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Title: Review for Final Examination


1
Review for Final Examination History 419
American Social and Intellectual
History Examination Date December 11, 2008
2
The Presidential Election of 1928.
New York Governor Alfred E. Smith (1873 - 1944)
Herbert Hoover 1929-33
3
Herbert Hoover, Financing Relief Efforts (1931)
Main Points 1. The best way to help people
during times of national difficulty is through
mutual self-help and voluntary giving.   My own
conviction is strongly that if we break down this
sense of responsibility of individual generosity
to individual and mutual self-help in the country
in time of national difficulty and if we start
appropriations of this character we have not only
impaired something infinitely valuable in the
life of the American people but have struck at
the roots of self-government. (p. 109)
4
Herbert Hoover, Financing Relief Efforts (1931)
2. Federal aid to the hungry and poor
encourages expectations of future paternal care
and weakens Americans self-reliant character. It
also weakens Americans willingness to help each
other and give to each other, and thus enfeebles
the bonds of common brotherhood.   Quotation of
President Grover Cleveland by President Herbert
Hoover The friendliness and charity of our
countrymen can always be relied upon to relieve
their fellow citizens in misfortune. This has
been repeatedly and quite lately demonstrated.
Federal aid in such cases encouraged the
expectation of paternal care on the part of the
Government and weakens the sturdiness of our
national character, while it prevents the
indulgence among our people of that kindly
sentiment and conduct which strengthens the bonds
of a common brotherhood. (p. 110) President
Herbert Hoover The help being daily extended by
neighbors, by local and national agencies, by
municipalities, by industry and a great multitude
of organizations throughout the country today is
many times any appropriation yet proposed. The
opening of the doors of the Federal Treasury is
likely to stifle this giving and thus destroy far
more resources than the proposed charity from the
Federal Government. (p. 110)
5
Roosevelt consciously abandoned the term
progressive and chose instead to employ
liberal to define himself and his
administration. In so doing, he transformed
liberalism from a shorthand for weak government
and laissez-faire economics into belief in an
activist, socially conscious state, an
alternative both to socialism and to unregulated
capitalism. (Foner, The Story of American
Freedom, pp. 201-204.)
Redefining Liberalism
Freedom, Hoover insisted, meant unfettered
economic opportunity for the enterprising
individual. Far from being an element of liberty,
the quest for economic security was turning
Americans into lazy parasites dependent on the
state. For the remainder of his life, Hoover
continued to call himself a liberal, even
though, he charged, the word had been polluted
and raped of all its real meanings. (Foner, The
Story of American Freedom, p. 205.)
6
Socialist Party Platform (1932)  
Norman Mattoon Thomas
7
  • Socialist Party Platform (1932)
  • Norman Mattoon Thomas (1884-1968)
  • Took over leadership of the Socialist Party after
    the death of Eugene Debs in 1926.
  • Was the partys presidential candidate six times.
  • Polled his highest vote in 1932 with 880,000
    votes.
  • Some members of the socialist party were W.E.B.
    DuBois, Margaret Sanger, and Helen Keller.
  • Democratic Socialism," is defined by the
    Socialist Party as a political and economic
    system with freedom and equality for all, so that
    people may develop to their fullest potential in
    harmony with others. The party further states
    that it is committed to full freedom of speech,
    assembly, press, and religion and to a
    multi-party system and that the ownership and
    control of the production and distribution of
    goods should be democratically controlled public
    agencies, cooperatives, or other collective
    groups.
  • (source http//www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1669
    .html)

8
  • Socialist Party Platform (1932)
  • Main Points
  • Socialists feel there are many flaws with the
    capitalist system, which is now in the process of
    breaking down, resulting in human suffering.
  • We are facing a breakdown of the capitalist
    systemUnemployment and poverty are inevitable
    products of the present system.
  • The Socialist Party believes that workers are
    exploited by a capitalist economy.
  • Under capitalism the few own our industries.
    The many do the work. The wage earners and
    farmers are compelled to give a large part of the
    product of their labor to the few. The many in
    the factories, mines, shops, offices and on the
    farms obtain but a scanty income and are able to
    buy back only a part of the goods that can be
    produced in such abundance by our mass
    industries. (http//www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1
    669.html)

9
  • Socialist Party Platform (1932)
  • By voting for the Socialist Party you can help
    remove the struggles that the capitalist system
    has created.
  • The Socialist Party is to-day the one democratic
    party of the worker whose program would remove
    the causes of class struggles, class antagonisms,
    and social evils inherent in the capitalist
    system.
  • The Socialist Party proposes to transfer the
    principal industries of the country from private
    ownership and autocratic, cruelly inefficient
    management to social ownership and democratic
    controlIt proposes the following measures
  • The American people will never knowingly adopt
    Socialism but under the name of liberalism, they
    will adopt every fragment of the Socialist
    program until America will one day be a Socialist
    nation without knowing how it happened.

10
Source http//www.drfurfero.com/books/231book/ch0
3f1.html
11
Four FreedomsFranklin D. Roosevelt(1941)
12
Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • Born Jan 30, 1882 in Hyde Park, New York
  • Education Attended Harvard University and
    Columbia Law School
  • Married Eleanor Roosevelt in 1905
  • Elected into New York Senate in 1910
  • Served under President Wilson as Assistant
    Secretary of the Navy
  • In the summer of 1921 he was stricken with polio
    and lost most of the use of his legs
  • 1928 he became Governor of New York
  • Took Presidency at the depth of the Great
    Depression and served as the 32nd President from
    1933-1945
  • He was elected President in November of 1932 and
    in March of 1933 there were 13,000,000
    unemployed.
  • New Deal-carious social programs including Social
    Security, and new control on banks and public
    utilities
  • Died at the age of 63 on April 12, 1945 in Warm
    Springs, Georgia

13
1. The American way of life is being threatened!
  • Every realist knows that the democratic way of
    life is at this moment being' directly assailed
    in every part of the world--assailed either by
    arms, or by secret spreading of poisonous
    propaganda by those who seek to destroy unity and
    promote discord in nations that are still at
    peace.
  • During sixteen long months this assault has
    blotted out the whole pattern of democratic life
    in an appalling number of independent nations,
    great and small. The assailants are still on the
    march, threatening other nations, great and
    small.
  • No realistic American can expect from a
    dictators peace international generosity, or
    return of true independence, or world
    disarmament, or freedom of expression, or freedom
    of religion-or even good business.

