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Smart Cars I. Background Information II. Questions & Answers

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Smart Cars I. Background Information II. Questions & Answers III. Word Study IV. Composition Writing Different Car Logos Structure of Automobile Different Types of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Smart Cars I. Background Information II. Questions & Answers


1
Smart Cars
2
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4
Table of Contents
  • I. Background Information
  • II. Questions Answers
  • III. Word Study
  • IV. Composition Writing

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Different Car Logos
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  • Structure of Automobile

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  • Different Types of Automobiles

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Development of Automobiles
  • 1. The first theoretical plans by Leonardo da
    Vinci and Isaac Newton.
  • 2. In 1771, Steam-powered car invented by
    Nicolas Joseph Cugnot
  • 3. Between 1832 and 1839, Electric Car invented
    by Robert Anderson of Scotland
  • 4. In 1860, Gas Powered Cars made by Jean Joseph
    Étienne Lenoir

17
  • 5. On January 29, 1886, Benz received the first
    patent (????)(DRP No. 37435) for a gas-fueled
    car.
  • 6. On March 8, 1886, Daimler took a
    stagecoach(????) and adapted it to hold his
    engine, thereby designing the world's first
    four-wheeled automobile
  • 7. Around 1913-14, Henry Ford invented an
    improved assembly line and installed the first
    conveyor (??) belt-based assembly line in his car
    factory in Ford's Highland Park, Michigan plant,.

18
Old engraving (??) depicting the 1771 crash of
Nicolas Joseph Cugnot's steam-powered car into a
stone wall.
19
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21
Karl Benz
  • In 1885, German mechanical engineer, Karl Benz
    designed and built the world's first practical
    automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion
    engine.
  • On January 29, 1886, Benz received the first
    patent (????)(DRP No. 37435) for a gas-fueled
    car. It was a three-wheeler.
  • Benz built his first four-wheeled car in 1891.
    Benz Cie., the company started by the inventor,
    became the world's largest manufacturer of
    automobiles by 1900.

22
Gottlieb Daimler
  • In 1885, Gottlieb Daimler (together with his
    design partner Wilhelm Maybach) patented what is
    generally recognized as the prototype of the
    modern gas engine.
  • On March 8, 1886, Daimler took a
    stagecoach(????,??) and adapted it to hold his
    engine, thereby designing the world's first
    four-wheeled automobile.
  • Daimler founded the Daimler Motoren-Gesellschaft
    in 1890 to manufacture his designs.
  • In 1894, the first automobile race in the world
    was won by a car with a Daimler engine.

23
Henry Ford (1863-1947)
  • American car manufacturer,
  • Henry Ford invented an
  • Improved assembly line
  • and installed the first
  • conveyor (??) belt-based
  • assembly line in his car
  • factory in Ford's Highland
  • Park, Michigan plant,
  • around 1913-14.

24
  • Application of New Technology to Transportation

25
By Enabling the car Communication Systems to the
External world, telematic opens up new horizons.
GPS
Telematics
26
Digital Maps
  • Like sensors, digital maps enhance vehicle
    safety. It shows
  • routes and related information such as road
    signs,
  • congested lane, layout etc.

27
GPS
  • GPS is the only system today
  • Able to show you your exact
  • Position on the Earth anytime,
  • in any weather, anywhere. GPS
  • Satellites orbit at 11,000
  • nautical miles(??) above
  • the Earth. They are continuously
  • monitored by ground stations
  • located world- wide. The
  • satellites transmit signals that
  • can be detected by anyone with
  • a GPS receiver.
  • The first GPS satellite was
  • called GPS Block I. Launched in
  • 1978, it was a developmental
  • satellite.

28
GPS
29
Potential Problems
  • Three Driving Conditions
  • Normal
  • Imminent crash(??)
  • Degraded driving(??)
  • Four major problem areas
  • Rear-end collision
  • Lane change and merge collision
  • Vision enhancement(????)
  • Pedestrian

30
  • II. Questions Answers

31
1. What is a smart car according to the author?
  • A smart car is a type of car which can detect
  • possible dangers and avoid them
  • automatically.
  • It is different from modern car, in general
  • sense.

