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HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

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HUMAN DEVELOPMENT HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Development. The systematic continuities and changes in the individual that occur between conception to death. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT


1
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
2
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
  • Development. The systematic continuities and
    changes in the individual that occur between
    conception to death.
  • SystematicOrderly, patterned, and relatively
    enduring
  • ContinuitiesWays in which we remain the same or
    continue over time
  • Development. The scientific study of qualitative
    and quantitative changes that occur in people
    over time.
  • QualitativeChange in kind or structure (i.e.,
    intelligence, beliefs)
  • QuantitativeCumulative and measurable changes
    that occur (i.e., height, weight)

3
WHAT WE BELIEVE ABOUT HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
  • Humans are resilient.
  • Plasticity. The capacity for change in response
    to positive or negative life experiences.
  • People help shape their own development.
  • Bidirectional. Development is an interplay or
    symbiotic relationship between the individual and
    his or her environment.
  • Knowledge is useful.
  • For infants, stimulation enhances awareness which
    later leads to curiosity and pursuit.
  • Stress elevates when the environment is less
    predictable, manageable, and controllable.

4
HISTORY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT
  • Medieval times (6-15 Reformation (16th
  • century) century)
  • Preformationism Protestantism (Puritan
  • Harsh child practices doctrine)
  • Enlightment (17th Scientific Age (18th
  • century) century)
  • John Locke Charles
    Darwin
  • Jean Rousseau

5
Ways of Looking at Development
  • Nature vs. Nurture
  • Nature. The hereditary information we receive
    from our parents at the moment of conception
    determines our outcomes.
  • Nurture. Complex forces of the physical and
    social world that children encounter in their
    homes, neighborhoods, schools, and communities.
  • Organismic vs. Mechanistic
  • Organismic. Change is stimulated from within the
    organism.
  • Children are viewed as active, purposeful beings
    who make sense of their world and determine their
    own learning (Active beings).
  • Mechanistic. Childrens development is compared
    to the workings of a machine.
  • Change is stimulated by the environment, which
    shape the behavior of the child (Passive beings).
  • Continuous vs. Discontinuous
  • Continuous. A process that consists of gradually
    adding on more of the same types of skills that
    were there to begin with.
  • Discontinuous. Process in which new ways of
    understanding and responding to the world emerge
    at particular time periods.

6
SIGMUND FREUD
  • CONTRIBUTION TO THE DISCIPLINE OF HUMAN
    DEVELOPMENT

7
SIGMUND FREUD
  • All behavior is motivated, often by unconscious
    dynamics
  • Freuds theory of dreams emphasized the
    meaningfulness of dreams as manifestations of the
    unconscious mind
  • Early childrearing experiences, especially in
    weaning, toilet training, and the role of the
    family in the handling of sexuality and
    aggression, are seen as significant factors in
    development
  • Freud gave new hope to the treatment of
    psychopathology and changed social attitudes
    toward the neurotic and psychotic
  • A major motivating force in human behavior is
    sexuality, including the idea of infantile
    sexuality
  • Freud ascribes meaning to errors, forgettings,
    slips of the tongue, and other unintended
    behavior, believing that they are expressions of
    unconscious forces.

8
The Contributions of Erik Erikson
9
Eriksons Epigenetic Theory of Psychosocial
Development
  • Basic Premise
  • Children seek to actively adapt and master their
    environments
  • Rather than id impulse being the driving force to
    development, ego resolution seeks expression
    through cultural socialization and crisis
    generation
  • Ego identity development is a function of eight
    crises which are both necessary and essential for
    healthy outcomes

10
Behaviorism Learning Theory
11
Behaviorism and Learning Theory
  • Watsons Ideology Premise
  • Movement towards empiricism
  • Human development is a function of an organism
    responding to its environmentBehavior is the
    outcome.
  • Development is continuous, passive, and
    mechanistic

12
B. F. Skinner
  • Human behavior is a function of learning habits
    rooted in operant learning conditioning (outcomes
    based on animal research)
  • Inherent behavioral overtones are rooted in
    experiences which yield favorable outcomes.
  • Behavioral outcomes can be manipulated by varying
    the consequence associated with the behavior
    (i.e., Reinforcer, Punisher)
  • Reinforcer. Any consequence of an act that
    increases the probability that the act will occur
  • Punisher. Any consequence of an act that
    suppresses that act or decreases the probability
    of occurrence.

