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Using Response to Intervention RTI for Washingtons Students


All students, including those with disabilities are found in Tiers I, II, and III ... Students progress is monitored more frequently at Tier II, usually every 2 weeks ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Using Response to Intervention RTI for Washingtons Students

Using Response to Intervention (RTI) for
Washingtons Students
  • Defining RTI
  • Where did it come from and why do we need it?
  • Support for RTI in federal law
  • Core principles
  • Special education eligibility considerations
  • Policy issues
  • Professional development issues

Defining RTI
  • RTI is a general education approach that aligns
    resources from general, remedial and special
    education through a multi-tiered service delivery
    model in order to provide scientific,
    research-based interventions to struggling

Defining RTI, cont.
  • RTI includes making data-based decisions based on
    curriculum based measurements (CBMs) through
    problem-solving or standard protocol measures
  • Uses progress monitoring (formative assessments)
  • Specific Learning Disability Identification

Where did it come from and why do we need
it?Background and Research Support
  • The idea of using CBMs to identify student needs
    is not new.
  • Stan Denos data-based decision program
    modification model (Deno, 1985 Deno Mirkin,
  • Bergans behavioral consultation model (Bergan,
  • Problems in the traditional system (Wait to fail)
  • Integration between general and special education
  • Undocumented benefits of special education
  • Variability and accuracy of eligibility
  • Integration of eligibility determination with

Support for RTI in federal law
  • Provisions of IDEA 2004 allow school districts to
    use scientific, research-based interventions as
    an alternative method for identifying students
    with SLD.
  • Aligns with No Child Left Behind (2001)

RTI Manual Introduction
  • Outlines principle components of RTI
  • Guidance on RTI decision making
  • Recommendations on using RTI data to identify
    specific learning disabilities (SLD)
  • Answers common questions
  • Includes additional resources and practical

How to use the manual
  • Recommendations NOT regulations
  • Readiness checklist
  • Each district and school design their own RTI
    system depending on curriculum decisions and
  • NOTE An RTI system is a combined general
    education and special education approach
  • OSPIs RTI manual is aligned with OSPIs K-12
    Reading Model

Response to Intervention Core Principles
  • Use all available resources to teach all students
  • Use scientific, research-based interventions
  • Monitor classroom performance
  • Conduct universal screening/benchmarking
  • Use multi-tier model of service delivery
  • Make data based decisions using a problem
    solving/standard protocol
  • Monitor progress frequently
  • Fidelity

Use all available resources to teach all students
  • RTI practices are built on the belief that all
    students can learn and everyone supports all
  • RTI focuses on student intervention need and not
    What is wrong with the student?
  • Systems Change Integrated approach
  • No one building/district will look the same

Use all available resources to teach all
students, cont.
  • Basic Education
  • LAP/Title
  • Reading First (NCLB, 2001)
  • School Improvement Plan
  • Student Learning Plans
  • Special Education (IDEA 2004)
  • Other resources available to the

Use scientific, research-based interventions
  • Curriculum and instruction approaches must have a
    high probability of success for the majority of
  • Offer as soon as it is clear the student is
    lagging behind
  • Increase intensity of instruction and practice
  • Opportunity for explicit and systematic
    instruction/practice and cumulative review
  • Provide skillful instruction with good error
    correction, immediate feedback
  • Guided by and in response to progress monitoring
  • Must provide a supportive atmosphere for learning

Monitor classroom performance
  • General education teacher play a vital role in
    designing and delivering high quality instruction
  • General education teachers also monitor student
    progress through CBMs
  • Student performance in relationship to state
    standards (GLEs)

Universal Screening
  • School staff conduct universal screening in all
    academic areas and behavior to all students three
    times/year to identify students at risk
  • Benchmarks document whether a child is on track
    compared to peer group and/or state standards
  • The students data at benchmark testing periods
    can be utilized to validate the effectiveness of
    intervention. Is the gap closing?

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Features of a Multi-Tiered Model
  • Each tier represents increasingly intense level
    of services associated with increasing levels of
    learner needs
  • All students, including those with disabilities
    are found in Tiers I, II, and III
  • The nature of the academic or behavioral
    intervention changes at each tier, becoming more
    rigorous as the student moves through the tiers
  • Students move up and down the tiers depending on

Three-Tier Model of School Supports
Of your students.
5 or fewer
15 or fewer
80 or more
Use multi-tier model of service delivery Tier I
  • Tier I ALL Students
  • All students receive high quality scientific
    research based instruction in the core curriculum
    in all areas
  • Core curriculum provides the foundation for
    instruction upon which all strategic and
    intensive interventions are formulated
  • Serves 80-90 of the student body
  • Some Tier 1 interventions may be applied to at
    risk students followed by progress monitoring

Use multi-tier model of service delivery Tier II
  • Tier II Some Students
  • Strategic interventions supplements instruction
    to students who are not achieving standards
    through the core curriculum alone
  • Consists of 5-10 of the student body
  • Occurs in small groups of 3-6 students
  • Short-term in duration 9-12 week blocks
  • Recommended 3-4 sessions per week at 30-60
    minutes per session
  • Students progress is monitored more frequently at
    Tier II, usually every 2 weeks

