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SOC115 Deviance and Social Control

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SOC115 Deviance and Social Control Lecture Materials Updated: January 28, 2008 Dr. Leora Lawton Spring 2008 TuTh 12:30-2:00 PM 56 Barrows – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SOC115 Deviance and Social Control


1
SOC115 Deviance and Social Control
Lecture Materials Updated January 28, 2008
  • Dr. Leora Lawton
  • Spring 2008
  • TuTh 1230-200 PM
  • 56 Barrows

2
Functionalism Recap
  • Durkheim
  • Nothing is pathological, its all relative
  • Deviance is normal and common so it must serve a
    purpose
  • Kingsley Davis
  • Deviance may be consensual
  • Institutions benefit from deviance, control it,
    and thus sustain it.
  • Kai Erikson
  • It defines borders of society and communities
    (and class)
  • Deviance is maintained through
  • Deviance-defining rituals
  • Self-fulfilling prophecy
  • Reinforced by social control agents
  • Melvin Tumin
  • Theres negative functions as well.
  • Deviance implies value judgments.
  • Evidence is weak and/or inconsistent.

3
Social Disorganization The Chicago School
  • Thomas Znanicki
  • Theres social equilibrium with regard to norms
  • Then a decrease in influence occurs (e.g.,
    immigration)
  • Society goes in and out of equilibrium
  • Park
  • Delinquency is failure of communities to organize
  • Old forms of social control are undermined
    family, religion, neighborhood.
  • Progress is disruptive
  • Migration is a catalyst.
  • Faris and Durham
  • Natural areas just happen
  • CW Mills
  • How ethnocentric can you get?
  • Whose norms?
  • No interplay between structure and social norms.
    Seen by the pathologists.

4
Differential Association
  • Becoming deviant learning, neutralizations,
    opportunities. Sort of a perversion on the adage
    success is being ready for opportunity.
  • Role Become acquainted with behavior
  • Ascribed Learn its parameters of behavior
  • Playing Try it out
  • Taking Adopt it
  • Set Perhaps buy into the entire package
  • Master Let it dominate your self-concept
  • In what ways is this process similar/different
    from entering any other social role?
  • Is this model appropriate for non-illegal
    deviance? Whats the assumption in the writings
    about who this model fits?

5
Sutherlands Differential Association
  • Criminality is learned
  • through social interaction
  • with intimates
  • including techniques, norms, codes
  • and must be rationalized
  • benefits to be deviant gt benefits of not
  • and varies in intensity, duration, priority,
    frequency (between individuals and over time for
    same individual)
  • and learned like any other trade
  • Motivations for deviance are part and parcel of
    society, hence deviants are hypocrites.
  • Whats right here? Whats missing?

6
Cresseys Other Peoples Money
  • When trust is violated
  • Trust violations occur in existing social
    contracts and relationships
  • Rationalizations are required to violate trust
  • But these rationalizations are not an avoidance
    of legal liability (p. 247)
  • But key reason for violating law is thinking you
    wont get caught. How would Cressey explain
    this?
  • What other examples besides embezzlement are
    trust violations?

7
Sykes Matzas Neutralizations
  • They expand on Sutherland
  • Denial of responsibility
  • Denial of Injury
  • Denial of Victim
  • Condemnation of condemners
  • Appeal to higher loyalties (e.g., family instead
    of govt).
  • In other words
  • You learn your societys norms and values
  • You learn differential behavior
  • You rationalize your behavior by neutralizing the
    moral objections. (remember Hilary Duff in
    Lizzie McGuire)

8
Howard Beckers Outsiders
  • Marijuana users go through process of becoming a
    marijuana user, which is a differential
    association process.
  • 1. Be around it.
  • 2. Try it
  • 3. Recognize effect
  • 4. Enjoy effect
  • 5. Rationalize behavior
  • 6. Adopt
  • 7. Get into subculture

9
The IRC Community Game Model
  • Its leisure relaxation, social, intellectual,
    fun, challenging.
  • Its accessible to anyone with a computer and
    internet access (and software)
  • Sub-culture forms from dominant culture.