14
2. The future and safety of our country lies
outside our own borders
  • I find it necessary to report that the future
    and the safety of our country and of our
    democracy are overwhelmingly involved in events
    far beyond our borders.
  • Armed defense of democratic existence is now
    being gallantly waged in four continents. If that
    defense fails, all the population and all the
    resources of Europe, Asia, Africa and Australasia
    will be dominated by the conquerors. Let us
    remember that the total of those populations and
    their resources in those four continents greatly
    exceeds the sum total of the population and the
    resources of the whole of the Western
    Hemisphere-many times over.

15
3. America is unprepared for war and must
increase production of munitions and war supplies.
  • When the dictators, if the dictators, are ready
    to make war upon us, they will not wait for an
    act of war on our part.
  • In times like these it is immature--and
    incidentally, untrue--for anybody to brag that an
    unprepared America, single-handed, and with one
    hand tied behind its back, can hold off the whole
    world.
  • The immediate need is a swift and driving
    increase in our armament productionI also ask
    this Congress for authority and for funds
    sufficient to manufacture additional munitions
    and war supplies of many kinds, to be turned over
    to those nations which are now in actual war with
    aggressor nations.
  • I recommend that we make it possible for those
    nations to continue to obtain war materials in
    the United States.

16
4. We cannot expect freedom from a dictator.
  • "Those, who would give up essential liberty to
    purchase a little temporary safety, deserve
    neither liberty nor safety."
  • Their only interest is in a new one-way
    international law, which lacks mutuality in its
    observance, and, therefore, becomes an instrument
    of oppression.

17
5. We will not be intimidated by dictators
  • We will not be intimidated by the threats of
    dictators that they will regard as a breach of
    international law and as an act of war our aid to
    the democracies which dare to resist their
    aggression. Such aid is not an act of war, even
    if a dictator should unilaterally proclaim it so
    to be.

18
6. We seek a world based upon four human
freedoms.
  • In the future days, which we seek to make
    secure, we look forward to a world founded upon
    four essential human freedoms.
  • The first is freedom of speech and
    expression--everywhere in the world.
  • The second is freedom of every person to worship
    God in his own way--everywhere in the world.
  • The third is freedom from want--which,
    translated into world terms, means economic
    understandings which will secure to every nation
    a healthy peacetime life for its
    inhabitants-everywhere in the world.
  • The fourth is freedom from fear--which,
    translated into world terms, means a world-wide
    reduction of armaments to such a point and in
    such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in
    a position to commit an act of physical
    aggression against any neighbor--anywhere in the
    world.

19
Questions to consider
  • Were Roosevelts critics fair in charging him
    with sneaking the United States into WWII?
  • Why should the United States be the arsenal of
    democracy, as Roosevelt called it in an earlier
    speech?
  • Entry into the war helped pull our country out of
    the depression. Do you think it was worth it?
  • If Roosevelt were President today, how do you
    think he would handle our present situation with
    terrorists?

20
Background
Harry S. Truman, The Truman Doctrine (1947)
  • Harry S. Truman was born in Lamar, Missouri on
    May 8, 1884, the son of John Anderson Truman and
    Martha Ellen (Young) Truman.
  • From 1905 to 1911, Truman served in the Missouri
    National Guard.
  • When the United States entered World War I in
    1917, he helped organize the 2nd Regiment of
    Missouri Field Artillery, which was quickly
    called into Federal service as the 129th Field
    Artillery and sent to France. Truman was promoted
    to Captain and given command of the regiment's
    Battery D.
  • On June 28, 1919, Truman married Bess Wallace,
    whom he had known since childhood. Their only
    child, Mary Margaret, was born on February 17,
    1924.
  • Truman was elected in 1922, to be one of three
    judges of the Jackson County Court.
  • In 1934, Truman was elected to the United States
    Senate.

21
More Background
Harry S. Truman, The Truman Doctrine (1947)
  • In July 1944, Truman was nominated to run for
    Vice President with President Franklin D.
    Roosevelt. On January 20, 1945, he took the
    vice-presidential oath, and after President
    Roosevelt's unexpected death only eighty-two days
    later on April 12, 1945, he was sworn in as the
    nations' thirty-third President.
  • Truman's presidency was marked throughout by
    important foreign policy initiatives. Central to
    almost everything Truman undertook in his foreign
    policy was the desire to prevent the expansion of
    the influence of the Soviet Union.
  • He meet with Joseph Stalin in Potsdam Germany, to
    discuss postwar occupation of Germany, the
    Japanese forces, and use of the atomic bomb.

22
Harry S. Truman, The Truman Doctrine (1947)
  • In 1948, Truman won reelection. His defeat had
    been widely expected and often predicted, but
    Truman's energy in undertaking his campaign and
    his willingness to confront issues won a
    plurality of the electorate for him. His famous
    "Whistlestop" campaign tour through the country
    has passed into political folklore, as has the
    photograph of the beaming Truman holding up the
    newspaper whose headline proclaimed, "Dewey
    Defeats Truman."
  • Truman left the presidency and retired to

    Independence in January 1953
  • Harry S. Truman died on December 26, 1972.
    Bess Truman
    died on October 18, 1982.
    They are buried
    side by side in the Library's courtyard.

23
Main Point 1
Harry S. Truman, The Truman Doctrine (1947)
  • The situation is dire.
  • The gravity of the situation which confronts the
    world today necessitates my appearance before a
    joint session of the Congress.

24
Main Point 2
Harry S. Truman, The Truman Doctrine (1947)
  • The U.S. must be involve in world affairs.
  • The foreign policy and the national security of
    this country are involved.
  • We shall not realize our objectives, however,
    unless we are willing to help free peoples to
    maintain their free institutions and their
    national integrity against aggressive movements
    that seek to impose upon them totalitarian
    regimes.
  • I believe that it must be the policy of the
    United States to support free peoples who are
    resisting attempted subjugation by armed
    minorities or by outside pressures.