Use multi-tier model of service delivery Tier
II, cont.
  • Tier II Some Students
  • Students may receive more than one block of Tier
    II interventions if progressing but who have not
    yet reached the goal
  • Students who reach goal would be reintegrated
    into Tier I
  • Students who do not progress in Tier II may
    require more intensive interventions

Use multi-tier model of service delivery Tier III
  • Tier III Few Students
  • Intensive interventions are designed to
    accelerate a students rate of learning by
    increasing the frequency and duration of
    individualized interventions based on targeted
    assessment data.
  • Students at Tier III are those performing
    significantly below standards and have not
    adequately responded to Tier I or Tier II

Use multi-tier model of service delivery Tier
III, cont.
  • Tier III Few Students
  • Consists of less than 5 of student body
  • Occurs in groups of no more than 3 ideally
  • May occur longer than 9-12 weeks
  • Student progress is monitored on at least a
    weekly basis
  • Students who are successful at Tier III
    reintegrate to Tier I with Tier II support
  • If not successful at Tier III, consider referral
    for special education and/or other long-term
    planning 504 plan, additional Tier III cycle

Data-Based Decision Making
  • The purpose of using data based decision making
    is to find the best instructional approach for a
    student with an academic or behavioral problem
  • Decisions are made by teams consisting of
    professionals knowledgeable about the student,
    and the parent
  • Decisions are made through the problem solving
    process or standard protocol approach

Designing Instruction to Meet Student Needs
Standardized Assessments
Benchmarking or Screening

Instructional Problem Solving
Requires taking multiple sources of evidence and
selecting appropriate instructional interventions
based on identified student needs
Progress Monitoring
Performance or Criterion Assessments
A Problem Solving Process
Domains of Influence
Evaluation Planning
Standard Treatment Protocol
  • Process where student decisions are made using an
    established response to regular occurring
    circumstances e.g., Read Well
  • Implementation involves a trial of fixed duration
    e.g., 9-12 weeks
  • Emerging research is showing success implementing
    this approach at Tier I and Tier II in the area
    of reading

Progress Monitoring
  • Documents student growth over time to determine
    whether the student is progressing as expected in
  • CBMs are primarily used as a method for progress
    monitoring because they are brief, easy to
    administer and score, and are good predictors of
    student ability
  • Progress monitoring data provide a picture of the
    students performance and rate of growth to
    inform instructional and curricular changes so
    that every student reaches proficiency on
    targeted skills

Words Read Correct
Words Read Correct
Lack of Responsiveness to Interventions
  • Defined as rate of improvement, or progress slope
    that is not sufficient for the student to become
    proficient with state standards without more
  • Decisions to advance students from one tier to
    another is based upon analysis of the progress
    monitoring data to determine if the student is
    responsive e.g. 4-6 data points below the
    aimline after interventions have been altered may
    show a student is non-responsive

Targeted Assessment
  • Targeted assessment means shifting to evaluations
    that are designed around the specific targeted
    concerns of the student.
  • In other words, we select assessments that
    measure the area of concern rather than
    administering an assessment and then trying to
    determine what it means.
  • Usually conducted when student enters Tier III,
    but may be conducted earlier

  • Fidelity refers to the degree to which RTI
    components are implemented as designed, intended,
    and planned.
  • Fidelity is achieved through sufficient time
    allocation, adequate intervention intensity,
    qualified and trained staff, and sufficient
    materials and resources.
  • Fidelity is vital in universal screening,
    instructional delivery and progress monitoring.

Intervention Plan
  • Documents analysis of student data and outlines
    interventions and evaluation of progress
  • Also documents implementation of interventions
    with fidelity See appendix F

RTI and Child Find
  • Anyone, including parents and teachers, can make
    a referral at any time in a RTI system.
  • A student cannot be required to go all the way
    through Tier III before being evaluated if
    evidence exists to suspect a disability.

When should a student be suspected of having a
disability due to a lack of responsiveness?
  • Students who are performing significantly less
    than their peers and have been provided two or
    more Tier III interventions that did not
    significantly decrease the gap in achievement
    should be suspected as having SLD and evaluated
    absent other evidence.

Parent Involvement in RTI
  • In a RTI system parents must be provided progress
    monitoring data. 34 CFR Sec. 300.309(b)(2).
  • Parents must also be informed of
  • State policies regarding the amount and nature of
    student performance data that is collected and
    the general education services that are provided
  • The strategies for increasing the students rate
    of learning and
  • Their right to request an evaluation.
  • 34 CFR Sec. 300.311(a)(7).

Is consent required before conducting screenings
or CBMs?
  • Teachers or specialists do not need to obtain
    consent to evaluate when administering universal
    screening, CBMs, or targeted assessments to a
    student in order to determine appropriate
    instructional strategies for curriculum
  • 20 USC Sec. 1414(a)(1)(E).