10
IRC Community
  • A sample of a game being played through RobBot's
    is shown below
  • ltRobBotgt Current category Footwear. Question
    Value 800.
  • ltRobBotgt Question 5 of 30 Low cut woman's shoe
    or a device to pass gasoline
  • ltBrandExgt rob pump
  • ltTexmexgt rob pump
  • ltRobBotgt brandex That is CORRECT! You win 800.
    Your total is -300.
  • ltRobBotgt Please wait while preparing the next
    Gullivers Travels question...
  • ltjennewgt brand rocks!
  • ltRobBotgt Current category Gullivers Travels.
    Question Value 400.
  • ltRobBotgt Category Comment Trivia about Gullivers
    Travels
  • ltRobBotgt Question 6 of 30 The only thing the
    Laputian king wanted to learn about the outside
    world
  • ltTexmexgt oh this one sux
  • ltMachgt what food do you like rob
  • ltRobBotgt Pass the ho-ho's!
  • MastrLion passes out (much to the relief of the
    channel no doubt)
  • ltMachgt rob mathematics
  • ltMastrLiongt rob flug
  • ltRobBotgt mastrlion Bzzt! That is incorrect. You
    lose 400. Your total is -500.
  • ltRobBotgt mach That is CORRECT! You win 400. Your
    total is 400.

11
Lessons of IRC
  • Deviance The Internet is just like physical
    space only different.
  • Deviance forms
  • Traditional swearing, profanity, bullying.
  • Technological flooding (vandalism), bots
    (cheating), spoofing (fraud).

12
For Anomie
  • Is there a class bias in this theory? Or, how
    can Anomie explain deviance by the wealthy?
  • If theres an imbalance between norms, how can
    policy try to restore/create balance?

13
Durkheims Anomie
  • Moral and social constraints exist on persons
    drives moral discipline
  • If these constraints lose their power, then
    people end up unhappy, or out of control.
  • Because access to achievement is not equal, some
    will not follow prescribed paths of behavior to
    achieve goals.
  • Or they get hopeless and commit suicide.
  • Social upheaval causes disequilibrium and hence
    leads to an increase in deviance.
  • Over time, some luxuries become necessities.

14
Mertons Anomie I.
  • Social structure exerts pressure to non-conform
    (p.142), because given the situation, a normal
    person would deviate.
  • Goals are exalted, even if they are generally
    unreachable.
  • Money has been consecrated as value in itself
  • Mertons myths
  • Anyone can succeed
  • Lower class therefore deserves it
  • Only those who act like the dominant class have
    full membership.

15
Mertons Anomie II.
  • Types of Deviance
  • Conformity Being just like you were told.
  • Innovation Thieves and cheats.
  • Ritualism Scaling down. Ascetics, fatalists,
    blamers. (Or just practical??)
  • Retreatism Drug addicts, alcoholics, bums,
    hoboes.
  • Rebellion. Genuine transvaluation. Rejects old
    status quo and seeks to bring about new one

16
Cloward
  • Thesis
  • Theres also differential access to illegitimate
    means
  • The patterns of access and barriers follows that
    of legitimate means
  • Begins by summarizing Durkheim
  • People need to fulfill their social needs
  • Moral constraints keep them on the straight
    narrow (a foreshadowing of control theory)
  • In times of rapid social change, values shift,
    become unattainable, leading to anomie, control
    institutions lose power, allowed unbridled greed
    to cause deviance (rebellion or crime), or
    despair to ensue (suicide).
  • Then summarizes Merton
  • Goals and norms may vary independently, When
    norms cant lead to goals, goals gain in
    importance, and because social structure closes
    off access, deviance results.

17
Cloward continued
  • So Durkheim explains how the ends justifies the
    means through social change.
  • Merton adds that social structure attenuates
    access to normative paths toward goals.
  • So then Cloward asks, But what about access to
    illegitimate means, is that universally
    accessible?
  • Applies it to forms of deviance
  • Innovation (crime)
  • Retreatism (failure at failing)
  • Rebellion???
  • Ritualism??
  • And the answer isno, its not.
  • It has to be part of the cultural script
  • Theres a meritocracy to ityou have to have the
    skills.
  • Need to be in the social network.
  • Social class structures opportunities
  • Its subject to discrimination in hiring
    practices
  • Ethnicity, race, gender, social class

18
Very Brief Summary
  • Functionalism. Deviance is so common, its
    normal. Serves a purpose. Whose purpose, thats
    the question, though.
  • Social disorganization I live in a neighborhood
    where we dont know how to behave yet.
  • Differential Association Who you know,
    therefore how you learn. Need to rationalize.
  • Anomie. The means is necessary to achieve the
    societys exalted ends. Also need to
    rationalize.

