
  • Find information to solve the problem
  • Evaluate possible solutions
  • Create a final product

Center for Gifted Education The College of
William and Mary, 2009
21
Adaptations for gifted
  • Advanced content
  • Complex concepts
  • Interdisciplinary connections
  • Reasoning, habits of mind, and self-directed
    learning
  • Ethical discussions
  • (Gallagher,
    2001)

Center for Gifted Education
College of William and May
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Center for Gifted Education
College of William and May
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Center for Gifted Education
College of William and May
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Scientific Habits of Mind
  • Cognitive skills, affective skills, and
    attitudes
  • Curiosity
  • Creativity
  • Objectivity
  • Openness to new ideas
  • Skepticism
  • Tolerance for ambiguity

Center for Gifted Education The College of
William and Mary, 2009
25
Self-Directed LearningGrasping Metacognition
  • Self-monitoring performance with an intent to
    self-assess
  • Recognizing gap in knowledge and set up learning
    agenda
  • Identifying learning resources
  • print
  • human
  • technology-based
  • Identifying skills needed to use resources wisely
    and well
  • Sorting through information to determine needed
    information
  • Questioning appropriateness of personal biases
  • Applying information appropriately

Center for Gifted Education The College of
William and Mary, 2009
26
Problem Based Learning
  • State the problem
  • Decide what information you need
  • Conduct information quest
  • Complete scientific investigations
  • Review data summarize findings
  • Communicate problem resolution

Center for Gifted Education
College of William and May
27
Whats an Ill-Structured Problem?
  • More information than initially is presented will
    be necessary to
  • understand whats going on.
  • know what caused it to be a problem.
  • know how to fix it.
  • Theres always more than one right way to figure
    it out.
  • Fixed formulas wont work.
  • Each problem has unique components.
  • Each problem solver has unique characteristics,
    background, experience.
  • The definition of the problem shifts or changes
    as new information is gathered.
  • Ambiguity is a part of the environment throughout
    the process.
  • Data are often incomplete
  • or in conflict
  • or unavailable
  • but choices must be made, anyway.

Center for Gifted Education The College of
William and Mary, 2009
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Ill-Structured Problems
  • Ambiguous
  • No single right answer
  • Data is often incomplete
  • Definition of problem changes
  • Information needs change or grow
  • Stakeholders
  • Deadline for resolution

Center for Gifted Education
College of William and May
29
Problem Diagnosis and Solution Building
  • Ill-structured problem is presented
  • What is going on?
  • What do we know?
  • How can we find out?
  • Where does the information lead us?
  • Do we have enough information?
  • Is the information reliable?
  • Whats the problem?
  • Problem is represented

Center for Gifted Education The College of
William and Mary, 2009
30
Video
  • Problem-Based Learning 3 Classrooms in Action
    (31 minutes)

Center for Gifted Education
College of William and May
31
Macro-concept Systems
32
Macro-Concepts
  • Are broad
  • Reveal fundamental patterns within a content area
  • Allow for valid connections within a content area
  • Apply to several content areas
  • Disclose fundamental similarities and differences
    within and across disciplines
  • Draw the learner deeper into the subject matter,
    inspiring curiosity and interest

33
Systems
  • A system is a collection of items or processes
  • that interact with each other to constitute a
  • meaningful whole.
  • All systems have
  • 1) Elements
  • 2) Boundaries
  • 3) Interactions among elements to generate
    system behavior.
  • 4) Many systems receive input and produce output.

