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Ch4 - Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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Title: Ch4 - Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells


1
Ch4 - Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and
Eukaryotic Cells
  • Penicillin-the miracle drug

2
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
  • Prokaryote comes from the Greek words for
    prenucleus.
  • Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for true
    nucleus.

3
Prokaryote
Eukaryote
  • One circular chromosome, not in a membrane
  • No histones
  • No organelles
  • Peptidoglycan cell walls if Bacteria
  • Pseudomurein cell walls if Archaea
  • Binary fission
  • Paired chromosomes, in nuclear membrane
  • Histones
  • Organelles
  • Polysaccharide cell walls
  • Mitotic spindle

4
Prokaryotic Cells Shapes
  • Average size 0.2 1.0 µm ? 2 8 µm
  • Most bacteria are monomorphic
  • A few are pleomorphic

5
Basic Shapes
  • Bacillus (rod-shaped)
  • Coccus (spherical)
  • Spiral
  • Spirillum
  • Vibrio
  • Spirochete

6
Bacillus or Bacillus
  • Scientific name Bacillus
  • Shape Bacillus

7
Unusually Shaped Bacteria
Archaebacteria
8
Unusually Shaped Bacteria
9
Arrangements
  • Pairs Diplococci, diplobacilli
  • Clusters Staphylococci
  • Chains Streptococci, streptobacilli

10
The Structure of a Prokaryotic Cell
11
Glycocalyx
  • Outside cell wall
  • Usually sticky
  • Capsule neatly organized
  • Slime layer unorganized and loose
  • Extracellular polysaccharide allows cell to
    attach
  • Capsules prevent phagocytosis

12
Flagella
  • Outside cell wall
  • Made of chains of flagellin
  • Attached to a protein hook
  • Anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal
    body

13
The Structure of a Prokaryotic Flagellum
14
Arrangements of Bacterial Flagella
15
Motile Cells
  • Rotate flagella to run or tumble
  • Move toward or away from stimuli (taxis)
  • Flagella proteins are H antigens (e.g., E. coli
    O157H7)

16
Motile Cells
Figure 4.9a
17
Axial Filaments
  • Also called endoflagella
  • In spirochetes
  • Anchored at one end of a cell
  • Rotation causes cell to move

18
A Diagram of Axial Filaments
19
Fimbriae and Pili
  • Fimbriae allow attachment helps to initiate
    disease
  • Pili
  • Facilitate transfer of DNA from one cell to
    another
  • Gliding motility
  • Twitching motility

20
The Cell Wall
  • Prevents osmotic lysis
  • Made of peptidoglycan (in bacteria)

21
Peptidoglycan
  • Polymer of disaccharide
  • N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)
  • N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)

22
Peptidoglycan in Gram-Positive Bacteria
  • Linked by polypeptides

23
Gram-Positive Bacterial Cell Wall
24
Gram-Negative Bacterial Cell Wall
25
Gram-positiveCell Wall
Gram-negativeCell Wall
  • Thin peptidoglycan
  • Outer membrane
  • Periplasmic space
  • Thick peptidoglycan
  • Teichoic acids

26
Gram-Positive Cell Walls
  • Teichoic acids
  • Lipoteichoic acid links to plasma membrane
  • Wall teichoic acid links to peptidoglycan
  • May regulate movement of cations
  • Polysaccharides provide antigenic variation

27
Gram-Negative Cell Wall
28
Gram-Negative Outer Membrane
  • Lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, phospholipids
  • Forms the periplasm between the outer membrane
    and the plasma membrane

29
Gram-Negative Outer Membrane
  • Protection from phagocytes, complement, and
    antibiotics(penicillin)
  • O polysaccharide antigen, e.g., E. coli O157H7
  • Lipid A is an endotoxin
  • Porins (proteins) form channels through membrane

30
The Gram Stain
  • Gram-Positive

(b) Gram-Negative
31
The Gram Stain Mechanism
  • Crystal violet-iodine crystals form in cell
  • Gram-positive
  • Alcohol dehydrates peptidoglycan
  • CV-I crystals do not leave
  • Gram-negative
  • Alcohol dissolves outer membrane and leaves holes
    in peptidoglycan
  • CV-I washes out

32
Gram-PositiveCell Wall
Gram-NegativeCell Wall
  • 2-ring basal body
  • Disrupted by lysozyme
  • Penicillin sensitive
  • 4-ring basal body
  • Endotoxin
  • Tetracycline sensitive

33
Atypical Cell Walls
  • Acid-fast cell walls
  • Like gram-positive
  • Waxy lipid (mycolic acid) bound to peptidoglycan
  • Mycobacterium
  • Nocardia

34
Atypical Cell Walls
  • Mycoplasmas
  • Lack cell walls
  • Sterols in plasma membrane
  • Archaea
  • Wall-less or
  • Walls of pseudomurein (lack NAM and D-amino acids)

35
Damage to the Cell Wall
  • Lysozyme digests disaccharide
  • in peptidoglycan
  • Penicillin inhibits peptide
  • bridges in peptidoglycan
  • Protoplast is a wall-less cell
  • Spheroplast is a wall-less gram-positive cell
  • Protoplasts and spheroplasts are susceptible to
    osmotic lysis
  • L forms are wall-less cells that swell into
    irregular shapes

