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OVERVIEW OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SANITARY AND PHYTOSANITARY (SPS) STANDARDS AND CONSTRAINTS IN NIGERIA 

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Title: OVERVIEW OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SANITARY AND PHYTOSANITARY (SPS) STANDARDS AND CONSTRAINTS IN NIGERIA 


1
OVERVIEW OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SANITARY AND
PHYTOSANITARY (SPS) STANDARDS AND CONSTRAINTS IN
NIGERIA 
  • PRESENTED BY
  • IBRAHIM NAIBBI  NATIONAL COORDINATOR FOR
    NIGERIA 

2
INTRODUCTION
  • Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Standards under
    the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement
    deals with regulatory measures applied to protect
    human (food safety and zoonotic diseases), animal
    and plant health with the aim of harmonizing SPS
    measures such as control and inspection
    procedures and risk assessment methods and
    facilities of food and agricultural products
    (raw, semi-processed and processed) in
    international trade or supply chain.

3
SPS Regulatory Agencies in Nigeria
  • In Nigeria there is a multiplicity of agencies
    which handle various aspects of SPS measures.
    These agencies include the following
  • The Federal Ministry of Commerce and Industry
    which is the focal point for WTO in Nigeria.
  • Federal Produce Inspection Service (FPIS),
    inspects and ensures that all agricultural
    produce destined for exports or local processing
    meets prescribed international quality standards.

4
SPS Regulatory Agencies in Nigeria Cont.
  • Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON) is the
    custodian of all National and International
    Standards on Food Safety in Nigeria. It
    coordinates the elaboration, review, adoption and
    adaptation of food safety standards through the
    active involvement of relevant stakeholders and
    publishes the standards for implementation after
    necessary stakeholder sensitization
  • SON has the capacity for and does training in ISO
    22000 Food Safety Standards, HACCP and Good
    Agricultural Practice (GAP) in Nigeria and has
    trained about 200 personnel nationally within the
    last three (3) years

5
SPS Regulatory Agencies in Nigeria Cont
  • Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
    Development (FMARD) registers cocoa pesticides
    screened and recommended to it by the Cocoa
    Research Institute of Nigeria and enlists them in
    the official approved lists of pesticides for use
    on cocoa in Nigeria.
  • The Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN),
    has the national mandate to evaluate and
    recommend novel cocoa pesticides from various
    groups that fall within the European Union (EU)
    standards so that replacement could be made
    easily in a situation where they (recommended
    pesticides) become unavailable in the local
    market or to combat resistance problems that may
    arise as a result of over-dependence on a
    particular class of insecticides.

6
SPS Regulatory Agencies in Nigeria Cont
  • National Agency for Food and Drug Administration
    and Control (NAFDAC), controls and regulates
    imports and exports of packaged, processed and
    semi-processed foods through documentation,
    inspection, registration, sampling, laboratory
    testing and enforcement of compliance to good
    Hygiene Practice (GHP) and Good Manufacturing
    Practice (GMP) at food production factories. It
    also serves as the chair and Secretariat of
    General Purposes Committee of the National Codex
    Committee.

7
The roles of the various agencies in the
implementation of SPS standards in Nigeria
  • The Federal Ministry of Commerce and Industry
    which represents the country in the WTO is the
    focal point for all WTO issues including SPS
    Standards in Nigeria. The Ministry enforces SPS
    measures through its parastatals, the Federal
    Produce Inspection Service, Standards
    Organization of Nigeria as well as other
    Government agencies.

8
The roles of the various agencies in the
implementation of SPS standards in Nigeria Cont.
  • The Federal Produce Inspection Service (FPIS)
    conducts two-tier mechanism of produce
    inspection. Primary grading and an evacuation
    check test is carried out by trained officers of
    State Produce Inspection Service (SPIS) who
    issue Evacuation Certificate. The FPIS on the
    other hand, conducts arrival check tests taking
    into consideration inspection of weight of the
    consignment, moisture content, inspection of
    packaging, sampling and disinfestations of
    produce warehouses. It further conducts
    inspection and quality controls at major seaports
    in Lagos, Port-Harcourt, Warri and Calabar. Based
    on 3 sample, it assesses the quality (Q), weight
    (W), fumigation (F) and packaging (P) of raw or
    cured agricultural produce and issue QWFP
    Certificate. It utilizes the laboratories of
    NAFDAC for quality assurance.

