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Animal Disease Emergencies Local Response Preparedness and Planning

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Title: Animal Disease Emergencies Local Response Preparedness and Planning


1
Animal Disease EmergenciesLocal
ResponsePreparedness and Planning
  • Animal Industry

2
Note to Presenter
  • The following presentation provides an overview
    of animal disease emergency preparedness,
    prevention, response and recovery measures.
  • Supplemental PowerPoints on each topic are
    available for inclusion into this presentation or
    for stand alone presentations, depending on time
    allotted and interest of the audience.

3
Overview
  • What are animal disease emergencies
  • Who may be involved
  • What to expect
  • Importance of preparingat the local level
  • How you can prepare

4
Preparing and Responding to an Animal Disease
Emergency
5
Animal Disease Emergencies
  • Affect large numbers of livestock
  • Most highly contagious/easily spread
  • Animal health impact
  • Economic consequences
  • Human health impact
  • Often called foreign animal diseases (FAD) or
    high consequence pathogens

6
Means of Introduction
  • Intentional or accidental introduction of foreign
    disease agents
  • Emerging or re-emerging diseases

7
Importance of Agriculture
8
Value of Agricultural Products
9
Iowa Agriculture, 2006
10
Food Production Changes
  • Number of farms decreasing
  • Animal numbers rising on some farms
  • Opportunities
  • Increasing intensity/specialization
  • Efficient food source U.S. and world
  • Challenges
  • Disease control and eradication
  • Devastating economic effects

11
Impact of Animal Disease
  • Animal Health
  • Death, illness, loss of production
  • Economics
  • Loss or disruption of trade
  • Loss of consumer confidence
  • Movement restrictions
  • Human Health
  • Zoonoses
  • Mental health

12
Vulnerabilities
  • High density husbandry
  • Mixing at auction marketsor transport by
    vehicles
  • Over 5 million cattle each year
  • Poor traceability of animals
  • No immunity to foreign animal diseases
  • Centralized feed supply and distribution

13
Vulnerabilities
  • Diseases widespreadin other countries
  • Expanded internationaltrade and travel
  • Border penetration
  • People, wild birds, mammals
  • Inadequate on-farm biosecurityand FAD awareness

14
Prepare
  • State and Federal Agencies

15
Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land
Stewardship (IDALS)
  • State Veterinarian Dr. David Schmitt
  • Animal health and control issues
  • Animal movement and tracking
  • State District Veterinarians (6)
  • Foreign Animal Disease Diagnosticians (FADD)
  • Specially trained veterinarian
  • The Center for Agricultural Security
  • Iowa Veterinary Rapid ResponseTeam (IVRRT)
  • 330 trained veterinarians and animal health
    professionals

16
STATE VETERINARIAN DISTRICTS Dr. David Schmitt,
State Veterinarian Work 515-281-8601 Cell
515-669-3527
Dr. Pamela Smith
Dr. Tim Smith
Dr. James Johnson
Dr. Gary E. Eiben
Dr. R.E. Welander
Dr. John Schiltz
February 2008
17
Iowa Premises Identification Program
  • Voluntary Participant in National Animal
    Identification System (NAIS)
  • Premise - any geographically unique location in
    which agricultural animals are raised, held or
    boarded
  • Complete application
  • www.agriculture.state.ia.us/premiseID.htm
  • Premise Identification Number (PIN)
  • Allied agricultural and non-producer participants
    can also be assigned PINs

18
Additional State Agencies Involved
  • Iowa Homeland Security and Emergency Management
    Division (HSEMD)
  • Resource management
  • Department of Natural Resources (DNR)
  • Animal disposal issues
  • Livestock burial maps
  • Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH)
  • Human health issues
  • State Public Health Veterinarian
  • Dr. Ann Garvey

19
Additional Supporting Agencies
  • Iowa Department of Public Safety
  • Iowa Department of Transportation
  • Iowa National Guard
  • Iowa State University Extension
  • Iowa State University College of Veterinary
    Medicine

