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The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea and Vietnam

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Title: The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea and Vietnam


1
The Spread of Chinese Civilization Japan, Korea
and Vietnam
  • Chapter 13
  • EQ How does Chinese civilization influence the
    development of Japan, Korea and Vietnam in the
    post-classical era?

2
The Spread
  • The term used to describe this spread of Chinese
    culture is SINIFICATION.
  • Naturally, all three of these civilizations
    (Korea, Vietnam and Japan) are Chinas immediate
    neighbors and greatly emulated everything China
    did
  • For all three groups, the key force of spread of
    Chinese culture was Buddhism
  • Japan followed, though, a process of selective
    borrowing strictly during the 5th and 6th
    centuries of the Tang Dynasty

3
Early Japan (Before Sinification)
  • Just like China, Japanese society emerged into
    uji (clans)
  • The Yamato clan grew to power in southern Honshu
    around 500 AD this family established Japans
    first and only dynasty
  • Shinto Japanese religion, worshiping the forces
    of nature expresses harmony with ones
    surroundings
  • Korea was an important bridge to Japan from
    mainland China

4
Japan Imperial Age
  • 3 periods Taika, Nara and Heian, took place
    between the 7th and 9th centuries
  • Japanese selective borrowing from China peaked,
    though Shinto beliefs would remain central to
    Japanese society
  • 646 - Taika Reforms
  • First premise was to revamp the bureaucracy of
    Japan along Chinese lines, with aristocrats and
    intellectuals learning Chinese and Confucianism
    (difficult)
  • The common people took to Buddhism, with great
    awe and reverence, which distracted the efforts
    of establishing intellectual order
  • An association between Shinto spirits (kami) and
    Buddhist deities (even though there arent
    supposed to be any) emerged

5
The Taika Failure
  • The reforms failedthe aristocracy returned to
    Japanese traditionsthe peasantry loved Buddhism
    and turned it into ZENthe emperors power slowly
    waned into the hands of landowners (daimyo) who
    had control over the peasantry
  • Buddhisms influence almost claimed the throne of
    Japanbut the emperor fled and moved the imperial
    court from Nara to Heian, thus abandoning the
    Taika reforms
  • The aristocracy (daimyo) began to dominate the
    central government, raised their own armies and
    began to divide Japanese land amongst themselves

6
The Emperor at Heian (Kyoto)
  • The power of the emperor has begun to erode after
    the flight to Heian, though he still is a symbol
    of Japanese society
  • While at Heian, the nobility lived isolated from
    the rest of the people and by strict codes of
    behavior (but not immune from soap opera stuff)
  • Despite isolation, the court was active in
    intellectual and literary pursuitskanji was
    created to simplify Chinese scripthaiku was all
    rage
  • Women were expected to be as acculturated as
    menLady Murasaki Shikibu (the worlds first
    recognized female author and the Danielle Steel
    of her time) wrote the Tales of Genji (worlds
    first novel) detailing life at Heian
  • Although I am not sure, that he will not be
    coming, when the locusts shrilly call, I go to
    the door and wait

7
Decline of Imperial Powerrise of Feudalism
  • By the 9th century, the pleasure loving emperor
    lost control to landownersThe Fujiwara clan
    dominated political power in Japan and married
    into the throne at Heian
  • Combined with Buddhist religious forces (yes,
    they owned land and were not TRULY Buddhist) the
    Fujiwara slowly took over power of Japan and
    achieved cooperation with the peasant masses
    already entranced by ZEN
  • The Fujiwara employed the use of esoteric
    Buddhist teachings involving magic, salvation
    thru prayer and meditation (cult worship) to
    distract peasants and the court
  • However, other clans/landowners (daimyo) would
    slowly become resistant to this Buddhist
    domination

8
Feudal Japan (overhead) ?
  • Feudalism system of rule based on lords who own
    land, but owe military support to a greater lord
    (shogun)
  • Landowners in Feudal Japan were called daimyo
  • The emperor of Japan was just a figure, the
    shogun (supreme military commander) had the real
    power
  • Each daimyo had samurai (warriors) who followed
    their own code, bushido
  • If a samurai failed in his goals or broke the
    bushido code, he was expected to commit suicide
    (seppuku)

9
Results of Feudalism
  • Chinese influenced waned with imperial powerby
    838 CE Japan discontinued political contact with
    Tang China
  • Japan would be plunged into a long age of civil
    warfighting amongst daimyo and the warrior
    families (Fujiwara, Minamoto, Tara, Hojo,
    Tachibana) supporting Heianthe Genpei wars of
    the late 12th C resulted in the Minamoto family
    winning and establishing a military government
    (bakufu)the ending results of these civil wars
    was a military dictatorship known as the
    Shogunate
  • Japan would spend the next 1000 years controlled
    by 3 major military Shogunates (Kamakura,
    Ashikaga, and Tokugawa) with most of the earlier
    Shogunates plagued by constant warfare