32
2. How many people are killed in traffic
accidents in USA every year?
  • Forty thousand people are killed in traffic
  • accidents, less than that in China, though.
  • In China about 300 people are killed everyday.

33
3. What is being built at the MIT Media Lab?
  • A prototype of smart car is already being
  • built in MIT Media Lab, which can determine
  • how sleepy you are when you are driving.

34
4. What is GPS?
  • GSP is a system (set of devices) to locate your
  • position with an accuracy from 100 meters to
  • less than 1 centimeter on land, on sea and in
  • the air.

35
5. What influences the wide application
of GPS in a car at present?
  • The high price of microchips prevents wide
  • application at present. But future applications
  • of GPS are virtually limitless.

36
6. What else should be done if a smart car is
equipped with GPS?
  • The highway (traffic road) must be revolutionized
    by
  • being mounted with computer chips, sensors and
  • radio transmitters to alert cars to traffic jams
    and
  • obstructions.

37
7. What is the function of spikes buried in
the revolutionized high way?
  • They aid the computer to control the driving of
  • the cars on heavily trafficked roads. There are
  • thousands of three-inch spikes buried in the
  • high way.

38
8. What benefits will be brought to us if the
cars and high-ways are revolutionized as the
author imagines?
  • It will bring us an environmental boon, such as
  • saving fuel, reducing traffic jams, decreasing
    air
  • pollution, less highway expansion

39
9. Do you prefer the development of private cars
or public transportation in China?
  • Personally I dont like show-off. So I prefer the
    development of public transportation in a city
    for the sake of environment.
  • But in the rural area, a private car is crucial
    for the inhabitants there.

40
10. What are the major causes of traffic
accidents in China?
  • Careless driving
  • Drunken driving
  • Over-time driving
  • Speedy driving
  • Overloaded driving

41
III. Word Study
42
lucrative a. profitable, producing money
  • Many workers from the countryside have found
    lucrative jobs in private firms in the city.
  • We made a lucrative deal with the American
    company on rice imports.
  • (???????)

43
2. eliminate v. sth./sb. (from sth./sb.)
  • get rid of hunger/ illiteracy
  • Many infectious diseases have been virtually
    eliminated.
  • Weve eliminated the possibility that someone
    started the fire deliberately.
  • Half of the candidates were eliminated after the
    first round of interviews. (??)

44
3. fatality
  • n. C a death caused by an accident or by
    violence, or someone who has died in either of
    these ways
  • Britain has thousands of road fatalities (
    deaths on roads) every year.
  • The first fatalities of the war were civilians.
  • ??????

45
fatally   adv. (They died as a result) Several
people were injured, two fatally.
  • fatal  a.
  • 1. a fatal illness or accident, etc. causes
    death
  • This illness is fatal in almost all cases.
  • 2. very serious and having an important bad
    effect in the future
  • He made the fatal mistake/error of believing
    what they told him.

46
4. in the air in the atmosphere, uncertain,
undecided, suspended
  • There is a peculiar smell in the air.
  • Our vacation plans are still up in the air.
  • There was a feeling in the air that it was time
    to change.(??????)

47
on the air/on air --- on radio/television
  • The program first went on air 28 years ago.
  • into/out of thin air
  • disappear/appear suddenly
  • When I looked around he seemed to have vanished
    into thin air.(???????)
  • Some doubts just happened out of thin air.
  • (?????)

48
5. start up
  • 1) switch on engine
  • Peter got into the car and started up the
    engine.
  • Put the key in the ignition and turn it to
    start the car up.
  • 2) bring a business into existence
  • He left the company last year to start up his
    own business.(?????)

49
6. get/be stuck in unable to move or to be
moved
  • I was stuck in the traffic yesterday for about
    one hour. Thats why I missed the plane.
  • The wheels get stuck in the mud.
  • I was stuck at home with flu.(????)