25
Main Point 3
Harry S. Truman, The Truman Doctrine (1947)
  • There are only two sides
  • One way of life is based upon the will of the
    majority, and is distinguished by free
    institutions, representative government, free
    elections, guarantees of individual liberty,
    freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from
    political oppression.
  • The second way of life is based upon the will of
    a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It
    relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled
    press and radio, fixed elections, and the
    suppression of personal freedoms.
  • Us v. Them (Wagy)

26
Main Point 4
Harry S. Truman, The Truman Doctrine (1947)
  • It is up to us.
  • We must take immediate and resolute action.
  • The free peoples of the world look to us for
    support in maintaining their freedoms.
  • The seeds of totalitarian regimes are nurtured
    by misery and want. They spread and grow in the
    evil soil of poverty and strife. They reach their
    full growth when the hope of a people for a
    better life has died.
  • We must keep that hope alive.

27
References
Harry S. Truman, The Truman Doctrine (1947)
  • "Harry S. Truman- "The Truman Doctrine"" American
    Rhetoric Harry S. Truman- "The Truman Doctrine"
    American Rhetoric. 12 Nov. 2008
    lthttp//www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/harrystr
    umantrumandoctrine.htmlgt.
  • Truman HST Biography. Harry S. Truman Library
    and Museum. 12 Nov. 2008 lthttp//www.trumanlibrary
    .org/hst-bio.htmgt.

28
J. Edgar Hoover1895-1972
29
Background
  • Born January 1, 1895 in Washington, D. C.
  • Parents Dickerson and Anna Hoover
  • Hoover did not obtain a birth certificate until
    he was 43, which fueled suspicions, in and out of
    the bureau, that he was of African-American
    descent a family out of Mississippi tried to
    prove these allegations, but failed.
  • He kept detailed records on himself, teachers,
    and family members starting at a young age.
  • At age 11, started his own newspaper, The Weekly
    Review, that he sold to family and friends for 1
    cent.

30
Background continued
  • His school nickname was Speed because he
    thought fast and talked fast.
  • Hoovers father, Dickerson, spent the last eight
    years of his life in an asylum. His cause of
    death was listed as melancholia clinical
    depression.
  • 1916 graduated with a law degree from George
    Washington University Law School.
  • Hoover became a Freemason in 1920.

31
Background continued
  • Hoovers failure to marry and his constant
    companionship with Clyde Tolson, led to many
    rumors about his sexuality.
  • Clyde Tolson was the sole heir to Hoovers estate
    and was also buried next to Hoover.
  • Hoover was also an avid dog lover.

32
Head of the FBI
  • Hoover joined the Bureau of Investigation, later
    known as the FBI, in 1921.
  • In 1924 at the age of 29, Hoover was appointed
    acting Director of the BOI and by the end of the
    year he was officially named Director.
  • Hoover remained the Director of the FBI until his
    death on May 2, 1972 at the age of 77.
  • The FBI Headquarters in Washington, D.C. is named
    after Hoover. Because of the controversial nature
    of Hoover's legacy, there have been periodic
    proposals to rename it.

33
Head of the FBI
  • During his reign over the FBI, Hoover built an
    efficient crime-detection agency, established a
    centralized fingerprint file, a crime laboratory
    and a training institution for police.
  • He dictated every aspect of his agents lives
    from who their friends should or should not be,
    who they should or should not marry, what
    organizations they could or could not join
    decided where they would live monitored their
    morals even told them what to wear and what they
    could weigh and bestowed praise and awards,
    blame and punishments, when he decided they were
    due.

34
Head of the FBI
  • The FBI, under Hoover, collected information on
    all America's leading politicians. Known as
    Hoover's secret files, this material was used to
    influence their actions. It was later claimed
    that Hoover used this incriminating material to
    make sure that the eight presidents that he
    served under, would be too frightened to sack him
    as director of the FBI..
  • Presidents Harry Truman, John F. Kennedy and
    Lyndon Johnson each considered firing Hoover but
    concluded that the political cost of doing so
    would be too great. Richard Nixon twice called in
    Hoover with the intent of firing him, but both
    times he changed his mind when meeting with
    Hoover.

35
Head of the FBI
  • Hoover ignored the existence of organized crime
    in the U.S. until famed muckraker Jack Anderson
    exposed the immense scope of the Mafia's
    organized crime network. It has been suggested
    that Hoover did not pursue the Mafia because they
    had incriminating evidence (photos) against him
    in respect to his sexual orientation.
  • Despite all of these allegations, during his long
    career of public service, Director Hoover
    received three presidential awards, sundry
    citations by Congress, and following his death
    was the first civil servant in U.S. history to
    lie in state in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol.

36
Political Views
  • Conservative
  • Anti-communist
  • Against suffrage for women
  • Opposed the Civil Rights movement

Intended Audience
  • Hoover delivered The Communist Menace before
    the House Committee on Un-American Activities on
    March 26, 1947.

37
Major Issues of the Time
  • 1st Red Scare (1917-1920)
  • Espionage Act of 1917
  • Sedition Act of 1918
  • The Palmer Raids
  • House Committee on Un-American Activities
  • WW II
  • Iron Curtain in Europe

38
"Uncle Sam bids good riddanceto the
deportees"(from J. Edgar Hoover'smemorabilia
and scrapbookin the National Archives).
  • The more famous of the Palmer raids was December
    21, in which 249 people were dragged from their
    homes, forcibly put on board a ship and deported.

39
The Communist MenaceMain Points
  • 1. The Communist Party of the United States
    intends to destroy the American businessman, take
    over our government, and throw the whole world
    into revolution.
  • The Communist movement in the United
    Statesstands for the destruction of free
    enterprise, and it stands for the creation of a
    Soviet of the United States and ultimate world
    revolution.