19
Questions for Social Control
  • Social Control
  • What do control theorists see as a major
    difference between those who commit crimes and
    those who do not? What do they see as the main
    cause of conformity?
  • How well does control theory explain upper class
    deviance?
  • How does it complement anomie?

20
Social Control Theory
  • Without a controlling force (or set of forces)
    people behave selfishly.
  • In some sense, its a flip side of the other
    theories (not why people deviate, but why they
    dont). Is delinquency caused or prevented?
  • These theories emerged to explain lower class
    boys and young men.
  • Note the beginning of divergence from a singular
    theory for deviance.
  • Social control is correctionalist (to be
    discussed)
  • Containment Theory
  • Inner containment (internalized commitment)
  • External containment (social order)
  • Begins with family, continued by community and
    society.

21
Social Control Theory
  • Hirschi (Tip Look for what he says it is not
    what its not)
  • Its correctionalist in nature.
  • Explains how social control is internalized.
  • Attachment. Begins with family, instills trust
    and empathy.
  • Commitment. Varies with attachment, there is a
    routine and a structure to support conformity,
    that is, theres social cost to deviating.
  • Involvement. Time and energy are inherently
    limited.
  • Belief. A moral structure of right and wrong.
    Is conforming part of the belief system?
  • Process. Internal controls external controls
    availability of opportunities beliefs, actions.
  • Alternatively
  • Direct control Restrictions, punishments
    parents, police
  • Internalized conscience Im a good person
  • Indirect control shaming, exclusions - Pleases
    Mom
  • Other indirect means (need satisficing)
    aspirations - This good behavior gets me

22
Social Control Theory
  • Gottfredson and Hirschi (not assigned)
  • Societal control structure is balanced toward
    conformity, because society needs social trust.
  • So even if external control lacks, internal
    control can still function.
  • Deviance lumping if you do one, you do lots.
  • Empey
  • A major contribution of control is the idea that
    external forces are part of the equation
  • Social delinquency threatens social order
    (conservative)
  • Children need to learn social bond
  • It has policy implications
  • See limits of theory pg 347.

23
Social Control Theory
  • Post-Katrina New Orleans
  • Things to fix
  • Infrastructure
  • Jobs
  • Housing
  • Security
  • Crime

24
Individuals in Society - Stigma
  • Stigma (relevant points. See Goffman, Stigma)
  • Stigma is the discrediting of someone, that is,
    the defining someones non-conforming behavior or
    condition as negative and making this quality
    negate any positive.
  • It highlights the negative over the positive.
  • Stigma is a social definition with social
    consequences
  • Leads to a stigmatizing person to adapt to the
    role, with
  • Consequences for not conforming to stigmatized
    role
  • May require social movement to change definition
  • Takes a lot of work for the stigmatized person to
    be recognized fully as a human being
  • Once stigmatized, may seek out other discredited
    people
  • Assigning stigma is a way to remove a group from
    the mainstream.
  • For both achieved and ascribed characteristics.

25
Labeling Theory
  • A structurally caused process, not
    individually-driven
  • Put people in categories, stigmatized them.
  • Can create self-fulfilling prophecy, but the
    less said the better.
  • Labels force one down a deviant career path
  • Labels are social roles.
  • Deviance-defining events are dramas, or rather,
    power plays. Hence labeling is an extension of
    social control theory.
  • Why do people say women doctors and male
    nurses?

26
Labeling Theory
  • Some labels are big. They stick and dont wash
    off. Some are small and can be redeemed.
  • Ascribed deviance (like self-concepts) label
    foisted on by dominant society
  • vs Achieved deviance label acquired through
    actions.
  • Who labels? (these are social control agents)
  • How big are these institutions labels. In all
    places/times?

27
Labeling Theory
  • Howard Becker (same Becker from Differential
    Assoc)
  • In order to build deviance career, depends on
    whether they enforce the rule he has violated
  • Individual might apply label herself based on
    specific and GO info
  • Individual subconsciously wants to get caught.
  • Master traits certain status with connoted
    descriptors known as auxiliary traits.
  • Subordinate overridden by master when
    inconsistent.
  • See pg 394 Its not about the deviant act per se

28
Labeling Theory
  • Scheff The mentally ill and labeling
  • Mental illness starts with residual deviance
    uncategorized by not normal behaviors.
  • Properties of residual deviance
  • Crisis from diverse sources
  • Not usually treated
  • Usually transitory
  • Consequences of recognition is societal reaction
  • Typecasted and expected to behave a certain way
  • Further behaviors interpreted in this light.
  • Others will look back to support current label
  • Labeled deviants get rewarded for conforming to
    their deviance and punished for trying to reject
    it.
  • When a crisis outs a deviant he will seek a
    stable deviance role explanation.
  • All these lead up to Single most important cause
    of careers of residual deviance.