20
Iowa Emergency Response Plan
  • The State plan outlines who is responsible for
    what and when
  • Each state agency is assigned responsibilities
  • Each agency determines how to meet their
    responsibilities
  • Iowa Comprehensive Plan
  • Iowa Emergency Response Plan
  • Annex W Infectious Animal Disease
  • Iowa Hazard Mitigation Plan
  • Iowa Disaster Recovery Plan
  • Iowa Critical Asset Protection Plan

21
Federal Agencies
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Animal and Plant HealthInspection Service
    (APHIS)
  • Veterinary Services (VS)
  • Emergency Management and Diagnostics
  • National Center for Animal Health Emergency
    Management
  • National Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories
  • The National Animal Health Laboratory Network

22
USDA Personnel in Iowa
  • Area Veterinarian In Charge (AVIC)
  • Dr. Kevin Petersburg
  • 9-Federal Veterinary Medical Officers
  • All are Foreign Animal Disease Diagnosticians
  • Area Emergency Coordinator
  • Dr. Stephen Goff
  • Iowa, Nebraska

23
USDA Federal Veterinary Medical Officers
(VMO) Dr. Kevin Petersburg, Area Veterinarian In
Charge (AVIC) Work 515-284-4140
Dr. Pamela Smith
Dr. Tim Smith
Dr. Gary E. Eiben
Lyon
Dickinson
Osceola
Emmet
Kossuth
Winnebago
Worth
Winneshiek
Howard
Mitchell
Allamakee
Clay
Sioux
O'Brien
Palo Alto
Hancock
Cerro Gordo
Floyd
Chickasaw
Dr. Neil Rippke
Clayton
Fayette
Buena Vista
Pocahontas
Wright
Franklin
Bremer
Butler
Plymouth
Cherokee
Humboldt
Webster
Buchanan
Dubuque
Delaware
Black Hawk
Woodbury
Ida
Sac
Calhoun
Hamilton
Hardin
Grundy

Dr. Sharon Fairchild
Jones
Linn
Benton
Tama
Jackson
Dr. John Schiltz
Monona
Crawford
Carroll
Greene
Boone
Marshall
Story
Clinton
Cedar
Harrison
Shelby
Jasper
Audubon
Guthrie
Polk
Poweshiek
Iowa
Johnson
Dallas
Scott
Muscatine
Pottawattamie
Cass
Adair
Madison
Warren
Marion
Mahaska
Keokuk
Washington
Louisa

Montgomery
Mills
Henry
Jefferson
Wapello
Monroe
Lucas
Clarke
Union
Adams
Dr. R.E. Welander
Des
Moines
Dr. James Johnson
Fremont
Page
Taylor
Ringgold
Decatur
Wayne
Appanoose
Davis
Van Buren
Lee

Dr. Don Otto
February. 2008
24
National Animal Identification System (NAIS)
  • Voluntary
  • Created to identify and trace livestock
  • State-to-state consistency
  • Goal 48 hour trace of animals in disease
    outbreak
  • Maintain contact information that can be accessed
    in case of an animal health emergency to speed
    notification
  • Premises ID, animal ID, animal movement

25
U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
  • Customs and Border Protection
  • 317 ports of entry into US
  • Imported animal and plant material
  • Over 40,000 employees3,000 agriculture
    specialists
  • 1 million conveyances
  • 83 million passengers
  • 3.6 million cargo inspections
  • Beagle Brigade
  • 75,000 interceptions annually

26
Veterinary Response Teams
  • National Veterinary Response Teams (NVRT)
  • Veterinary Medical Assistance Teams (VMAT)
  • National Animal Health Emergency Response Corps
    (NAHERC)