40
The Communist MenaceMain Points continued
  • 2. The American programs to help society such as,
    social security, veterans benefits, and welfare
    are all communist ideas used to lure the support
    of unsuspecting citizens.
  • The American progress which all good citizens
    seek, such as old-age security, houses for
    veterans, child assistance and a host of others
    is being adopted as window dressing by the
    Communists to conceal their true aims and entrap
    gullible followers.

41
The Communist MenaceMain Points continued
  • 3. The greatest threat of communism is not how
    many Communists are in this country, but their
    ability to insert themselves into positions of
    power and their ability to persuade through lies
    and deception. Americans should FEAR the
    communist infiltration of their government and
    society.
  • What is important is the claim of the Communists
    themselves that for every party member there are
    10 others ready, willing, and able to do the
    partys work. Herein lies the greatest menace of
    communism. For these people who infiltrate and
    corrupt various spheres of American life. So
    rather than the size of the Communist Party the
    way to weigh its true importance is by testing
    its influence, its ability to infiltrate.
  • When the Communists overthrew the Russian
    government there was one Communist for every
    2,277 persons in Russia. In the United States
    today there is one Communist for every 1,814
    persons in the country

42
Historical Significance
  • 2nd Red Scare (1947-1957)
  • 1947 - Ronald Reagan and wife Jane Wyman provide
    to the FBI names of SAG members believed to be
    communist sympathizers.
  • 1947 - Top Hollywood executives decide not to
    employ individuals who refused to answer
    questions about communist infiltration of the
    film industry
  • McCarthyism starts(1950) Sen. Joseph P.
    McCarthy says he has a list of 205 communists in
    the State Department.
  • 1950 - California Legislature passes a bill
    requiring state employees to sign a loyalty oath.
  • 1953 - Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, convicted of
    conspiring to commit espionage on behalf of the
    Soviet Union, are executed.

43
Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • Born in Denison, Texas on Oct 14, 1890
  • Went through the Military Academy at West Point
    in 1911
  • Served as Supreme Allied Commander in the
    European Theatre in World War II promoted to
    General of the Army
  • Served as the Chief of Staff of the Army from
    1945 to 1948
  • In 1948, became president of Columbia University
  • In 1950, became Supreme Commander of NATO
  • Elected 34th President in 1953 served until 1961

44
Farewell Address (Eisenhower) Main Points
  • America must act as the peace keepers and
    safe-guarders of the free world.
  • Americas leadership and prestige depend, not
    merely upon our unmatched material progress,
    riches and military strength, but on how we use
    our power in the interests of world peace and
    human betterment.
  • Any failure traceable to arrogance, or our lack
    of comprehension or readiness to sacrifice would
    inflict upon us grievous hurt both at home and
    abroad.

45
Farewell Address (Eisenhower) Main Points
  • We must guard against the hostile ideology.
  • We face a hostile ideology- global in scope,
    atheistic in character, ruthless in purpose, and
    insidious in method. Unhappily the danger it
    poses promises to be of indefinite duration.
  • To meet it successfully, there is called for,
    not so much the emotional and transitory
    sacrifices of crises, but rather those which
    enable us to carry forward steadily, surely, and
    without complaint the burdens of a prolonged
    struggle- with liberty at stake.

46
Farewell Address (Eisenhower) Main Points
  • We must guard against imbalance in our economic
    and military spending.
  • But each proposal must be weighed in the light
    of broader consideration the need to maintain
    balance in and among national programsGood
    judgment seeks balance and progress, lack of it
    eventually finds imbalance and frustration.
  • A vital element in keeping our peace is our
    military establishment.
  • Our military organization today bears little
    relation to that known of any of my predecessors
    in peacetime, or indeed by the fighting men of
    World War II or Korea.

47
Farewell Address (Eisenhower)
Main Points
  • We must guard against the military-industrial
    complex in our democratic government.
  • The total influence- economic, political, even
    spiritual- is felt in every city, every State
    house, every office of the Federal government. We
    recognize the imperative need for this
    development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend
    its grave implications.
  • In the councils of government, we must guard
    against the acquisition of unwarranted
    influenceby the military-industrial complex.
  • The potential for disastrous rise of misplaced
    power exists and will persist.
  • We must never let the weight of this combination
    endanger our liberties or democratic processes.
  • In this revolution, research has become central
    it also becomes more formalized, complex, and
    costly.
  • Today, the solitary inventor, tinkering in his
    shop has been overshadowed by task forces of
    scientists in laboratories and testing fields.
  • Partly because of the huge cost involved, a
    government contract becomes virtually a
    substitute for intellectual curiosity.
  • We must also be alert to the equal and opposite
    danger that public policy could itself become the
    captive of a scientific-technological elite.

48
Farewell Address (Eisenhower) Main Points
  • We must safe-guard the resources of democracy for
    future generations.
  • we- you and I, and our government- must avoid
    the impulse to live only for today, plundering,
    for our own ease and convenience, the precious
    resources of tomorrow.
  • We want democracy to survive for all generations
    to come, not to become the insolvent phantom of
    tomorrow.

49
Farewell Address (Eisenhower) Main Points
  • We must guard against only resolving differences
    with military conflict.
  • this world of ours, ever growing smaller, must
    avoid becoming a community of dreadful fear and
    hate, and be, instead, a proud confederation of
    mutual trust and respect.
  • Together we must learn how to compose
    differences, not with arms, but with intellect
    and decent purpose.

50
Farewell Address (Eisenhower) Questions
  • What factions does Eisenhower fear will attempt
    to influence and control government?
  • How did Eisenhower resolve bring the countries of
    the world together?

51
Brown v. Board of Education
  • 1954

52
Thurgood Marshall
  • Born on July 2, 1908 in Baltimore, Maryland
  • He attended Frederick Douglass High School. Later
    he graduated from Lincoln University and Howard
    University Law School in Washington, D. C..
  • In 1934, Marshall was appointed an assistant to
    special counsel Charles Hamilton Houston, who
    worked for the Baltimore branch of the NAACP.
  • He won thirty-two out of thirty-five cases taken
    to the Supreme Court
  • In June of 1967, President Lyndon B. Johnson
    nominated Judge Marshall to become an Associate
    Justice of the Supreme Court. With this
    nomination, Marshall became the first
    African-American to serve as a Justice of the
    Supreme Court.