29
Labeling Theory
  • Critique by Mankoff
  • Is it necessary and/or sufficient?
  • Labeling not randomly applied
  • Not all labeled go on to careers
  • Not all careerists were labeled.
  • Mankoff feels it works better for ascribed rather
    than achieved deviance. (when you looked at
    property crime and violent crime criminals).
  • Labeling theorists focused on underdog.

30
Questions for Labeling
  • Labeling
  • Labeling theory is sometimes criticized for
    having a monolithic view of social control
    institutions. Comment on this criticism, using
    examples from the course reading and from your
    own experience.
  • Labeling theorists lent a sympathetic ear to
    deviant groups. To what extent did they
    selectively choose deviant groups who were not
    very dangerous or not universally condemnable. Is
    it acceptable to be so selective in choosing a
    study population?

31
Recap of Theory
  • Study question Can you really
    explain/understand the first paragraph on pg 449?
  • Sometimes society benefits from defining deviance
    and sometimes the net benefits are outnumbered by
    net detriments.
  • Functionalism
  • Who benefits from deviance defining (not just who
    benefits from having the deviance)?
  • How does the definition of deviance reinforce
    boundaries?
  • Social disorganization
  • Why is it that many people are ignorant of
    dominant societys norms/values?
  • How did these subcultures get disorganized?
  • Differential Association
  • Whats the importance of learning a behavior
    counter to prevailing social norms? And what are
    their neutralizations?
  • Social control
  • Importance of family and community and other
    social structures
  • Importance of external social control
  • Labeling
  • A method of external social control to stigmatize
    and de-legitimize challenges to the macro-social
    power hierarchies.

32
Labeling Limitations
  • Deviants are just like usonly they arent
    always.
  • They ignored violent, less empathetic deviants at
    a time when crime rates were beginning to
    increase.
  • They ignored white collar and elite deviants
  • And once theres a falsehood/weakness, the whole
    thing can be tossed with an effective marketing
    campaign.
  • And yet its odd that only after the labeling
    theory period did these criticisms get so much
    attention, since C. Wright Mills raised them
    earlier (see Chapter 2.9).

33
A macro-view of deviance
  • We will need to examine
  • Political landscape
  • Economy
  • Cultural values
  • Changes in
  • SES,
  • Labor force,
  • Technology
  • Demographic Processes (Population structure)
  • Migration,
  • Fertility,
  • Mortality,
  • Morbidity

34
Liazos Nuts, Sluts and Preverts
  • If you dont label, it doesnt seem to be
    studied.
  • Focus on the macro-picture, not just the small
    deviance.
  • Elite deviants/actors are not discredited people.
    They may even be following legal means. You
    cant deviance lump them, so they tend to get
    conformist lumped.
  • Agents of social control are not just the
    individual police, courts, etc., but the system
    that encourages and facilitates an exploitative
    system.
  • Therefore Talk about oppression, conflict,
    persecution, suffering (p. 490).

35
Politics of Deviance
  • Theres a relationship between personal and
    political deviance
  • Deviance-defining is politically charged, and so
    is un-defining
  • Deviance-defining is a process identify, apply
    stigma, contain, justify. Can result in
    exacerbating inequality.
  • Power is a process, not just an object and so can
    have cause and effect.
  • Who defines the situation controls the situation,
    and same thing for deviance, so you need to
    dissect who are the political actors and what do
    they gain/lose from the definition?

36
Politics and Deviance (cont)
  • Labeling is a political act
  • Containment is a goal (extant), a
    method/technique (extant), an outcome/consequence
    (latent) and sometimes all three.
  • Maintains social order or restructures it.
  • Can manage social discontents (containing the
    disquieted or containing the disquieteds
    scapegoat).
  • Protects state from serious threat.