Center for Gifted Education The College of
William and Mary, 2009
34
System Concept Outcomes
  • Students will be able to
  • Describe the important elements of a system
  • Delineate the boundaries of a system
  • Describe input into the system
  • Describe output from the system
  • Identify elements, boundaries, input, output (and
    interactions) as parts of systems
  • Use the terms describing systems to identify the
    components of the system under study
  • Transfer knowledge about the system studied to
    other systems

35
Elements of a System
  • Boundary determines what is inside the system
    and what is outside the system
  • Elements the parts that make up a system
  • Input anything that goes into the system from
    outside the system
  • Output anything that the system releases to the
    outside world
  • Interactions the effects that parts of the
    system have on each other

36
Analyzing a System
37
Interdisciplinary Applications
38
Overview of the Centers PBL units and their
initial problem statements
39
Science Units
  • What a Find! (gr. 2- 4)
  • Wheres the Beach (gr. 2- 4)
  • Acid, Acid Everywhere (gr. 4-6)
  • Electricity City (gr. 4-6)
  • Nuclear Energy Friend or Foe (gr. 6-8)
  • No Quick Fix (gr. 6-8)
  • Something Fishy (gr. 6-8)
  • Animal Populations (gr. 6-8)

Center for Gifted Education The College of
William and Mary, 2009
40
Anatomy of a PBL Unit
  • Curriculum framework goals and outcomes
  • Set of 25 lesson plans purpose, materials,
    activities, and questions
  • Assessment problem logs, experimental design
    worksheets, lab report forms, final assessment
  • References

Center for Gifted Education The College of
William and Mary, 2009
41
PBL Units
  • What a Find!
  • What a Find! is an exploration of the field of
    archaeology. Students are put in the role of a
    newly hired archaeologist who is contacted by a
    construction company crew that has just unearthed
    some artifacts. The construction company needs
    your input to determine what the next steps
    should be. Through the concept of systems, a
    simulation and scientific investigations of the
    archaeological processes, students will uncover a
    solution to the problem.
  • 1999 Winner of a National Association for Gifted
    Children Curriculum Division Award for
    Outstanding Curriculum

42
What a Find! problem
  • You are a newly hired assistant at a small museum
    that has just opened in your hometown. It is your
    second day on the job when you learn that the
    museums archaeologist has resigned. Later that
    day, the museum receives a call from a local
    construction site. While digging to lay a
    foundation for a new school, a backhoe operator
    uncovered numerous artifacts. The construction
    company has stopped work while workers wait to
    hear what should be done next.

43
PBL Units
  • Wheres the Beach?
  • Plans for building a childrens camp at the
    beach are on hold because the town council is
    worried about beach erosion.  Since the camp
    received a large donation to develop
    nature-themed experiences, designed to teach
    children how to protect the environment, the camp
    manager wants to cooperate with the council.  The
    problem is that she must begin construction
    quickly to be ready for the summer season. 
    Acting as members of the town council, the
    students must develop scientifically-based
    regulations that will satisfy the long-term needs
    of the town and the plans for the new camp.

44
Wheres the Beach? problem
  • Plans for building a childrens camp at the beach
    town of Dunesville are on hold because the town
    council is worried about beach erosion. Many
    towns in coastal areas have been experiencing
    problems with erosion over the past few years.
    The camp received a large donation to develop
    nature-themed experiences, designed to teach
    children how to protect the environment. The camp
    manager wants to cooperate with the council so
    that the environment is protected. The problem is
    that she must begin construction quickly to be
    ready for the summer season. You are members of
    the town council. You must come up with
    scientifically based regulations that will
    satisfy the long-term needs of the town and the
    plans for the new camp.

45
PBL Units
  • Acid, Acid Everywhere
  • This unit presents the structure of systems
    through chemistry, ecological habitats, and
    transportation. The unit poses an ill-structured
    problem that leads students into an
    interdisciplinary inquiry about the structure and
    interaction of several systems, centering around
    the study of an acid spill on a local highway.
  • 1997 Winner of a National Association for Gifted
    Children Curriculum Division Award for
    Outstanding Curriculum

46
PBL Units
  • Electricity City
  • This unit provides an interdisciplinary approach
    to introducing students to electricity. In this
    simulated activity, a large recreational complex
    is being built in the middle of a city, and the
    students' role is to plan the site's electrical
    needs, as well as create additional backup plans.
    This "real world" problem requires students to
    analyze the situation, determine what type of
    research is needed, conduct experiments, and
    evaluate solutions.