9
The roles of the various agencies in the
implementation of SPS standards in Nigeria
  • The Standards Organization of Nigeria, as
    custodian of national and international standards
    of food safety in Nigeria, undertakes factory
    inspection for the implementation of food safety
    standards and issues certification mark under the
    mandatory conformity assessment program for all
    locally manufactured food products in Nigeria.
    SON has a laboratory for testing mycotoxin and is
    currently in the process of upgrading its
    laboratories towards accreditation for micro and
    metallic contaminants in food and agricultural
    produce. It is also the Codex Alimentarius
    contact point in Nigeria and maintains a national
    library of Codex standards. It is also WTO/SPS
    enquiry points in Nigeria.

10
The roles of the various agencies in the
implementation of SPS standards in Nigeria Cont.
  • The Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
    Development implements SPS standards through
    registration of recommended and screened
    pesticides in Nigeria. The Ministry also enlists
    such pesticides in the official approved list of
    pesticides for use on cocoa in Nigeria. The
    Ministry then forwards the registered approved
    pesticide lists to NAFDAC so that they can issue
    import permits for such products to importers.

11
The roles of the various agencies in the
implementation of SPS standards in Nigeria Cont.
  • Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN)
    screens and recommends pesticides for
    registration by the Federal Ministry of
    Agriculture and Rural Development. It also
    evaluates the pesticides starting with product
    analysis, laboratory and large scale field trials
    thereby determining the quantitative residues of
    the active ingredient of these pesticides in
    cocoa beans obtained from farms which had been
    routinely spread with the pesticides. CRIN also
    recommends cocoa pesticides application equipment
    to ensure that they conform to international
    standards

12
The roles of the various agencies in the
implementation of SPS standards in Nigeria Cont.
  • Nigeria Agricultural Quarantine Service (NAQS)
  • The NAQS implements SPS standards in Nigeria
    through the following ways
  • IMPORT INSPECTION
  • Maintains over 46 entry/exit points at
    International airports, seaports, land borders,
    general post offices and courier hub centres for
    port inspection, treatment (if necessary) and
    detention.
  • Issues plant import permit for all plant
    materials (raw and semi-processed), soil,
    biocontrol agents, solid wood packaging materials
    and other regulated articles (e.g. artifacts).

13
The roles of the various agencies in the
implementation of SPS standards in Nigeria Cont.
  • Inspection of crops during active growth,
    agricultural commodities in warehouses and
    storage facilities prior to certification.
  • Maintains Post-Entry Quarantine Station and
    various laboratories for insect, fungi, virus,
    bacteria, nematode and tissue culture at Ibadan
    and zonal headquarters.
  • Conduct pest survey to monitor the presence and
    spread of plant pest of quarantine importance.

14
The roles of the various agencies in the
implementation of SPS standards in Nigeria Cont.
  • EXPORT INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION
  • Handles request for Phytosanitary inspection for
    the presence of pathogen and pests on
    agricultural commodities for export and
    determines whether they meet SPS conditions of
    the importing countries.
  • Issues Phytosanitary Certificate vouching that
    the consignment is free from injurious pests.
  • Disinfestation of the consignments such as
    fumigation, seed dressing, heat treatment etc.
    and indicated on the Phytosanitary certificate.

15
The roles of the various agencies in the
implementation of SPS standards in Nigeria Cont.
  • OTHER SPS ACTIVITIES
  • Formulation of quarantine regulation on crop by
    crop basis as guide for plant imports.
  • Conduct of Pest Risk Analysis to serve as
    technical justification of SPS regulation.
  • Formalize linkages with other SPS agencies and
    scientific organization (e.g. national agric.
    research institutes, universities and
    international organizations).
  • National Contact Point for International Plant
    Protection Commission (IPPC) and member of
    Standard Setting Committee of IPPC.