37
Modes of Containments
  • Social psychological interpersonal
  • Economic
  • Geographical
  • Visual
  • Pharmacological
  • Electronic
  • Physical

38
Economic Structure Deviance
  • Review of Marxism The problematic consequences
    of capitalism
  • Propertied class in control of production and
    social capital.
  • Proletariat working class without capital,
    does not share in full benefits of its
    production.
  • Industrialists try to minimize labor costs with
    technology, leads to surplus labor, aka,
    unemployment, and the unemployed surplus labor
    needs to be controlled.
  • Marxist solution
  • A. Overthrow capitalism (or, B, C)
  • Democratic solution
  • A. Whats good for business is good for America.
    Corporation gt labor. Control surplus labor
  • B. Regulate business so it doesnt cause harmful
    exploitation.
  • C. Unionize. Individual gt corporation.

39
Economic Structure Deviance 2
  • Labor needs to be controlled
  • New labor force entries trigger control responses
  • Unskilled labor is useful temporarily
  • When that utility ends, high unemployment occurs
    (social junk)
  • Labor that wants to change system is social
    dynamite
  • Shifts in economy introduce disequilibria
  • Farming to industrialism
  • Manufacturing to service
  • Globalization
  • Low tech to high tech
  • Oil economy to ???
  • Control means creating deviant forms to be
    regulated
  • Drug laws are one of the best
  • Blame the unemployed
  • Incarceration and asylums
  • Define those who reject progress as immoral,
    then contain (see slide 42)
  • Put in military
  • Educate/indoctrinate
  • Investing in workers mitigates need for control

40
Economic Structure Deviance 3
  • Economic changes in US and growth of populations
    to control.
  • Rise of industrialism and middle class (Dollars
    Dreams)
  • People owned homes with GI Bills.
  • Productivity increased, like walking up an up
    escalator
  • Union jobs in mfg lifted many.
  • Blacks also benefited, especially following civil
    rights movement.
  • Experienced of crime was relatively low.
  • Thenthings changed.
  • Boon in consumer electronics increased
    consumerism
  • Yet at the same time, mfg took advantage of
    automation, outsourcing and offshoring.
  • And then more offshoring.
  • Low-skilled jobs for those with HS education
    seemed to evaporate.
  • Hit white males growing up on wife stay at home
    model.
  • Then women entered labor force.
  • And Blacks saw loss of employment centers and
    opportunities.
  • See WJW Declining Significance of Race
  • Black inner city issues not as much about race
    (he said) but more about economic structure
    changes and the loss of opportunity.
  • So while Marxism says conflict is about class, in
    the US it was about race, and then, began to be
    about competition for wage-earning jobs, that is,
    among the working class.

41
Economic Structure Deviance
  • So what does this have to do with deviance?
  • When jobs disappear, people seek blame, and
    blaming large economic processes is not
    satisfactory or easy to understand, so they
  • Scapegoat
  • Do symbolic crusades and moral panics
  • Punish the victims and further remove
    opportunities.

42
Cultural Wars Symbolic Crusades
  • Conflict Theory Status Conflicts
  • Class socioeconomic
  • Prestige value, having more cultural worth and
    being able to define what is valuable
  • Often has economic power, but not necessarily.
  • So when threats to status occur, there are
    reactions
  • Status politics hostility to others,
    ultra-dogmatism, extremist attacks on democratic
    process. (more common in growth)
  • Class politics arguing about allocation and
    access to resources (more common in recession)
  • When values become challenged, then the dominant
    class may lash out by deviantizing the
    challengers, and do so by symbolizing their fears
    in something the challengers does, says, or
    professes.

43
Symbolic Crusades
  • Gusfields argument is useful in many contexts.
  • Immigration in late 1800s and early 1900s
    introduced many eastern european and
    mediterranean peoples, who tended to be Catholic
    (or Jewish) and were more liberal with drinking.
  • This influx of labor occurred also during the
    emancipation, and also during a solidification of
    the old middle class around temperance, which
    was seen as a symbol of prestige. Eventually,
    because these movements go extreme, became
    Prohibition. (see the note on status politics
    previous slide). However, Prohibition, Abolition
    and Nativism were all part of the Republican
    Party ideas in the earlier 1800s.
  • And Alcohol is a socially controlled substance,
    with problematic properties (addictive,
    drunkenness) and thus an ideal symbol for
    deviance.
  • With Temperance movement, US sought to redefine
    itself as a moral Christian climate. (even
    though both teetotalling and heavy drinking
    behavior is more common in Protestant groups than
    in Catholics).
  • Lyman Beecher activist preacher stated that
    upper classes needed to impose moral restraint on
    themselves, and on the lower classes as well.