47
Electricity City problem
  • You are a newly hired employee for the local
    power company. Your first assignment after
    completing the companys orientation program is
    to work as part of a team that has been asked to
    design a recreational complex in the center of
    town. This project is backed by both federal and
    state funding. Your role is to ensure that the
    power (electricity) requirements are planned
    appropriately and are adequate for the new
    complex. The complex will serve the needs of all
    community groups including senior citizens and
    special needs individuals. You must also design a
    comprehensive backup plan for the complex. Your
    training in college stressed city management and
    planning, not electricity.

48
PBL Units
  • Nuclear Energy Friend or Foe?
  • This unit explores the effects of nuclear
    power waste. The topic is introduced through the
    eyes of a mayor of a town where a nuclear power
    plant is located. She must decide if the facility
    can expand its waste disposal techniques. What
    are the biological implications of radiation?
    What are the trade-offs with which society must
    live as we accept nuclear technologies into our
    lives? These questions are explored by students
    as they prepare to make recommendations about the
    use of the nuclear power plant in their
    fictitious town.

49
Nuclear Energy problem
  • Your name is Christine Barrett, and you are the
    mayor of the town of Riverton. You have a nice
    home on the Back River with your husband Richard,
    a middle-school teacher for the Riverton School
    District, and six-year-old son Ellis, now
    entering the first grade. Your job as mayor has
    been rough at times, but you still enjoy it. The
    aspect of the town that has been giving you the
    most grief recently has been the Maple Island
    Nuclear Power Plant, the largest industry in
    Riverton. It produces power for not only Riverton
    but nearly half of the state also. Yesterday, you
    received a letter from your long-time friend,
    Jerry Brown, Vice President of Waste Management
    for the Maple Island Nuclear Power Plant. He was
    writing regarding a suggested plan for expanding
    the waste disposal pools at the plant to
    accommodate the growing number of used power
    assemblies. Today you receive a letter from CAFSE
    (Citizens Action for a Safe Environment)
    adamantly opposing not only the expansion of the
    power plant but also the fact that the plant is
    operating at all. An open discussion on the
    proposed expansion has already been slated for
    next months town council meeting. You have only
    five weeks to garner support for whatever
    position you take.

50
PBL Units
  • No Quick Fix
  • This unit uses systems as the fundamental
    concept to help students understand cell and
    tuberculosis biology. In a series of widening
    concentric circles, students learn that the cells
    are elements in larger systems, such as the
    immune system of the human body. Students also
    interact with human social systems, including
    health care and public education. Students take
    on the role of physician and begin to search for
    the cause and resolution of the problem. While
    unraveling the interactions among various
    systems, students can appreciate the complexities
    of staying healthy in the modern world.

51
No Quick Fix problem
  • You are Dr. Susan Ostrovsky. You have been
    trained as a physician, and also have a masters
    degree in public health. You did your residency
    in infectious diseases and are now on staff at
    the Eastbridge Public Health Department. This
    morning, you received the following e-mail
    message from your boss, who is away at an
    important training program in Washington, D.C.
  • Susan Dr. Johnston called yesterday afternoon to
    inform us that one of his patients, a 15-year-old
    boy, has been confirmed as having active
    tuberculosis. The boy had a positive tuberculin
    test two weeks ago. A sputum smear was positive
    for acid-fast bacilli. Dr. Johnston has referred
    the patient to Dr. Goldstein at University
    Hospital for treatment. Please follow up on this
    as soon as possible. The patient is a student at
    Eastbridge High School. As you know, the school
    is terribly overcrowded and the potential for a
    serious outcome is great. I need an action plan
    from you by tomorrow morning. Please fax it to me
    at my hotel in Washington D.C. The training lasts
    another three weeks, so Ill need daily updates
    from you until I get back.

52
PBL Units
  • Animal Populations
  • This curriculum unit integrates population
    biology and mathematics. The ill-structured
    problem puts students in the stakeholder role of
    assistant to the mayor of a small town in which
    residents are demanding that something be done
    about the deer that are eating their landscaped
    plants. Throughout the unit, students deal with
    physical models, conceptual models, and
    mathematical models as they tackle the deer
    problem and the complication of Lyme Disease.