Using RTI data to identify SLD
  • District procedures set out criteria for using
    RTI data to establish SLD.
  • District criteria must incorporate new federal
    regulations on SLD.
  • 34 CFR Sections 300.309 through 300.311

Adopt an established approach for using RTI data
to identify SLD
  • Districts are strongly encouraged to use
    established approaches for using RTI data to
    identify SLD.
  • Criteria determines if a student is not making
    sufficient progress to meet age or State-approved
    grade-level standards in one or more of the SLD
    areas. 34 CFR Sec. 300.309(a)(2)(i).

Recommended criteria for identifying SLD using
RTI Question 1
  • Where at least two phases of intensive
    interventions implemented in the general
    education curriculum with fidelity, which did not
    affect the students achievement and does
    evidence of the students non-responsiveness at
    Tier III reflect that he or she is learning at a
    rate significantly less that her or his peers?

Recommended criteria for identifying SLD using
RTI Question 2
  • Do RTI and other existing data (including
    observation) meet at least two of the following
    four criteria
  • 1)CBM scores showing the student is performing at
    or below the 7th percentile of current
    grade-level or at or below the 16th percentile of
    a previous grade-level
  • 2)A standardized assessment score that is 1.75
    standard deviations below the mean (within test
  • 3)CBM scores and other data demonstrate the
    students median performance is at or below his
    or her grade placement peers by a discrepancy
    ratio of at least 2
  • 4)The students instructional performance level
    is two or more grade levels below her or his
    current grade placement determined by CBM scores,
    classroom performance, observation and, if
    appropriate, standardized assessments?

Recommended criteria for identifying SLD using
RTI Question 3
  • Does the evaluation group (including the parent)
    believe the student requires resources that are
    not available in the general education setting,
    with or without accommodations, in order to
    participate or progress in the general education
    curriculum at a level equal to his or her peers?
  • Evidence of this criterion would show that the
    student requires specially designed instruction
    or Tier III interventions for an extended period
    of time that is not available in the general
    education curriculum.

Evaluation Report
  • To establish SLD, under recommended approach, the
    report must reflect a yes to all three
    questions (sample in Appendix H).
  • Also need to rule out (1) visual, hearing , or
    motor disability (2) mental retardation (3)
    emotional disturbance (4) cultural factors and
    (5) limited English proficiency. 34 CFR Sec.
  • Must have data to show the student received
    appropriate reading and mathematics instructions.
    34 CFR Sec. 300.309(b).

Special Education Eligibility
  • To be eligible for special education, the
    evaluation group for students with SLD must find
    an adverse educational impact and the need for
    specially designed instruction (SDI).
  • The evaluation report for eligible students
    should include recommendations about the SDI and
    any related services, program modifications,
    accommodations and other supports the student
    needs with enough specificity to develop an IEP.
  • In a RTI system, the SDI provided should
    supplement the scientific-based interventions and
    high quality instruction the student was already
    receiving in general education.

Same players new roles I
  • The New Psychologist Role
  • Data Manager
  • Data Analyzer
  • Data Synthesizer
  • Detective Extraordinaire
  • Progress Monitoring?
  • The New Sped Teacher Role
  • Data Provider
  • Targeted Assessment
  • Progress Monitoring
  • Intervention opportunities

Same players new roles II
  • The New Parent Role
  • Data Provider (FAAB)
  • Interventionist
  • Progress Monitoring
  • The New General Ed.Teacher Role
  • Tier 1 Tier 2 interventions
  • Progress Monitoring
  • Data provider (FAAB) for Learning Env.
  • Be ready for intervention

Same players new roles III
  • The New Principal Role
  • As goes the principals attitude, so goes the
  • Providing for the assessment of intervention
  • The New Attitude
  • We are not looking at the child as broken
  • Focus is on Why isnt the general education
    curriculum working for this child?

  • Early Intervening Services are
  • Activities to support students in grades
  • K-12 who are not currently identified as
    needing special education, but who need
    additional academic and behavioral support to
    succeed in the general education curriculum
  • Districts may not use more than 15 of IDEA Part
    B funds for EIS activities, less any amount
    reduced by MOE
  • 34 CFR 300.226

EIS Allowable Activities
  • EIS activities may include
  • Professional development for teachers and other
    school staff to enable such personnel to deliver
    scientifically based academic and behavioral
  • Instruction on use of adaptive and instructional
    software and
  • Educational and behavioral evaluations, services
    and supports

How districts may use EIS funds
  • During the 05-06 school year, 15 school districts
    set aside EIS funds for a variety of activities,
  • Offering extended Kindergarten for at-risk
  • Behavioral evaluations, including FBAs, and
    behavioral services to general education students
    to improve students school-socialized behaviors
  • PD on delivery and implementation of SRBI
  • Math interventions for students in grades 1-6
  • High school academic and behavioral services for
    students who did not qualify for special
    education. Goal was to reduce the number of
    referrals to special education at the high school
    level and to match services to student needs

Disproportionate Representation
  • States must require LEAs to reserve maximum
    amount of EIS funds to address any issues of
    disproportionate representation of minority
    students in special education
  • Currently, LEAs are identified through the state
    monitoring system (routine, focused, targeted)
    looking at both numerical data and policies and
    procedures (may change with final federal
    regulations which allow states to require EIS set
    aside based on disproportionate numerical data
  • 34 CFR 300.646

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