53
Main Point 1
  • Segregated public schools do not uphold the
    fourteenth amendment.
  • -segregated public schools are not equal and
    cannot be made equal.
  • -Their opponents, just as certainly, were
    antagonistic to both the letter and the spirit of
    the amendments and wished them to have the most
    limited effect.

54
Main point 2
  • Segregated schools hinder African Americans from
    proper education.
  • -To separate them from others of similar age and
    qualifications solely because of their race
    generates a feeling of inferiority as to their
    status in the community that may affect their
    hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be
    undone.
  • - it is doubtful that any child may reasonably
    be expected to succeed in life is he is denied
    the opportunity of an education

55
Main Point 3
  • Separate but equal has no place in public
    schools.
  • -Separate educational facilities are inherently
    unequal.
  • -Education of white children was largely in the
    hands of private groups, whereas education of
    negros was almost non-existent, and practically
    all of the race was illiterate.

56
Questions to Consider.
  • Why could separate not be equal?
  • How does the court propose to desegregate the
    nations schools?

57
Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • Letter from a Birmingham Jail

58
(No Transcript)
59
Background
  • Martin Luther King, Jr., was born on January 15,
    1929 in Atlanta, Georgia.  He was the son of
    Reverend Martin Luther King Sr. and Alberta
    Williams King. 
  • Dr. King married Coretta Scott on June 18, 1953.
    Together they had four children.
  • In 1957 he was elected president of the Southern
    Christian Leadership Conference, an organization
    formed to provide new leadership for the now
    burgeoning civil rights movement. The ideals for
    this organization he took from Christianity its
    operational techniques from Gandhi. In the
    eleven-year period between 1957 and 1968, King
    traveled over six million miles and spoke over
    twenty-five hundred times, appearing wherever
    there was injustice, protest, and action and
    meanwhile he wrote five books as well as numerous
    articles. In these years, he led a massive
    protest in Birmingham, Alabama, that caught the
    attention of the entire world, providing what he
    called a coalition of conscience. and inspiring
    his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail", a manifesto
    of the Negro revolution he planned the drives in
    Alabama for the registration of Negroes as
    voters he directed the peaceful march on
    Washington, D.C., of 250,000 people to whom he
    delivered his address, "l Have a Dream", he
    conferred with President John F. Kennedy and
    campaigned for President Lyndon B. Johnson he
    was arrested upwards of twenty times and
    assaulted at least four times he was awarded
    five honorary degrees was named Man of the Year
    by Time magazine in 1963 and became not only the
    symbolic leader of American blacks but also a
    world figure.At the age of thirty-five, Martin
    Luther King, Jr., was the youngest man to have
    received the Nobel Peace Prize. When notified of
    his selection, he announced that he would turn
    over the prize money of 54,123 to the
    furtherance of the civil rights movement.

-nobleprize.org
60
(No Transcript)
61
"Martin Luther King Jr. was photographed by
Alabama cops following his February 1956 arrest
during the Montgomery bus boycott. The historic
mug shot, taken when King was 27, was discovered
in July 2004 by a deputy cleaning out a
Montgomery County Sheriff's Department storage
room. It is unclear when the notations 'DEAD' and
'4-4-68' were written on the picture."
62
 In late March 1968, King went to Memphis,
Tennessee in support of the black sanitary public
works employees, who had been on strike since
March 12 for higher wages and better treatment. 
On April 3, King returned to Memphis and
addressed a rally, delivering his Ive been to
the Mountaintop address at Mason Temple (Church
of God in Christ, Inc. - World Headquarters).
Kings flight to Memphis had been delayed by a
bomb threat against his plane.  In the close his
last speech, in reference to the bomb threat,
King said the following And then I got to
Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or
talk about the threats that were out. What would
happen to me from some of our sick white
brothers?  Well, I dont know what will happen
now. Weve got some difficult days ahead. But it
doesnt matter with me now. Because Ive been to
the mountaintop. And I dont mind. Like anybody,
I would like to live a long life. Longevity has
its place. But Im not concerned about that now.
I just want to do Gods will. And Hes allowed me
to go up to the mountain. And Ive looked over.
And Ive seen the promised land. I may not get
there with you. But I want you to know tonight,
that we, as a people, will get to the promised
land. And Im happy, tonight. Im not worried
about anything. Im not fearing any man. Mine
eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the
Lord.
63
Memphis Hotel 1968
  • On April 4, 1968, while standing on the 2nd floor
    balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Dr.
    King was assassinated.  The assassination led to
    a nationwide wave of riots in more than 60
    cities.  Escaped convict James Earl Ray was
    captured two months later and charged with Kings
    death.

64
The White Ministers Good Friday Statement, April
12, 1963
  • However, we are now confronted by a series of
    demonstrations by some of our Negro citizens,
    directed and led in part by outsiders. We
    recognize the natural impatience of people who
    feel that their hopes are slow in being realized.
    But we are convinced that these demonstrations
    are unwise and untimely.
  • Just as we formerly pointed out that "hatred and
    violence have no sanction in our religious and
    political traditions," we also point out that
    such actions as incite to hatred and violence,
    however technically peaceful those actions may
    be, have not contributed to the resolution of our
    local problems. We do not believe that these days
    of new hope are days when extreme measures are
    justified in Birmingham.
  • When rights are consistently denied, a cause
    should be pressed in the courts and in
    negotiations among local leaders, and not in the
    streets. We appeal to both our white and Negro
    citizenry to observe the principles of law and
    order and common sense.

65
1. Why am I here? I am here because injustice is
here.
  • I think I should indicate why I am here In
    Birmingham, since you have been influenced by the
    view which argues against "outsiders coming in."
    I have the honor of serving as president of the
    Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an
    organization operating in every southern state,
    with headquarters in Atlanta, GeorgiaSo I, along
    with several members of my staff, am here because
    I was invited here I am here because I have
    organizational ties here.
  • But more basically, I am in Birmingham because
    injustice is here.
  • Moreover, I am cognizant of the interrelatedness
    of all communities and states. I cannot sit idly
    by in Atlanta and not be concerned about what
    happens in Birmingham. Injustice anywhere is a
    threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an
    inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a
    single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one
    directly, affects all indirectly. Never again can
    we afford to live with the narrow, provincial
    "outside agitator" idea. Anyone who lives inside
    the United States can never be considered an
    outsider anywhere within its bounds.