53
Animal Populations problem
  • Chris, Im not going to be able to make it home
    tonight after allsorry! The evening conference
    session will be much more interesting than I had
    thought and so Im going to be staying at Sues
    house tonight rather than coming all the way
    home. Could you please pick up some Chinese food
    on you way home and get the kids from daycare?
    Oh, and the babysitter left a message this
    morning that Josh has a funny rash on his tummy.
    I hope it isnt seriousDr. Martins office will
    be closed until after Memorial Dat. Could you
    take a look at it and see what you think? Love,
    Marie
  • P.S. Heres what the babysitter said Josh has a
    large, red swelling right next to his navel. He
    says that he had what looked like a bug bite
    there last week since it didnt itch or hurt, he
    didnt worry about it. Yesterday night he thought
    it looked bigger now its almost an inch in
    diameter. Its really weird looking It looks
    like a red ring with a white center. It looks as
    though there was a bug bite in the very center
    of the swelling. It still doesnt itch or hurt,
    but hes pretty upset about it.

54
PBL Units
  • Something Fishy
  • This unit poses an ill-structured problem that
    will lead students into an interdisciplinary
    study about several individual systems and their
    interactions.  The content of the unit focuses on
    the various systems involved in the pollution of
    a local body of water  the aquatic ecosystem,
    chemical reaction systems, government systems,
    and economic systems.  Students are challenged to
    grapple with real world concerns and develop
    recommendations through simulation activities
    based on the scientific process.

55
Dealing with real-world problems
56
Wheel of Problem Based Learning
  • Learn about the problem
  • Assume roles
  • Define stakeholders
  • Identify what you know
  • Prepare final product
  • Identify what you need to know
  • Decide on the best way to communicate findings
    and recommendations

State the Problem
  • Develop a plan to find information and current
    research

Develop Need-to-Know Board
Communicate Problem Resolution
Problem Based Learning
  • Use varied approaches
  • Organize and analyze data

Conduct Information Quest
Review and Summarize Findings
Conduct specific Investigations
  • Use multiple data sources
  • Make inferences
  • Draw conclusions
  • Redefine the problem
  • Identify a solution/resolution
  • Select specific inquiry questions.
  • Use methodology of discipline.
  • Collect data.

Robbins, 2008
57
Blackout article
  • From Electricity City

58
Need to Know Board
Center for Gifted Education
College of William and May
59
Elements of Reasoning
Point of View
Purpose/ Goal
Assumptions
Evidence/ Data
Issue/ Problem
Inferences
Concepts/ Ideas
Implications/ Consequences
-- Paul, 1992
60
(No Transcript)
61
Reasoning Explanation
  • Purpose/Goal What is the purpose of the
    specific issue, event or problem?
  • Problem/Issue What is the specific problem to
    be addressed or solved?
  • Points of View What is the perspective of the
    different groups? How does that impact the issue
    or problem?
  • Experiences, Data, Evidence How is the point of
    view supported?

62
Reasoning Explanation
  • Concepts and Ideas What are the key ideas or
    concepts that are presented and how can our
    thoughts be organized around those concepts or
    ideas?
  • Assumptions What is taken for granted in the
    situation, issue, data, or problem?
  • Inferences What small leaps or connections can
    be made based on our assumptions and varied
    points of view?
  • Implications and Consequences What are the
    ifthen statements or consequences of a specific
    action or event?