50
7. Monotonous ??
  • a. staying the same and not changing and
    therefore boring
  • a monotonous job (??????)
  • a monotonous voice (???)
  • The music became monotonous after a while.(???)

51
monotony  n. monotonousness
  • The monotony of motorway driving causes many
    accidents. ?????
  • The routine was the same every day, with nothing
    to break (relieve) the monotony.

52
8. orbit
  • to follow a curved(??)path around a planet or
    star
  • On this mission, the Shuttle will orbit (the
    Earth) at a height of several hundred miles.
  •  n. the curved path through which objects in
    space move around a planet or star
  • The satellite is now in a stable orbit.
  • Once in space, the spacecraft will go into
    orbit(????)around the Earth.

53
9. circle v. 1 I or T to move in a circle,
often around something
  • The plane circled for an hour before receiving
    permission to land.
  • Security staff circled the grounds of the house
    with guard dogs every hour.
  • 2 T to draw a circle around something
  • Circle the answer you think is correct.

See also encircle(??).
54
circle   n. C (SHAPE)
  •  a continuous curved line, the points of which
    are always the same distance away from a fixed
    central point, or the area enclosed by such a
    line
  • Colored paper was cut into circles, squares and
    triangles.
  • We sat in a circle.
  • circular  a. shaped like a circle
  • a circular flowerbed/tablecloth

55
10. locate v. (FIND)  
  • 1) to find or discover the exact position of
    something
  • Police are still trying to locate the
    suspect.
  • 2) to move to a place to do business
  • The company hopes to locate in its new
    offices by June.
  • be located in/near/on/etc. to be in a particular
    place
  • Our office is located in the city centre.

56
location  n. U
  • The latest navigational aids make the location of
    the airfield quite easy.??????
  • Police and military officials have been marking
    the location of bodies with global positioning
    devices and paint on the outside of houses

57
11. vibrate v. shake very quickly with small
movements
  • Microwave ovens operate by agitating the water
    molecules in the food, causing them to vibrate,
    which produces heat. (shake)
  • The walls vibrated with the music from next door.

58
12. detect v.
  • 1) to notice something that is partly hidden or
    not clear or to discover something, especially
    using a special method
  • Some sounds cannot be detected by the human ear.
  • Financial experts have detected signs that the
    economy is beginning to improve.
  • 2) to discover something, usually using special
    equipment
  • High levels of lead (????)were detected in the
    atmosphere.
  • Radar equipment is used to detect ( find the
    position of) enemy aircraft.

59
detection n. U
  • 1) when someone notices or discovers something
  • Early detection of the cancer improves the
    chances
  • of successful treatment. bomb detection
  • 2) when the police discover information about
    crimes
  • a low/high crime detection rate (???)
  • detector  n. C
  • a device used to find particular substances or
    things, or measure their level
  • a metal/smoke detector

60
13. correlate vt.
  • bring (sth) into a mutual relationship with
    (another) (with sth) A and/with B
  • The question correlates with age and gender.
  • Attempts will be made to correlate our findings
    with various environmental factors.

61
correlation n. (with sth)
(between A and B)
  • correlation between personal wealth and health
  • a direct/close/clear/significant/high correlation

62
14. be poised to do sth.
  • be ready to take action at any moment
  • The automobile company is poised to launch its
    new advertising campaign.
  • Japan was poised to become the biggest foreign
    investor in Vietnam.

63
15. Mount v. fix in a position, put into place,
display sth (on/onto/in sth)
  • Some automobiles were designed with a
    transmission mounted on the rear axle(??).
  • The diamonds are mounted in a gold setting.
  • He mounted the photograph on stiff paper, and
    then put it in a frame(??).