27
National Veterinary Stockpile
  • HSPD-9 (Jan 30, 2004)
  • National repository of critical veterinary
    supplies
  • Vaccine, antiviral, drugs
  • PPE kits
  • Deploy within 24 hours
  • Support response efforts for 40 days

28
National Response Framework
  • Incidents handled at the lowest jurisdictional
    level possible
  • Emphasis on local response
  • Identify personnel responsible for incident
    management at local level
  • Police, fire, public health, medical or emergency
    management
  • Veterinary, animal health professionals
  • Private sector is key partner

29
Prevent
  • Managing Disease Risk

30
Biological Risk Management (BRM)
  • Overall process of awareness education,
    evaluation, and management
  • Designed to improve disease control
  • Foreign and domestic diseases
  • Provide tools to minimize risk

31
Biological Risk Management (BRM)
  • Disease risk cannot be totally eliminated
  • Animal, its environment
  • Decrease exposure to disease agents
  • Minimize threat to
  • animals and humans
  • No one-size-fits-all answer

32
Diseases of High ConsequenceInternational, U.S.
and Iowa
33
World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)
  • Early Warning System
  • Disease reported within 24 hours
  • Informs countriesat risk
  • Trade shut downuntil further notice

34
Routes of Transmission
  • Apply to all infectious agents
  • Animal must be exposed to develop disease
  • Understand different routes of transmission
    Gain control
  • Risk areas must be identified
  • Design protocols to minimize exposure

35
Routes of Transmission
  • Spread of disease agents
  • Animal animal
  • Animal human
  • zoonotic
  • Different modes of transmission
  • Oral
  • Vector-borne
  • Zoonotic
  • Aerosol
  • Direct contact
  • Fomite

36
General Disease Prevention Practices
37
Daily Practices
  • Post signs limiting animal access to unauthorized
    visitors
  • Restrict access to farm
  • Appointments
  • Known personnel
  • Visitor log
  • Limit contact with animals
  • Neighbors livestock
  • Wildlife, birds
  • Roaming cats, dogs

38
Daily Practices
  • Limit animal purchases
  • Quarantine newly introduced animals
  • New purchases, returning animals
  • Isolate ill animals immediately
  • No shared ventilation, direct contact with other
    animals
  • Time determined with veterinarian
  • Test for key diseases before placing with rest of
    herd/flock

39
Daily Practices
  • Keep health records on every animal
  • Train farm personnel to report sick animals
  • Inspect animals daily
  • Clean equipment, boots, clothing
  • Investigate unusual signs, unresponsive cases
  • Neurologic, downers, sudden death

40
Prevention Based on Disease Spread
41
Disease Transmission
  • Animals may not exhibit obvious clinical signsof
    disease
  • Essential
  • Disease prevention
  • Awareness of how disease is transmitted
  • Develop strategy to minimize disease risk for
    livestock operation

42
Aerosol
  • Basic prevention steps involve
  • Increasing distance between sick and well
    animals
  • Maximizing ventilation
  • Provide fresh air to all animals
  • Decrease humidity and odor build up

43
Prevention Aerosol
  • Distance is important
  • Do not share air space between sick and healthy
    animals

44
Direct Contact, Fomite
  • Basic prevention steps involve
  • Restricting access to farm, animals
  • Isolating sick animals
  • Keeping environment clean, dry
  • Keeping equipment clean

45
Prevent Direct Contact, Fomites
  • Minimize vehicle traffic on farm
  • Load/unload, rendering at perimeter
  • Have separate vehicles for on-farmand
    off-farm use
  • Do not share equipment with other farms
  • Tractors, livestock trailers
  • Do not allow feed, fuel truck drivers to cross
    animal paths

46
Prevent Direct Contact, Fomites
  • Require prior authorization before entering
    premises
  • Sign in and disclose recent animal contact
  • No animal contact for people traveling to
    foreign countries previous 7-10 days
  • Require clean clothes, clean footwear
  • Provide if necessary