63
Why a Stakeholder?
  • Real world problem solvers are not objective or
    all-seeing.
  • Helps students think about the effects of bias in
    problem-solving
  • Increases ownership in the process
  • Increases sense of professionalism

Center for Gifted Education
College of William and May
64
Reasoning about a Situation or Event
What is the situation?
Who are the stakeholders?
What is the point of view for each stakeholder?
What are the assumptions of each group?
What are the implications of these views?
Center for Gifted Education The College of
William and Mary, 2009
65
Experimentation
66
Problem Log Questions
  • 1. If you had a sample of the acid from the
    spill, how could you neutralize it?
  • 2. If you had a sample of the acid from the spill
    and knew how much acid there was in the whole
    spill, how could you figure out how much base you
    would need to neutralize the whole spill?
  • 3. What did you notice about the temperature of
    the solution of acid as you added more base to
    it? Would adding base to the spill in order to
    neutralize it have any side effects?
  • 4. Draw a picture of your experimental setup.
    Label its boundaries and its elements. List input
    you put into your experimental system and output
    that came out of it. What interactions inside the
    system allowed it to produce output? Were they
    interactions between the original system elements
    or interactions with input you added?

67
Student Brainstorming Worksheet
  • 1. What do we need to find out? (What is the
    scientific problem?)
  • 2. What material do we have available?
  • 3. How can we use these materials to help us
    find out?
  • 4. What do we think will happen? (What is our
    hypothesis?)
  • 5. What will we need to observe or measure in
    order to find out the answer to our scientific
    question?
  • Adapted from Cothron, J. G., Giese, R. N.,
    Rezba, R.J. (1989). Students and research. IA
    Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co.

68
Experimental design in Acid, Acid Everywhere
  • As in scientific research, starts with a
    real-world question, such as how can we
    neutralize an acid spill on the highway?
  • Guided by metacognitive tools supplied by the
    teacher
  • Students experience the full scientific process

69
Experimental Design Components
  • Independent variable manipulated (x-axis)
    variable that is purposefully changed by the
    experimenter.
  • Dependent variable(s) responding (y-axis)
    variable that may be affected by the independent
    variable.
  • Hypothesis A prediction about the relationship
    between variables that can be tested.
  • Constants all factors that remain the same and
    have a fixed value.
  • Control the standard for comparing experimental
    effects.
  • Repeated trials the number of experimental
    repetitions, objects, or organisms tested at each
    level of the independent variable.

Center for Gifted Education The College of
William and Mary
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Demonstration vs. Experimentation
  • Useful in illustrating a concept/idea
  • Serves as a springboard for further
    experimentation
  • Integral part of experiencing science
  • Forum for student inquiry
  • Addresses higher order thinking skills

71
Student Experiment Guide
  • Practical Questions
  • Is the proposed experiment feasible?
  • What materials will we need?
  • How can we use these materials to help us find
    out?
  • Can we do the proposed experiment given what we
    have?
  • Which experimental approach is best, given the
    time and materials?
  • Planning Questions
  • How can we be sure that our experiment is giving
    us the right answer?
  • What do we need to change to get our answer and
    why?
  • What has to stay the same during our experiment
    and why?
  • What data need to be collected and why?
  • How can we make sure we dont accidentally foul
    up the experiment?

Center for Gifted Education The College of
William and Mary, 2009
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Experimental Protocol
  • Provides structure for the process of detailing
    the planned materials, methods, and data to be
    collected
  • Title of Experiment
  • Hypothesis (Educated guess about what will
    happen)
  • Independent Variable (The variable that responds
    to changes in the independent variable)
  • Observations/Measurements to Make
  • Constants (All the things or factors that remain
    the same)
  • Control (The standard for comparing experimental
    effects)
  • List the materials you will need.
  • Write a step-by-step description of what you will
    do (like a recipe!). List every action you will
    take during the experiment.
  • What data will you be collecting?
  • Design a data table to collect and analyze your
    information.
  • Write conclusions.