66
2. You condemn demonstrations, yet refuse to see
the failure in your own proposed solutions.
These demonstrations are justified.
  • You deplore the demonstrations taking place In
    Birmingham. But your statement, I am sorry to
    say, fails to express a similar concern for the
    conditions that brought about the demonstrations.
  • It is unfortunate that demonstrations are taking
    place in Birmingham, but it is even more
    unfortunate that the citys white power structure
    left the Negro community with no alternative.
  • In any nonviolent campaign there are four basic
    steps collection of the facts to determine
    whether injustices exist negotiation
    self-purification and direct action. We have
    gone through an these steps in Birmingham. There
    can be no gainsaying the fact that racial
    injustice engulfs this community. Birmingham is
    probably the most thoroughly segregated city in
    the United States. Its ugly record of brutality
    is widely known. Negroes have experienced grossly
    unjust treatment in the courts. There have been
    more unsolved bombings of Negro homes and
    churches in Birmingham than in any other city in
    the nation. These are the hard, brutal facts of
    the case. On the basis of these conditions, Negro
    leaders sought to negotiate with the city
    fathers. But the latter consistently refused to
    engage in good-faith negotiation.
  • Then, last September, came the opportunity to
    talk with leaders of Birminghams economic
    community. In the course of the negotiations,
    certain promises were made by the merchants - for
    example, to remove the stores humiliating racial
    signs. On the basis of these promises, the
    Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth and the leaders of
    the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights
    agreed to a moratorium on all demonstrations. As
    the weeks and months went by, we realized that we
    were the victims of a broken promise. A few
    signs, briefly removed, returned the others
    remained.

67
3. We are left with no other alternative. Direct
non violent protests are the only way to seek
immediate action.
  • You may well ask "Why direct action? Why
    sit-ins, marches and so forth? Isnt negotiation
    a better path?" You are quite right in calling,
    for negotiation. Indeed, this is the very purpose
    of direct action. Nonviolent direct action seeks
    to create such a crisis and foster such a tension
    that a community which has constantly refused to
    negotiate is forced to confront the issue. It
    seeks so to dramatize the issue that it can no
    longer be ignored. My citing the creation of
    tension as part of the work of the
    nonviolent-resister may sound rather shocking.
    But I must confess that I am not afraid of the
    word "tension." I have earnestly opposed violent
    tension, but there is a type of constructive,
    nonviolent tension which is necessary for growth.
    Just as Socrates felt that it was necessary to
    create a tension in the mind so that individuals
    could rise from the bondage of myths and
    half-truths to the unfettered realm of creative
    analysis and objective appraisal, we must we see
    the need for nonviolent gadflies to create the
    kind of tension in society that will help men
    rise from the dark depths of prejudice and racism
    to the majestic heights of understanding and
    brotherhood.
  • The purpose of our direct-action program is to
    create a situation so crisis-packed that it will
    inevitably open the door to negotiation. I
    therefore concur with you in your call for
    negotiation. Too long has our beloved Southland
    been bogged down in a tragic effort to live in
    monologue rather than dialogue.
  • In your statement you assert that our actions,
    even though peaceful, must be condemned because
    they precipitate violence. But is this a logical
    assertion? Isnt this like condemning a robbed
    man because his possession of money precipitated
    the evil act of robbery? Isnt this like
    condemning Socrates because his unswerving
    commitment to truth and his philosophical
    inquiries precipitated the act by the misguided
    populace in which they made him drink hemlock?
    Isnt this like condemning Jesus because his
    unique God-consciousness and never-ceasing
    devotion to Gods will precipitated the evil act
    of crucifixion? We must come to see that, as the
    federal courts have consistently affirmed, it is
    wrong to urge an individual to cease his efforts
    to gain his basic constitutional rights because
    the quest may precipitate violence. Society must
    protect the robbed and punish the robber.
  • If this philosophy had not emerged, by now many
    streets of the South would, I am convinced, be
    flowing with blood. And I am further convinced
    that if our white brothers dismiss as
    "rabble-rousers" and "outside agitators" those of
    us who employ nonviolent direct action, and if
    they refuse to support our nonviolent efforts,
    millions of Negroes will, out of frustration and
    despair, seek solace and security in
    black-nationalist ideologies a development that
    would inevitably lead to a frightening racial
    nightmare.

68
4. Freedom is fought for, it is not easily given.
  • One of the basic points in your statement is that
    the action that I and my associates have taken in
    Birmingham is untimely.
  • My friends, I must say to you that we have not
    made a single gain civil rights without
    determined legal and nonviolent pressure.
    Lamentably, it is an historical fact that
    privileged groups seldom give up their privileges
    voluntarily.
  • We know through painful experience that freedom
    is never voluntarily given by the oppressor it
    must be demanded by the oppressed. Frankly, I
    have yet to engage in a direct-action campaign
    that was "well timed" in the view of those who
    have not suffered unduly from the disease of
    segregation. For years now I have heard the word
    "Wait!" It rings in the ear of every Negro with
    piercing familiarity. This "Wait" has almost
    always meant Never." We must come to see, with
    one of our distinguished jurists, that "justice
    too long delayed is justice denied."
  • Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever.
    The yearning for freedom eventually manifests
    itself, and that is what has happened to the
    American Negro.