64
16. automate    v. T
  • to make a process in a factory or office operate
    by machines or computers, in order to reduce the
    amount of work done by humans and the time taken
    to do the work
  • Massive investment is needed to automate the
    production process.
  • automated  a. fully automated system
  • automation n. U office/factory automation

65
automation n. U office/factory automation
  • automatic a. automated  a.
  • a fully automated system
  • automatic teller machine --- ATM
  • cash machine

66
automatic a. independent
  • An automatic machine or device is able to operate
    independently of human control
  • automatic doors an automatic rifle automatic
    focus(??)on a camera

67
autonomy n.
  • the right of a group of people to govern itself,
    or to organize its own activities
  • Demonstrators demanded immediate autonomy for
    their region. (??)
  • The universities are anxious to preserve their
    autonomy from central government in USA.

68
  • autonomous    a.
  • independent and having the power to make your own
    decisions
  • an autonomous region/province/republic/council

69
17. bunch v. get close to/group together
(active/passive)
  • They bunched together to allow others to squeeze
    into the crowded elevator.
  • The girls were bunched up on one side of the
    room.
  • (?????)
  • a blouse (???????)that bunches(???)at the waist.

70
  • a bunch of flowers
  • a bunch of keys,
  • a bunch of bananas/grapes,
  • a bunch of people

71
18. boon n. C usually singular
  • something that is very helpful and improves the
    quality of life
  • Guide dogs are a great boon to the partially
    sighted.
  • boon companion --- a very close friend

72
Composition Writing For CET (Band 4)
73
Composition One
  • Reading Selectively or Extensively
  • ???????????
  • ???????????
  • ????

74
Reading Selectively or Extensively
  • Reading is one of the ways of getting more
    knowledge in our daily life, and it has two forms
    which are selective reading and extensive
    reading. But which is more efficient?
  • Some people believe that selective
    reading is more efficient than extensive reading,
    because with the development of modern life
    people have less time to read. They must deal
    with many things. In order to acquire some
    necessary and useful information they have to
    read selectively.

75
  • Some other people think they should read
    extensively.
  • Now it is an information era. If they cant
    acquire enough
  • knowledge and information, they will not keep up
    with the
  • development of times. So extensive reading is a
    good solution to
  • it.
  • In my opinion, reading extensively is more
    essential.
  • Because the development of society needs more and
    more able
  • men and women.As long as we master all kinds of
    knowledge,
  • we will have more chances to find our positions
    in society.

76
Composition Two
  • Topic Getting to know the World Outside
  • the Campus
  • ???????????
  • ???????(??????????)
  • ??????

77
Getting to know the World Outside the Campus
  • With the development of our society, the
    campus should
  • no longer be an Ivory Tower. It is necessary
    for college
  • students to go outside to get to know the world.
    They should
  • acquire knowledge not only from books but also
    from the
  • society.Thus they can adapt to society more
    quickly after
  • they graduate from school.

78
  • Science and technology are developing
    rapidly with
  • each passing day. Most students can keep
    themselves
  • informed by watching TV, listening to the radio,
    reading
  • newspapers and using internet. It is also good to
    take a
  • part-time job, such as tutoring or washing dishes
    in a
  • restaurant. All these methods will enable
    students to
  • get in touch with society.
  • Summer vocation is around the corner. I
    will be a
  • volunteer to help children in a remote area. I
    think I can
  • do well. Although I wont be paid there, I can
    learn a lot
  • about the society, which is the most important
    point.

79
Listening Speaking Practice
  • (Unit 2)

80
Dealing with Cultural Differences
  • Different languages convey different value
    systems (self-made man).
  • Different languages may have different responding
    for compliments.
  • Cultural differences are subtle and are often
    unrecognized/overlooked.
  • A good manner in one language cultural background
    may be a bad manner in another.

81
Questions Answers
  • Is it polite to take sth. the first time when it
    is offered?
  • Is it expected to have a small talk about
    weather, personal hobbies and family before
    getting down to business with your foreign
    associates?
  • Do you feel embarrassed when you are caught off
    guard by a foreign custom if you send a gift to a
    friend in a wrong way?
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