10
Koreabetween China and Japan
  • As mentioned previously, Korea served as a bridge
    between China and Japan
  • They still managed, despite this influence, to
    create an independent cultural identity
    (descendant of nomads from Siberia and Manchuria)
  • They had a kingdom, Choson, that was eventually
    conquered by the HanKoreans fled to the North
    (Koguryo) and resisted the Chinese controlled
    south (Silla and Paekche)
  • Korea also began a process of adopting Chinese
    culture (Sinification) and Buddhism again was the
    key element of transferring culturethough the
    Koguryo did not fully adopt Chinese style rule
    (noble resistance)

11
The Tang take Korea
  • Continuing political disunity amongst the 3 Korea
    kingdoms allowed the Tang to unify with the Silla
    and conquer Korea by the late 7th century (668)
  • The Tang received tribute from Korea and left the
    Silla to rule over Korea
  • The Korean peninsula remained an autonomous state
    until the 20th century when the Japanese annexed
    their territory

12
Increased Sinificationdecline and changes
  • Under the Silla and Koryo dynasties (918-1392),
    Chinese influences were dominantTang systems of
    rule were copied, Chinese art and innovations
    were brought to Korea
  • The Silla modeled their imperial system after the
    Tangbuilt cities w/secluded parts for the
    imperial families and wealthy aristocrats,
    schools with Confucian teaching and exams,
    Buddhist monasteries and temples
  • Aristocracy dominated life in Koreaall other
    common people were subject to the will/control of
    the elite (virtual slaves, uneducated in Chinese
    ways, unable to become artisans or artists)
  • This domination caused periodic revolts from the
    peasantrycoupled with Mongol invasions in the
    13th and 14th centuries, the power of the Silla
    and Koryo weakened
  • When the Yi family came to power in 1392, they
    would restore the aristocratic dominance that
    would last until the 20th century

13
China and SE Asia The Making of Vietnam
  • The region of the Red River valley was home to
    the Nam Viet (people of the south) civilization,
    an already distinct culture called the southern
    barbarians by the early Chinese dynasties
  • The Qin raided the Vietnamese during their short
    period of existence and began a relationship with
    the Viet rulersthis opened a system of exchange
    in which the Chinese swapped silk for pearls,
    shells, other items from the sea and exotic woods
  • Eventually the Viets removed the Qin feudal
    rulersThey adopted the Qin feudal system and
    began in intermarry with Khmers, Chams and Tai
    peoples to solidify their power
  • Their language or society was not changed by
    early Chinese contactstrong family ties (nuclear
    family) in villagesViet society gave women more
    freedom and influence in politics, economics,
    etc. compared to Chinese society

14
Conquest, Sinification, and Resistance
  • The Han dynasty secured Nam Viet as a tribute
    state, then conquered and governed it directly by
    111 BCEChinese culture was introducedthe Han
    system of schooling and examination was imposed
    on thema scholar gentry emerged that assimilated
    some elements of Chinese culture
  • Vietnamese agriculture benefited as Chinese
    techniques in farming increased production (and
    increased population)
  • Vietnamese resistance to Han rule increased as
    cultures came into conflict (Han still considered
    Vietnam barbaric)Vietnamese began to mock
    Chinese teachingsaristocratic and peasant
    revolts erupted against further Chinese
    influenceWomen played a large roll in revolts as
    they were beginning to feel subjugated by
    Confucian rules (Trung sisters)as a result women
    continued to maintain their independence

15
Vietnamese independence and expansion
  • By 939, Vietnam was largely independent from
    Chinese rule and remained that way until
    imperialism in the 1800s
  • A dynasty system emerged (Le Dynasty) that
    modeled its bureaucratic rule like Chinahowever,
    the scholar gentry never gained dominant
    powermuch power was held at local levels as
    rulers identified more with village rulers and
    the peasantry rather than the central
    authorityBuddhism also held control over the
    common people (similar to the early Japanese
    problem)
  • The Viet expanded southward over the centuries,
    successfully conquering the various peoples of
    Cambodia, Laos and southern Vietnam (Khmer and
    Cham)
  • The northern Vietnamese lost control over
    southern Vietnamese peoples as they intermarried
    with the Khmer and Cham peoplesregional military
    commanders took power and the Nguyen dynasty
    established a southern capital at Huethis
    conflict between North and South would continue
    through to modern day

16
This Week
  • Tuesday Core Activity
  • AC, see website for copy of chart and
    instructions
  • Wednesday/Thursday DBQ Comparing Feudalism
  • Friday TEST, C13 Notes due
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