69
5. The prevalent social injustices so readily
imposed on the black community must come to an
end without further delay. The long endured
Wait is over.
  • We have waited for more than 340 years for our
    constitutional and God-given rights. The nations
    of Asia and Africa are moving with jetlike speed
    toward gaining political independence, but we
    stiff creep at horse-and-buggy pace toward
    gaining a cup of coffee at a lunch counter.
    Perhaps it is easy for those who have never felt
    the stinging dark of segregation to say, "Wait."
    But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your
    mothers and fathers at will and drown your
    sisters and brothers at whim when you have seen
    hate-filled policemen curse, kick and even kill
    your black brothers and sisters when you see the
    vast majority of your twenty million Negro
    brothers smothering in an airtight cage of
    poverty in the midst of an affluent society when
    you suddenly find your tongue twisted and your
    speech stammering as you seek to explain to your
    six-year-old daughter why she cant go to the
    public amusement park that has just been
    advertised on television, and see tears welling
    up in her eyes when she is told that Funtown is
    closed to colored children, and see ominous
    clouds of inferiority beginning to form in her
    little mental sky, and see her beginning to
    distort her personality by developing an
    unconscious bitterness toward white people when
    you have to concoct an answer for a five-year-old
    son who is asking "Daddy, why do white people
    treat colored people so mean?" when you take a
    cross-county drive and find it necessary to sleep
    night after night in the uncomfortable corners of
    your automobile because no motel will accept you
    when you are humiliated day in and day out by
    nagging signs reading "white" and "colored" when
    your first name becomes "nigger," your middle
    name becomes "boy" (however old you are) and your
    last name becomes "John," and your wife and
    mother are never given the respected title
    "Mrs." when you are harried by day and haunted
    by night by the fact that you are a Negro, living
    constantly at tiptoe stance, never quite knowing
    what to expect next, and are plagued with inner
    fears and outer resentments when you no forever
    fighting a degenerating sense of "nobodiness"
    then you will understand why we find it difficult
    to wait. There comes a time when the cup of
    endurance runs over, and men are no longer
    willing to be plunged into the abyss of despair.
    I hope, sirs, you can understand our legitimate
    and unavoidable impatience.
  • More and more I feel that the people of ill will
    have used time much more effectively than have
    the people of good will. Human progress never
    rolls in on wheels of inevitability it comes
    through the tireless efforts of men willing to be
    co-workers with God, and without this hard work,
    time itself becomes an ally of the forces of
    social stagnation. We must use time creatively,
    in the knowledge that the time is always ripe to
    do right. Now is the time to make real the
    promise of democracy

70
6. There are 2 types of laws, just and unjust
  • You express a great deal of anxiety over our
    willingness to break laws. This is certainly a
    legitimate concern. Since we so diligently urge
    people to obey the Supreme Courts decision of
    1954 outlawing segregation in the public schools,
    at first glance it may seem rather paradoxical
    for us consciously to break laws. One may won
    ask "How can you advocate breaking some laws and
    obeying others?" The answer lies in the fact that
    there fire two types of laws just and unjust. I
    would be the Brat to advocate obeying just laws.
    One has not only a legal but a moral
    responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one
    has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust
    laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that "an
    unjust law is no law at all
  • Now, what is the difference between the two? How
    does one determine whether a law is just or
    unjust? A just law is a man-made code that
    squares with the moral law or the law of God. An
    unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with
    the moral law. To put it in the terms of St.
    Thomas Aquinas An unjust law is a human law that
    is not rooted in eternal law and natural law. Any
    law that uplifts human personality is just. Any
    law that degrades human personality is unjust.
    All segregation statutes are unjust because
    segregation distort the soul and damages the
    personality. It gives the segregator a false
    sense of superiority and the segregated a false
    sense of inferiority.
  • Let us consider a more concrete example of just
    and unjust laws. An unjust law is a code that a
    numerical or power majority group compels a
    minority group to obey but does not make binding
    on itself. This is difference made legal. By the
    same token, a just law is a code that a majority
    compels a minority to follow and that it is
    willing to follow itself. This is sameness made
    legal.

71
6. Continued Examples of just and unjust laws.
  • Sometimes a law is just on its face and unjust in
    its application. For instance, I have been
    arrested on a charge of parading without a
    permit. Now, there is nothing wrong in having an
    ordinance which requires a permit for a parade.
    But such an ordinance becomes unjust when it is
    used to maintain segregation and to deny citizens
    the First Amendment privilege of peaceful
    assembly and protest.
  • A law is unjust if it is inflicted on a minority
    that, as a result of being denied the right to
    vote, had no part in enacting or devising the
    law. Who can say that the legislature of Alabama
    which set up that states segregation laws was
    democratically elected? Throughout Alabama all
    sorts of devious methods are used to prevent
    Negroes from becoming registered voters, and
    there are some counties in which, even though
    Negroes constitute a majority of the population,
    not a single Negro is registered. Can any law
    enacted under such circumstances be considered
    democratically structured?
  • We should never forget that everything Adolf
    Hitler did in Germany was "legal" and everything
    the Hungarian freedom fighters did in Hungary was
    "illegal." It was "illegal" to aid and comfort a
    Jew in Hitlers Germany. Even so, I am sure that,
    had I lived in Germany at the time, I would have
    aided and comforted my Jewish brothers. If today
    I lived in a Communist country where certain
    principles dear to the Christian faith are
    suppressed, I would openly advocate disobeying
    that countrys antireligious laws.

72
7. We learn of civil disobedience throughout
history. It is not a new extreme.
  • Of course, there is nothing new about this kind
    of civil disobedience. It was evidenced sublimely
    in the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego
    to obey the laws of Nebuchadnezzar, on the ground
    that a higher moral law was at stake. It was
    practiced superbly by the early Christians, who
    were willing to face hungry lions and the
    excruciating pain of chopping blocks rather than
    submit to certain unjust laws of the Roman
    Empire. To a degree, academic freedom is a
    reality today because Socrates practiced civil
    disobedience. In our own nation, the Boston Tea
    Party represented a massive act of civil
    disobedience.
  • But though I was initially disappointed at being
    categorized as an extremist, as I continued to
    think about the matter I gradually gained a
    measure of satisfaction from the label. Was not
    Jesus an extremist for love "Love your enemies,
    bless them that curse you, do good to them that
    hate you, and pray for them which despitefully
    use you, and persecute you." Was not Amos an
    extremist for justice "Let justice roll down
    like waters and righteousness like an
    ever-flowing stream." Was not Paul an extremist
    for the Christian gospel "I bear in my body the
    marks of the Lord Jesus." Was not Martin Luther
    an extremist "Here I stand I cannot do
    otherwise, so help me God." And John Bunyan "I
    will stay in jail to the end of my days before I
    make a butchery of my conscience." And Abraham
    Lincoln "This nation cannot survive half slave
    and half free." And Thomas Jefferson "We hold
    these truths to be self-evident, that an men are
    created equal ..." So the question is not whether
    we will be extremists, but what kind of
    extremists we will be. Will we be extremists for
    hate or for love? Will we be extremist for the
    preservation of injustice or for the extension of
    justice?