47
Oral, Fomite
  • Basic prevention steps involve
  • Isolating sick animals
  • Keeping feed and water clean
  • Managing manure
  • Keeping equipment clean
  • Feeding, treatment, vehicles

48
Prevent Oral, Fomites
  • Elevate feed, prevent steppinginto feed bunks
    with contaminated boots
  • Examine feed for contaminants, quality
  • Manure, mold, carcasses
  • Monitor feed tags, deliveries
  • Test, control access to water sources
  • Fencing to prevent animal entry and contamination

49
Vector Control
  • Basic prevention steps include
  • Source reduction
  • Prevent egg laying
  • Control adults
  • Insecticides
  • Minimize animal interaction
  • Screens on buildings
  • Animal treatment
  • Mowing long grasses

50
Environmental Contamination
  • Disease organism in environment
  • Survive in soil, organic material
  • Animals and humans can acquire agent(s) through
  • Inhalation (aerosol)
  • Direct contact
  • Fomites
  • Oral consumption
  • Vectors

51
Response to an Animal Disease Emergency
52
Response
  • Preparedness plan in action
  • Expedient, safe, effective
  • Level of response depends on
  • Particular disease
  • Ability of disease to spread
  • Degree of spread
  • Resources available

53
Local
State
State or Federal
Local
54
Animal Disease Emergency Indicators
  • Increased illness, death rates, abortions
  • Significant drop in production
  • Ulcers or blisters on or around the animals
    mouth or feet
  • Sudden lameness
  • Any nervous system signs
  • Pox or lumpy skin conditions
  • Severe respiratory conditions
  • Any unusual or unexplained illness

55
FADD Investigation
  • Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostician
  • Specially trained veterinarian
  • Over 500 investigations in U.S. each year 25-50
    in Iowa
  • Visits premises within 24 hours
  • Inspects animals and makes field assessment
  • Consults with State Veterinarian and AVIC on case
    priority and necessary actions
  • Sample collection
  • Sample handling (priority level)
  • Control measures movement restrictions,
    quarantine

56
Case Priorities
57
Animal Health Laboratory Submissions
  • Routine (daily) testing
  • ISU CVM Diagnostic Laboratory
  • Private laboratory facilities
  • National Veterinary Laboratory Network
  • Suspected foreign animal disease
  • Foreign Animal Disease DiagnosticLaboratory,
    Plum Island, NY (cloven hoofed)
  • National Veterinary ServicesLaboratories Ames
    (poultry, equine, fish)

58
Containment
  • of an Animal Disease Emergency

59
Prevention State Level
  • State Veterinarian
  • Under authority of Iowa Secretary of Ag
  • Embargo
  • Prohibits animal and/or product movement into
    Iowa
  • Voluntary hold order
  • Request that owners voluntarily cease all
    movement of animals and/or product
  • Quarantine
  • Mandatory order to cease animal and/or product
    movement

60
IDALS AuthorityIowa Code 163.1(1)
  • Grants IDALS power to control an infectious
    disease affecting animals within this state
    which may involve
  • Control and eradication of animal disease
  • Quarantine of animals or premises
  • Regulate or restrict animal movement
  • Enter any premises where animals/carcasses are
    or have been in the past
  • Condemn and depopulate animals
  • Disinfect farm operations

61
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62
Single Premises Response
  • One location
  • FADD investigates
  • Diagnosis
  • Quarantine premises
  • Most coordination at State level
  • Treat or depopulate
  • Federal authorities manage international issues

63
Multiple Premises, Confined Area Response
  • All steps listed for single premises plus
  • Increased quarantine area
  • REGIONAL Involvement
  • State, Federal and industry agricultural
    authorities handle situation with or without
    State Declared Emergency
  • USDA Secretary of Agriculture may issue
    Declaration of Emergency