44
Symbolic Crusades
  • But values have economic links(Rumbargers
    Power, Politics and Prohibition)
  • Remember we also have the movement from farming
    to industrialization (and from beer to coffee).
  • Industrialists wanted to control Labor.
  • Disgruntled labor sat in saloons and schemed
    unionization, hence the anti-saloon movement
    espoused by industrialists. (misery is caused by
    strong drink, strikes and communism.) Henry Ford
    wanted workers to dream the American dream as he
    dreamed it.
  • Industry had few safeguards for workers, so
    focusing on the drinking problem was a way to
    avoid focusing on the high rate of death and
    injury in the workplace.

45
Wayward Puritans A study in the sociology of
deviance
  • Deviance isnt a property inherent in any
    behavior, its conferred upon a behavior.
  • Why does a community assign this behavior to the
    deviance category?
  • Deviance exists to define boundaries.
  • Deviants patrol these borders, and policing
    agents monitor the deviants.
  • Statutes are often informal, if ever articulated.
  • Morality and immorality meet at the public
    scaffold
  • Expectations constrain and also shape behavior.
  • Both variety and similarity are products of the
    same society its a division of labor.
  • The deviant and the conformist, then, are
    creatures of the same culture, inventions of the
    same imagination (p. 21)
  • Boundaries are never fixed, and as borders
    expand new forms of deviance and conformity
    need to be defined.
  • These definitions occur in public formal
    ceremonies.
  • There are few rites of passage that denote
    leaving a deviant status, and some of those are
    equally suspect.

46
The Puritans
  • Part of the US mythic heritage.
  • The Puritans emerged in the English battle for
    theocratic power between the Catholic Church
    (pomp circumstance, connection to deity via
    intermediaries) and the Church of England (less
    pomp, more informal connection).
  • Saw only one way to the true word, they knew it,
    and needed therefore to go where they could just
    be their own austere, humorless, intolerant
    selves.
  • When they left England, they uprooted themselves
    from the known world of social control away
    from familiar norms and values.
  • Reality originated in the imagination of Gd
    (but there was no more revelation) so it would
    be even harder to know what is.

47
Puritan Paradoxes
  • Identifying causes of deviance-definitions may
    mean looking for cultural paradoxes.
  • Puritans were both austere as medievalists, and
    rejecting of pomp as the newer forms.
  • Were both prideful and humble. Had the only
    way and yet very worried about sin.
  • Doubt their own perception but be darn sure about
    their fundamental precepts. .
  • if a persuasive argument should jar a Puritans
    certitudehe had every right to suspect devilish
    mischief
  • Their challenge was to bring it all together.
    But it also set up the American paradoxical
    identity of individualism and suspicion of
    differences.

48
Law and Order
  • They had no clear legal code.
  • Magistrates (clergy) settled legal disputes.
  • Non-magistrates (business and shareholders)
    wanted stable definitions more than a power play
    but a core understanding of the Puritan
    experience.
  • Codifying a law revealed the inner
    inconsistencies.
  • One of the surest ways to confirm an identify for
    communities as well as individuals is to find
    some way of measuring what one is not.
  • And so, we had the crime waves of New
    Englandthe seeds were already sown.

49
Antinomianism - The crisis of Hutchinsonism
  • Individualism versus conformity to established
    leadership hierarchy.
  • Who had authority to determine true conversion
    and state of grace?
  • They needed to create their society, they werent
    English anymore, but what were they? Who could
    define if they were a community of saints in the
    howling wilderness, or individual entrepreneurs
    in the pursuit of spirituality?
  • The followers pushed too many buttons though, and
    provoked censure.
  • Plus, Mrs Hutchinson was a woman.
  • But the theological case against her was largely
    political (another American tradition)
  • How do you do the right thing if you know its
    not what the authority tells you is right, and if
    enough reject this authority, then you need a new
    authority, or a new social/political structure.
  • Or, if rejection and individualism earns
    sainthood, how can the same things earn the
    opposite? (Covenant of grace was an individual
    experience, but it was seen through conformist
    behavior).
  • Logic doesnt work in these kinds of crime waves.
  • In the end, Mrs. H. provoked the magistrates so
    much that they had no room to move except to
    censure her.