73
8. It is just to openly break unjust laws,
especially if one is willing to accept the
consequences.
  • I hope you are able to see the distinction I am
    trying to point out. In no sense do I advocate
    evading or defying the law, as would the rabid
    segregationist. That would lead to anarchy. One
    who breaks an unjust law must do so openly,
    lovingly, and with a willingness to accept the
    penalty. I submit that an individual who breaks a
    law that conscience tells him is unjust and who
    willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in
    order to arouse the conscience of the community
    over its injustice, is in reality expressing the
    highest respect for law.
  • As in so many past experiences, our hopes bad
    been blasted, and the shadow of deep
    disappointment settled upon us. We had no
    alternative except to prepare for direct action,
    whereby we would present our very bodies as a
    means of laying our case before the conscience of
    the local and the national community. Mindful of
    the difficulties involved, we decided to
    undertake a process of self-purification. We
    began a series of workshops on nonviolence, and
    we repeatedly asked ourselves "Are you able to
    accept blows without retaliating?" "Are you able
    to endure the ordeal of jail?"

74
9. I have been greatly disappointed with the
white moderate.
  • I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion
    that the Negros great stumbling block in his
    stride toward freedom is not the White Citizens
    Counciler or the Ku Klux Klanner, but the white
    moderate, who is more devoted to "order" than to
    justice who prefers a negative peace which is
    the absence of tension to a positive peace which
    is the presence of justice who constantly says
    "I agree with you in the goal you seek, but I
    cannot agree with your methods of direct action"
    who paternalistically believes he can set the
    timetable for another mans freedom who lives by
    a mythical concept of time and who constantly
    advises the Negro to wait for a "more convenient
    season." Shallow understanding from people of
    good will is more frustrating than absolute
    misunderstanding from people of ill will.
    Lukewarm acceptance is much more bewildering than
    outright rejection.

75
10. We should protest, but we should do so
non-violently.
  • I began thinking about the fact that stand in the
    middle of two opposing forces in the Negro
    community. One is a force of complacency, made up
    in part of Negroes who, as a result of long years
    of oppression, are so drained of self-respect and
    a sense of "somebodiness" that they have adjusted
    to segregation and in part of a few middle class
    Negroes who, because of a degree of academic and
    economic security and because in some ways they
    profit by segregation, have become insensitive to
    the problems of the masses.
  • The other force is one of bitterness and hatred,
    and it comes perilously close to advocating
    violence. It is expressed in the various black
    nationalist groups that are springing up across
    the nation, the largest and best-known being
    Elijah Muhammads Muslim movement. Nourished by
    the Negros frustration over the continued
    existence of racial discrimination, this movement
    is made up of people who have lost faith in
    America, who have absolutely repudiated
    Christianity, and who have concluded that the
    white man is an incorrigible "devil.
  • I have tried to stand between these two forces,
    saying that we need emulate neither the
    "do-nothingism" of the complacent nor the hatred
    and despair of the black nationalist. For there
    is the more excellent way of love and nonviolent
    protest. I am grateful to God that, through the
    influence of the Negro church, the way of
    nonviolence became an integral part of our
    struggle.

76
Questions
  • Why are non-violent demonstrations the best
    choice?
  • Who would you have sided with and why?

77
The Negro Family (1965)Patrick Moynihan
78
Patrick Moynihan
  • Born March 16,1927 Tulsa, Oklahoma
  • Died March 26,2003 New York, New York
  • Nationality American
  • Political party Democrat
  • Spouse Liza Moynihan
  • Alma mater Tufts University

79
Patrick Moynihan
  • United States Senator from New York
  • In office1977-2001
  • He was a Kennedy delegate at the 1960 Democratic
    National Convention.
  • Moynihan was an Assistant Secretary of Labor for
    policy in the Kennedy Administration and in the
    early part of the Johnson Administration.
  • In that capacity, he did not have operational
    responsibilities, allowing him to devote all of
    his time to trying to formulate national policy
    for what would become the War on Poverty. He had
    a small staff including Paul Barton, Ellen
    Broderick, and Ralph Nader (who at 29 years of
    age, hitchhiked to Washington, D.C. and got a job
    working for Moynihan in 1963).

80
1. At the heart of deterioration of the fabric
of Negro society is the deterioration of the
Negro family.
  • It is the fundamental source of the weakness of
    the Negro community at the present time.
  • The role of the family in shaping character and
    ability is so pervasive as to be easily
    overlooked. The family is the basic social unit
    of American life it is the basic socializing
    unit.
  • Nearly a quarter of Negro women living in
    cities who have ever married are divorced,
    separated, or are living apart from their
    husbands As a direct result of this high rate of
    divorce, separation, and desertion a very large
    percent of Negro families are headed by female.

81
2. There are unquestionable events that worked
against the emergence of a father figure.
  • With the emancipation of the slaves, the Negro
    American family began to form in the United
    States on a widespread scale.
  • The Negro was given liberty, but not equality.
  • The Negro male, particularly in the South,
    became an object of intense hostility, and
    attitude unquestionably based in some measure of
    fear.
  • When Jim Crow made its appearance towards the
    end of the 19th century, it may be speculated
    that it was the Negro male who was must
    humiliated.

82
3. Unemployment and poverty has contributed to
the crisis of the Negro family.
  • The impact of unemployment on the Negro family,
    and particularly on the Negro male is the least
    understood.
  • There is little analysis because there has been
    almost no inquiry. Unemployment, for whites and
    nonwhites alike, has on the whole been treated as
    an economic phenomenon,
  • The impact of poverty on Negro family structure
    is no less obvious,
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