64
Multiple Premises, Multi-State Response
  • Everything previous plus
  • National movement controls
  • State level emergency declared
  • U.S. Secretary of Agriculturerequests assistance
    from DHS
  • National Response Framework and ESF 11 activated
  • APHIS is lead agency

65
World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)
  • Early Warning System
  • Disease reported within 24 hours
  • Informs countriesat risk
  • Trade shut downuntil further notice

66
Depopulation
  • Control of FAD
  • Determined by State or Federal Veterinarian
  • Humane method
  • Cervical dislocation
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Captive bolt
  • Anesthetic overdose

67
Disposal
  • Burial on-site
  • Composting
  • Incineration
  • Rendering
  • Alkaline hydrolysis
  • Landfill
  • Biosecurity concerns
  • Disease characteristics
  • Quarantine zones
  • Open burning (not allowed in Iowa)

68
Disposal Options
  • Disposal restricted by
  • Disease characteristics
  • Ease of transmission
  • Method of transmission
  • Zoonotic potential
  • Quarantine zones
  • Other restrictions per the State Veterinarian

69
IDNR Carcass Disposal Maps
  • www.iowadnr.gov
  • Site considerations of burial locations
  • Environmental Water tables
  • Proximity to habitation
  • Disease transmission
  • GIS Mapping - Interactive
  • 3 tiered approach
  • Red restricted zones
  • Multiple colors cautionary zones
  • Green no known restrictions

70
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71
Disease Prevention During Animal Health Event
72
Prevention On the Farm
  • Cleaning
  • Remove all organic matter
  • Manure, dirt, feed, etc.
  • Disinfection
  • Use proper concentration
  • Allow proper contact time
  • Vehicles, equipment, footwear, housing

73
Prevention On the Farm
  • Restrict access to farm
  • Clean vehicles only
  • Record ALL traffic, visitors
  • Monitor animals frequently
  • Contact your herd veterinarian

74
Prevention On the Farm
  • Zoonotic Diseases
  • Diseases of animals spread to humans
  • Newcastle disease pink eye
  • Swine vesicular disease skin blisters
  • Avian influenza respiratory, pneumonia
  • Anthrax skin lesions, respiratory, death

75
Prevention On the Farm
  • Wear clean gloves, coveralls and bootsat all
    times
  • Disinfect, properly dispose
  • Wash hands
  • Personal protective equipment
  • Eyewear, mask or respirator
  • Ear plugs (noise)
  • Vaccination, treatments
  • Subject to availability
  • Specific to disease

76
Safety On the Farm
  • Injuries
  • Slips, trips and falls
  • Mental health
  • Producers loss of herd/flocks, livelihood
  • Responders stress
  • Environmental stress
  • Heat, cold, rain
  • Physical stress

77
Response Coordination
  • NIMS and ICS

78
National Incident Management System (NIMS)
  • Standardizes incident management for all
    responders
  • A core set of principles, terminology and
    organizational processes
  • Flexible, adaptable
  • Applicable regardless of incident cause, size,
    location, or complexity
  • Enables government and private entities work
    together

79
National Response Framework Application of
integratedFederal resources
80
Incident Command System (ICS)
  • Standardized on-scene emergency management tool
  • To coordinate and combine independent efforts
  • Integrated organizational structure
  • Can have officials and responders from Federal,
    State, local and tribal agencies, private sector
    and non-governmental organizations
  • Not hindered by jurisdictional boundaries

81
Incident Command Post
  • Modular Format
  • Top down structure
  • Five key functional areas

82
Incident Command
Local Emergency Ops Center (EOC)
Coordination of information and resources to
support local incident management activities
Area Command
Management of multiple incidents - each handled
by an ICS organization
Incident Command Post
Incident Command Post
Incident Command Post
Primary tactical-level, on-scene incident command
functions
83
Animal Health Incident Command System Organization
84
Each Location Will be a LOCAL Incident
  • Requires local planning
  • Initial response will be a local one
  • After State and Federal agencies leave it is
    still a local incident
  • Address long term recovery
  • Producers
  • Local jurisdiction
  • Economic effects