50
The Quaker Crisis
  • The Quakers came in and challenged the Puritans
    by minor differences. Hats, thee and thou,
    their own style of meetings. Also, they were
    missionizing, although its not clear to what.
  • These differences were enough to provoke fear and
    then violent outrage.
  • Quakers asked for subjective freedom, and
    tolerance.
  • The Quakers symbolized change and leaving behind
    the past and it freaked out the Puritan colonists
    (after all, the Puritans came to be themselves,
    and so did the Quakers).
  • they indicate very clearly how small tokens and
    insignia can come to mean a great deal when a
    community begins to label its deviant members.
    (p.127).
  • In the end, the Us and Them reference changed
    for the Puritans. It wasnt Us vs England it
    was Us, whatever we are against Other
    Americans, whoever they are.
  • (p.128) seeking inner reliance can turn into
    seeking inner possession

51
All hell breaks loose the Witches of Salem
  • Occurred in a time of political uncertainty
    future of the colony and its rule was at stake,
    and the certainty of earlier years was now eroded
    by societal change and relative diversity.
  • Their city on the hill in the howling
    wilderness was replaced by a city in civilization
    with everyone else, and so the best enemies were
    those of their imagination.
  • With their moral universe and its definition
    preoccupying their minds, the appearance of evil
    spirits flew out of their nightmarish concerns.
  • Thus
  • Girls acting weird (collective hysteria)
  • Beyond medical understanding so it must be of
    religious cause (what would it be now?)
  • Black slave from the Caribbean with voodoo roots?
  • Girls got power from the reactions, and were
    rewarded for it.
  • Got out of hand, accused so many that finally,
    the evidence had to be evaluated by those still
    standing, and the evidence was found to be
    faulty, and that was that.
  • No one who confessed was executed.

52
Deviance by those with social capital
  • Review Slide 34 oppression, conflict,
    persecution, suffering or harm.
  • Forms
  • White collar crimes committed by individuals in
    the capacity of their job
  • Political similar to white collar, except for
    political advantage.
  • Corporate crimes or unethical behavior
    committed as part of company strategy
  • Organizational similar to corporate
  • Governmental crimes and unethical behavior
    committed by political and government actors in
    order to advance the power of the government and
    its rulers.

53
Cohen
  • Summary
  • Cultural and structural conditions permeate
    society and
  • Support corporate/high status deviance
  • Using the same mechanisms as in lower class
    deviance
  • But with different set of resources and hence
    outcomes.
  • Cohen points out you can draw from a number of
    theories to explain deviance AND that theories
    for explaining other social forms also can be
    applied to deviance (e.g., mechanical and organic
    solidarity or functionalism).
  • So Cohen sets the stage for a complex set of
    theories to explain deviance at different levels
    and in different contexts.
  • He concludes that, just as deviant responses take
    several forms to strain, so can controlling
    responses
  • Open up legitimate opportunities (there werent
    enough)
  • Open up illegitimate (legalize or cease to
    prosecute)
  • Close up illegitimate (better control, longer
    imprisonment)

54
Passas
  • Show shows unnoticed upper class deviance has
    been
  • Values bottom line, corporate success
  • Society and economy structure goals into
    capitalist race.
  • Culture is differential association, too.
  • Strain should increase deviance in struggling
    companies
  • But it can become part of the fabric of corporate
    life if its very common.
  • Corporate deviance is rationalized, assigned to
    subordinates, and legitimated through political
    pressure.
  • In other words, it takes money to make money, it
    also takes big money to steal big money.

55
Background
  • Biblical e.g., Dont have unequal weights and
    measures (Deut 2514-15)
  • Roman Caveat Emptor let the buyer beware
  • Modern The purpose of the state is to settle
    upper class disputes peacefully, control lower
    class rebellion and adopt policies that would
    further long-term stability (Zinn).
  • In the early 20th century, the combination of
    worker treatment and unrest, prices from monopoly
    and oligopolistic behavior, duplicative municipal
    services, consumer uprising and eventually
    political pressure led to regulation.
  • But you cant easily inspect all products,
    services, organizations and politicians.

56
Motivations
  • How do these fit into our previous theories?
  • Greed
  • Arrogance
  • Hatred
  • CW Mills Businesses obey these laws, when they
    do, not because they think its morally right,
    but because they are afraid of getting
    caughtLaws exist without the support of firm,
    moral conviction. If it is merely illegal to
    cheat, it is considered smart to get away with
    it
  • Given that, then we should expect (a) widespread
    abuse (b) execs are aware (c) They dont think
    theyve done anything wrong even when caught.