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Student Experiment Report
  • Title of Experiment
  • Hypothesis (Educated guess about what will
    happen)
  • Independent Variable (The variable that responds
    to changes in the independent variable)
  • Observations/Measurements to Make
  • Constants (All the things or factors that remain
    the same)
  • Control (The standard for comparing experimental
    effects)

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Your Turn
  • Do the activities in each station to become
    familiar with the materials.
  • Develop a testable question about the materials
    you are given.
  • Design and conduct an experiment in order to
    answer the question.
  • Experimental design handout

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Evaluation
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Create your own PBL
77
Writing Real World Problems
  • Ill-structured (incomplete information)
  • Ambiguous (information given may be interpreted
    in many ways)
  • Identify or infer stakeholders (students as
    professionals)
  • Require multiple resources to tackle.
  • Deadline or sense of urgency present.
  • Multi-disciplinary emphasis (science-math-society-
    connection)

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Writing a New Problem Episode
  • Decide on content orientation for problem
  • Choose concept for problem
  • Look for problem idea (newspapers, situations
    in literature, magazines, textbooks, TV,
  • curriculum guides, public radio, personal
    experiences)
  • Draft a problem statement
  • Match to curriculum and instructional goals
  • Map the problems terrain
  • Investigate stakeholders (needs power and
    responsibility)
  • Consider availability of resources
  • Refine problem statement
  • Write outcomes/objectives and match to
    activities and assessments
  • Make flow chart of the lesson plans

Deer
Objectives
Activities
Assessment
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Tailoring A PBL to Your Locale
  • Choosing a site
  • Identifying stakeholders
  • Collecting information
  • Government agencies
  • Education research organization (colleges,
    museums, zoos)
  • Libraries
  • Advocacy groups

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Tailoring a Problem for Your Local Area
  • You are the supervisor of the day shift of the
    ___________________________. It is 600 a.m. on a
    steamy June morning. You are awakened by the
    ringing phone. When you answer you are told,
    Come to the___________________________________.
    There has been a major accident and you are
    needed.
  • Quickly you dress and hurry to the overpass. As
    you approach the bridge, you see an overturned
    truck that is completely blocking both eastbound
    lanes of the freeway. You see CORROSIVE on
    small signs on the side and rear of the truck.
    The truck has lost at least one wheel and is
    resting on the freeway guard rail. There is a
    large gash in the side of the truck from this
    gash, a clear liquid is running down the side of
    the truck, onto the road, and down the hill
    into____________. Steam is rising from the
    ____________. All traffic has been halted and
    everyone has been told to remain in their cars.
    Many of the motorists in the traffic jam appear
    to be angry and frustrated. Police officers,
    firemen, and rescue squad workers are at the
    scene. They are all wearing coveralls and masks.
    The rescue squad is putting the unconscious truck
    driver onto a stretcher. Everyone seems hurried
    and anxious.

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Assessment overview
82
ASSESSMENT
  • Portfolio Performance-based

Pre Post Science Process Test
Problem Logs
Lab Reports
Embedded Activities
Experimental Design Worksheets
Final Assessment
Final Content Concept/Scientific Research
Assessment
Unit-Specific Forms
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Options for Assessment
  • Final assessments should be authentic, related to
    an audience, and directly responding to the
    problem. These may include
  • Final Oral Presentation
  • Written Reports
  • Portfolios
  • Dramatic Presentation
  • News Programs

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Create a PBL rubric
  • The teacher may want to incorporate a rubric
    throughout the PBL process or related to a final
    product, including performance criteria and
    rating scales for each criteria. Criteria may be
    related to
  • Organization
  •  Presentation of problem
  •  Clarity of solutions/resolutions
  •  Quality of research
  •  Evidence of reasoning
  •  Communication to audience

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STEVE COXONContact Information
  • svcoxon_at_wm.edu
  • coxonsteve_at_hotmail.com
  • http//stevecoxon.com

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Center for Gifted Education Contact Information
  • Center for Gifted Education
  • The College of William and Mary
  • P.O. Box 8795
  • Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795
  • 757-221-2362 (ph)
  • 757-221-2184 (fax)
  • email cfge_at_wm.edu
  • www.cfge.wm.edu

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Kendall/Hunt PublishingContact Information
  • Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company
  • 4050 Westmark Drive
  • Dubuque, IA 52004-1840
  • Contact Lisa Zenner
  • 1-800-247-3458, ext. 4
  • email lzenner_at_kendallhunt.com
  • www.kendallhunt.com
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