13
Albert Bandura
  • Social Cognitive Theory

14
Albert Bandura Social Cognitive Theory
  • Somewhere lodged between the environmental
    stimuli and the individuals response is the
    inherent capacity for thinking and reasoning.
  • Consequently, this differs us from animals and
    any attempt to bridge the two outcomes is
    transductive reasoning.
  • Learned behavioral outcomes are a function of
    modeling and learning through observation
    (Observational learning)
  • Children are active and continuous

15
Banduras Reciprocal Determinism
  • The course of development is bidirectional
  • Individual. Cognitive and physical abilities
    beliefs and attitudes
  • Behavior. Physical and verbal responses social
    interaction
  • Environment. Physical surrounding family and
    community influences

Behavioral Outcomes
The Individual and his talents
The Environment
16
Jean Piaget
  • Cognitive Developmental Theory

17
PIAGETS BIOLOGICAL PREMISE
  • Individuals possess the unique capability to
    engage and respond to their environments and
    enhance their cognitive abilities through the
    process of assimilation and accommodation.
  • Individuals are constantly striving to achieve a
    cognitive equilibrium or homeostatasis

18
Piagets Principles
  • Schemes. A scheme is any action pattern for
    dealing with the environment, such as sucking,
    grasping, hitting, kicking, and looking.
  • Organization. To implement a series of schemes
    to complete a certain task.
  • Development is organismic, discontinuous, and
    active

19
Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development
  • Sensorimotor Birth-2 years
  • Preoperational 2-7 years
  • Concrete Operational 7-11 years
  • Formal Operational 11 years on

20
Piagets Stages
  • Sensorimotor. Babies organize their physical
    action schemes, such as sucking, grasping, and
    hitting for dealing with the immediate world.
  • Preoperational. Children learn to thinkto use
    symbols and internal imagesbut their thinking is
    unsystematic and illogical. It is very different
    from that of adults.
  • Concrete Operational. Children develop the
    capacity to think systematically, but only when
    they can refer to concrete objects and
    activities.
  • Formal Operational. Young people develop the
    capacity to think systematically on a purely
    abstract and hypothetical plane.

21
Information Processing Theory
22
INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY
  • Alternative view of cognitive theory
  • Proposes that practice creates well organized
    cognitive schemes. Consequently, they demand
    less attention and become more automatic
  • This theory focuses on the dimensions of memory,
    attention, and thinking

23
INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY DIVIDES THE MIND
INTO
  • Sensory Register The area of the mental system
    in which sights and sounds are held briefly
    before they decay or are transformed into working
    or short-term memory.
  • Short-Term Memory The conscious part of a
    mental system where we active work on a limited
    amount of information to ensure it is retained.
  • Long-Term Memory The part that contains our
    permanent knowledge base. Knowledge base is
    limitless.

24
The Basic Components of a Computer
  • CPU (Central Processing Unit)
  • Responsible for computational functions
  • RAM (Random Access Memory)
  • Responsible for accessing information which is
    currently being used for data manipulation
  • Hard Drive
  • Responsible for the long-term storage of vital
    information

25
Mental Strategies
  • In information processing, procedures that
    operate on and transform information, thereby
    increasing the efficiency and flexibility of
    thinking and the chances that information will be
    retained
  • Organization. Memory strategy of grouping
    together related items. Taking notes
  • Elaboration. Mental strategy of creating a
    relation between two or more items that are not
    members of the same category
  • Rehearsal. Memory strategy for repeating
    information

26
Mental Strategies Continued
  • By continuing these mental strategies, you
    develop greater organization of information and
    significantly increase knowledge retention.
  • Failure to apply appropriate mental strategies
    reduces the amount of knowledge retained

27
Ethology (Evolutionary)
  • Discuss the Ologies
  • Sociology
  • Ecology
  • Ethology

28
Ethology (Evolutionary)
  • Arnold Gesells Basic Premise
  • Human development is a function of pure
    maturation.
  • Genetic predisposition becomes the determining
    factor for developmental outcome
  • Parents and other social factors are of little
    importance
  • Human behaviors are a function of evolutionary
    principles

29
Ethology (Evolutionary), Cont.
  • Natural Selection Process
  • Children are born preprogrammed to display
    certain behaviors that will enable them to bond
    with their human family and inevitably survive.
  • Infants cry to signal distress (e.g., ensuring
    basic needs are being meteven emotional
    attachment) (Bowlby, 1973)
  • Infants ability to discriminate and determine a
    familiar face
  • The course of development has both sensitive
    periods and critical periods
  • Early years are optimal for development

30
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31
Theory Development
  • Develop at least three assumptions that guide
    your theory of development.
  • Explain your theory as it pertains to infancy and
    early childhood.
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of your
    theory. Implications for theory development.
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