85
Recovery
86
Recovery
  • Restore confidence
  • Requires time, money, effort
  • Cleaning and disinfection
  • Indemnity for livestock owners
  • Restocking
  • Business continuity

87
Prior to Animal Disease Emergency
  • It will never happen to me
  • It wont be that bad
  • I have insurance
  • The government will take care of me
  • Preparation and planning are essential for
    businesses to survive a disaster

88
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89
Planning for YOYO Phase
  • Protect your family, employees
  • Protect pets and livestock
  • Protect your property, business
  • Critical community resources for
  • Those with special needs
  • Most severely impacted
  • Be part of the solution
  • Not part of the problem

90
Business Continuity Plan
  • Direction and control
  • Communications
  • Life safety
  • Property protection
  • Community involvement
  • Administration and logistics

91
Business Continuity Plan
  • Recovery and restoration
  • Planning considerations
  • Continuity of management
  • Insurance
  • Employee support
  • Resuming operations

92
Planning Pays Off
  • No or poor plan can result in losses
  • In the event of a major disaster
  • 43 never reopen
  • 16.5 reopen but close in 2 years
  • 60 attrition due to a disaster
  • For every 1 spent on planning,7 saved from
    disaster loss (FEMA)

93
Resources
  • Emergency Management Guide for Business
    Industry
  • www.fema.gov/business/guide/index.shtm
  • Small Business Administration
  • Disaster preparedness and recovery information
    for businesses
  • www.sba.gov/services/disasterassistance/index.html
  • Association of Contingency Planners
  • 1-800-445-4ACP
  • www.ACP-International.com

94
Animal Disease Emergency Example
  • Foot and Mouth Disease

95
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)
  • Highly contagious virus
  • Considered to be the most important livestock
    diseasein the world
  • Not in U.S. since 1929
  • Affects cloven-hoofed animals
  • Spread between animals, by contaminated
    objectsor aerosol

96
Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreaks Jan to Mar 2008
97
U.K. FMD Outbreak, 2001
  • Total costs over 10 billion
  • Ag industry, compensation, tourism,
    sports
  • 6 million animals slaughtered
  • FMD free in less than 1 year
  • Public perception
  • Animal welfare
  • Smoke pollution

98
Conclusion
99
What Have We Learned?
  • Threats need to be taken seriously
  • Framework for response and coordination
  • Adequate resources and expertise
  • Determine extent of attack
  • Prevent disease spread and associated losses
  • Prevent any public health implications

100
Why is Local Planning needed?
  • Early detection and response are critical to
    limit impact
  • Know what to look for and who to call for
    assistance
  • Cooperation with local, state, and federal
    authorities is essential
  • Everyone plays an important role in protecting
    U.S. agriculture

101
What can you do?
  • Monitor animals for signs of disease
  • Report them immediately
  • Be awareness of steps and actions needed to
    control an outbreak
  • Get involved in local response plan development
    process
  • Work with State officials to improve your
    communities preparedness
  • Encourage prevention and vigilance among members
    of your community

102
Contacts
  • Phone numbers to know
  • State Veterinarian
  • 515-281-8601
  • APHIS Area-Veterinarian-in-Charge (AVIC)
  • 515-284-4140
  • State Public Health Veterinarian
  • 515-281-4933

103
Acknowledgments
  • Development of this presentationwas funded by a
    grant from theIowa Homeland Securityand
    Emergency Management andthe Iowa Department of
    Agriculture and Land Stewardship to theCenter
    for Food Security and Public Health at Iowa State
    University.
  • Contributing Authors Glenda Dvorak, DVM, MPH,
    DACVPM Danelle Bickett-Weddle, DVM, MPH, DACVPM
    Gayle Brown, DVM, PhD Reviewer Gayle Brown,
    DVM, PhD
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