36
The Plasma Membrane
37
Eukaryotic Plasma Membrane
  • Phospholipid bilayer
  • Peripheral proteins
  • Integral proteins
  • Transmembrane
  • Proteins

38
Fluid Mosaic Model
  • Membrane is as viscous as olive oil
  • Proteins move to function
  • Phospholipids rotate and move laterally

39
The Plasma Membrane
  • Selective permeability allows passage of some
    molecules
  • Enzymes for ATP production
  • Photosynthetic pigments on foldings called
    chromatophores or thylakoids

40
The Plasma Membrane
  • Damage to the membrane by alcohols, quaternary
    ammonium (detergents), and polymyxin antibiotics
    causes leakage of cell contents

41
Movement of Materials across Membranes
  • Simple diffusion Movement of a solute from an
    area of high concentration to an area of low
    concentration

42
Movement of Materials across Membranes
  • Facilitated diffusion Solute combines with a
    transporter protein in the membrane

43
Movement of Materials across Membranes
44
Movement of Materials across Membranes
  • Osmosis The movement of water across a
    selectively permeable membrane from an area of
    high water to an area of lower water
    concentration
  • Osmotic pressure The pressure needed to stop the
    movement of water across the membrane

45
The Principle of Osmosis
0.9 NaCl is considered isotonic to blood
Animation hypertonic solution
Animation hypotonic solution
Animation isotonic solution
46
Movement of Materials across Membranes
  • Active transport Requires a transporter protein
    and ATP
  • Group translocation Requires a transporter
    protein and PEP

47
Cytoplasm
  • The substance inside the plasma membrane

48
The Nucleoid
  • Bacterial chromosome

49
Ribosomes
50
The Prokaryotic Ribosome
  • Protein synthesis
  • 70S
  • 50S 30S subunits

51
Magnetosomes
52
Inclusions
  • Metachromatic granules (volutin)
  • Polysaccharide granules
  • Lipid inclusions
  • Sulfur granules
  • Carboxysomes
  • Gas vacuoles
  • Magnetosomes
  • Phosphate reserves
  • Energy reserves
  • Energy reserves
  • Energy reserves
  • Ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase for CO2
    fixation
  • Protein-covered cylinders
  • Iron oxide (destroys H2O2)

53
Endospores
  • Resting cells
  • Resistant to desiccation, heat, chemicals
  • Bacillus, Clostridium
  • Sporulation Endospore formation
  • Germination Return to vegetative state

54
Endospores
55
Formation of Endospores by Sporulation
56
The Eukaryotic Cell
57
Flagella and Cilia
58
Flagella and Cilia
  • Microtubules
  • Tubulin
  • 9 pairs 2 array

59
The Cell Wall and Glycocalyx
  • Cell wall
  • Plants, algae, fungi
  • Carbohydrates
  • Cellulose, chitin, glucan, mannan
  • Glycocalyx
  • Carbohydrates extending from animal plasma
    membrane
  • Bonded to proteins and lipids in membrane

60
The Plasma Membrane
  • Phospholipid bilayer
  • Peripheral proteins
  • Integral proteins
  • Transmembrane proteins
  • Sterols
  • Glycocalyx carbohydrates

61
The Plasma Membrane
  • Selective permeability allows passage of some
    molecules
  • Simple diffusion
  • Facilitative diffusion
  • Osmosis
  • Active transport

62
Endocytosis
  • Phagocytosis Pseudopods extend and engulf
    particles
  • Pinocytosis Membrane folds inward, bringing in
    fluid and dissolved substances

63
Cytoplasm
64
Cytoplasm
  • Cytoplasm membrane Substance inside plasma and
    outside nucleus
  • Cytosol Fluid portion of cytoplasm
  • Cytoskeleton Microfilaments, intermediate
    filaments, microtubules
  • Cytoplasmic streaming Movement of cytoplasm
    throughout cells

65
Ribosomes
  • Protein synthesis
  • 80S
  • Membrane-bound Attached to ER
  • Free In cytoplasm
  • 70S
  • In chloroplasts and mitochondria

66
Organelles
  • Nucleus Contains chromosomes
  • ER Transport network
  • Golgi complex Membrane formation and secretion
  • Lysosome Digestive enzymes
  • Vacuole Brings food into cells and provides
    support

67
Organelles
  • Mitochondrion Cellular respiration
  • Chloroplast Photosynthesis
  • Peroxisome Oxidation of fatty acids destroys
    H2O2
  • Centrosome Consists of protein fibers and
    centrioles

68
The Eukaryotic Nucleus
69
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
70
Golgi Complex
71
Lysosomes and Vacuoles
72
Mitochondria
73
Chloroplasts
74
Peroxisome and Centrosome
75
Endosymbiotic Theory
  • Lynn Margulis (1960s) Theory
  • Eukaryotic cells formed a symbiotic relationship
    with prokaryotic organisms
  • Bacteria with the ability to use oxygen to make
    ATP energy ---became mitochondria
  • Blue-green algae with the ability to do
    photosynthesis ---became chloroplasts

76
Endosymbiotic Theory
  • What are the fine extensions on this protozoan?

77
Endosymbiotic Theory
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