16
The roles of the various agencies in the
implementation of SPS standards in Nigeria Cont.
  • National Agency for Food and Drug Control
    (NAFDAC) controls and regulates imports and
    exports of packaged, processed and semi-processed
    foods through documentation, inspection,
    registration, sampling, laboratory testing and
    enforcement of compliance to Good Hygiene
    Practices (GHP) and Good Manufacturing Practice
    (GMP)
  • Regulates and controls the importation and
    exportation of pesticide formulations and
    chemicals
  • Undertakes the registration of pesticide
    formulations and grants marketing authorization
    to importers and manufacturers
  • Serves as the Chair of Codex in Nigeria and runs
    the Secretariat of the General Purposes Technical
    Committee of the National Codex Committee

17
The roles of the various agencies in the
implementation of SPS standards in Nigeria Cont.
  • Attends to the following key SPS issues
    Contaminants in Food, Veterinary Drugs Residues,
    Pesticide Residues, Food Additives, Food Hygiene
    and other issues such as Labeling, Nutrition,
    Methods of Analysis and Sampling, Certification
    and Inspection, etc
  • Has a dedicated pesticide formulation and
    pesticide residue laboratory
  • Issues certificate of manufacture and free sales
    for registered regulated products to exporters
    and Health Certificate for Semi Processed
    Products and
  • Receives and handles RASFF (Rapid Alert System
    for Food and Feed) Notifications from EU

18
Challenges in Implementing SPS standards in
Nigeria
  • Cross border smuggling of banned and
    unregistered pesticides and agrochemicals through
    porous borders
  • Use of banned pesticides by farmers
  • Low literacy level of farmers
  • Use of faulty equipment for spraying
  • Wrong timing of application of pesticides
  • Overuse of pesticides/ calendar spraying
  • Chaotic pesticide distribution network
  • Inadequate capacity of staff of the government
    Agencies
  • Inadequate funding of government Agencies
  • Threat to lives of staff of Agencies involved in
    enforcement activities
  • Inadequate synergy amongst Agencies of government
  • Non organization of the players in horticultural
    and other agricultural products into export
    oriented group

19
Challenges in Implementing SPS standards in
Nigeria Cont.
  • Lack of implementation of standards on food and
    agricultural items, thereby exposing the populace
    to low quality of products and invariably
    exportation of poor quality products.
  • Private sector reluctant to or not empowered to
    take the lead or make substantial investment by
    procuring modern facilities to improve their
    production methods.
  • Poor awareness of the issues related to food
    safety, and quality and other SPS issues by
    producers, exporters, farmers and commodity
    groups.
  • Difficulties in the application of
    internationally accepted standards such as HACCP,
    traceability and GAP due to inadequate public
    amenities, poor infrastructure, bureaucracy and
    poor government utilities (e.g. irregular power
    supply, poor agricultural extension services)

20
Capacity Building on SPS Issues
  • In order to build capacity to effectively
    implement SPS issues in Nigeria, workshops,
    seminars and conferences are being organized
    continually to enhance competencies of
    enforcement officers. Among others are the
    following  
  • Sanitary and Phytosanitary Capacity Evaluation of
    Nigeria.  A study by West Africa Trade Hub (WATH)
    under the West Africa Regional Program (WARP) of
    USAID as a support towards the integration of the
    SPS systems of UEMOA (Union Economique et
    Monetaire Quest Africaine) and non-UEMOA
    countries of ECOWAS (Economic Community of West
    Africa) in March 2005.
  •  
  • Training workshop on food safety standards,
    regulations and export trade incorporating HACCP
    and Traceability Principles and Practice was
    organized by the Commonwealth Secretariat in May
    2006 at Abuja, Nigeria for policy advisers.  Key
    SPS regulators, farmers and Commodity
    Associations.

21
Capacity Building on SPS Issues Cont.
  • A regional workshop on the harmonization of SPS
    for non-UEMOA countries (Sierra Leone, Liberia,
    Guinea, Conakry, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana and
    Nigeria) held at ECOWAS Commission, Abuja, in May
    2007 was organized by ECOWAS and sponsored by
    WATH of USAID.
  • Regional sensitization workshop on
    creation/strengthening of National SPS Committee
    in the ECOWAS member states was held in Bamako,
    Mali 28 February March 5th, 2011.
  • National Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS)
    Standards workshop, as a follow-up to Bamako
    workshop, sponsored by African Union
    Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources
    (AU/IBAR) in conjunction with ECOWAS was held at
    Lagos from 23-25th May 2011.

22
Setting up of National Food Safety Management
Committee (NFSMC)
  • In order to bring harmony and synergy to the
    chaotic SPS Standards implementation situation in
    Nigeria,the National Food Safety Management
    Committee was formed. The Committee consists of
    key SPS public regulators and private sector
    bodies with adequate government backing.

23
  • Thank You
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