57
Controlling Elite and White Collar Deviance
  • Deterrence regulation that bites
  • Punishment fines that hurt, prison terms
  • Consciousness-raising education, leading by
    example
  • Publicity negative and positive
  • Clarifying gray areas
  • Intelligent law-making

58
The Overall Context for Elite Deviance
  • Loss of faith in government post-Watergate
  • Me generation of greed
  • Lack of job stability erosion of commitments
  • Urbanization leads to less personal connection
    and erosion of external social control
  • Family instability erosion of internal control.
  • Income disparities more entitlement
  • Business/TV/Media promoting consumption at any
    cost
  • Mass incarceration of large of racial/ethnic
    groups creates an us do no harm versus them
    do all the crime mentality.
  • All this in the face of our contemporary
    paradoxes
  • Stress on winning and success without adequate
    opportunity
  • Winning and success defined as making money.

59
Those American Values
  • Achievement orientation
  • Individualism
  • Universalism
  • Fetishism of money
  • Attempts to limit massive accumulations of
    wealth, etc. are labeled as communist or
    socialist plots.
  • Govt in the US and other advanced nations are
    part of the economy so business expends
    considerable effort to control government.

60
Set and Setting of ED
  • Organizational Structures
  • Authority
  • Specialized vocabulary and ideologies
  • Denial of responsibility
  • Denial of humanity of victim
  • Higher loyalties (hence Simons higher
    immoralities)
  • Condemning condemers
  • Fragmentation
  • Just my job
  • Not my decision
  • Individual Pathologies
  • Personality disorders narcissism, attachment
    disorders, etc.
  • Interaction of Organizational Structure, Culture
    and Personality
  • Structure can create a permissible
    non-controlled/forced context
  • Culture provides neutralizations
  • Personalities run with it.

61
The context of elite deviance
  • Pay attention to individual-level deviance versus
    systemic-level (organization-wide) deviance.
  • Scandals and their impact
  • More apparent modern telecommunications,
    diversity in the press corp.
  • Everyone does it when everyone does and
    theres no risk implicitly means its okay.
  • Scandals lead to disillusionment and
    non-involvement by the electorate in the
    democratic process.

62
Other costs of ED
  • Financial
  • Loss of assets, resources and economic security
  • Taxpayer costs disproportionately hurt lower and
    middle income levels
  • Lower salaries, unemployment
  • Socioeconomic
  • Long term set-backs in certain communities and
    groups.
  • Negligence of infrastructure
  • Avoidance of social responsibilities
  • Growing disparity between poor/working
    class/middle and wealthy
  • Physical/health
  • Damage to environment pollution, species loss,
    air, water and soil quality
  • Unsafe products
  • Disease, disability and disfigurement

63
Results of ED
  • Results of ED Behavior
  • More deaths and injuries than by street crime
  • Undermines public confidence in democratic system
  • Shape criminal law to focus on street crime
  • Huge monetary costs to society and individuals
  • Supports corruptive organized crime which
    permeates government institutions
  • Summary of ED Characteristics (p.12)
  • Acts are by upper class
  • Some violate criminal codes, some civic, some
    immoral
  • Some for personal gain, others for organizational
    gain
  • Low risk of apprehension and punishment
  • Imposed dangers on others
  • Able to conceal behavior for years
  • ED is often part of business plan
  • Discussion Question (see p.36)
  • ED includes 3 acts economic domination, control
    of government, denial of basic human rights)
    Agree or Disagree??

64
Theoretical Underpinnings Karl Mannheim
  • Bureaucratic conservativism Dont rock the boat
  • Traditional conservatism Were in power, so it
    must be right and good
  • Bourgeois liberalism rational discourse by
    all the people allows approval of folly by
    majority.
  • Socialist thought there are real conflicts of
    interest
  • Fascism When socialism and liberalism appear as
    relativist fronts for an ideology, the other side
    of the conflict seeks to define an alternate,
    absolute truth. Fascism is the ideology of the
    marginal politicianIt finds its followers among
    those who want to return to dogmatic certainties
    in a time of chaos, there are many who would
    sacrifice everything for law and order. (Conrad
    Makowsky). It always has a coercive component.
    My way or the highway or prison

65
Mannheim to Mills
  • For Mannheim
  • (a) all governments are run by bureaucracies
  • (b) Bureaucratic operations become interdependent
  • (c) Question is will it be an intelligent and
    humanistic elite or a short-sighted, irrational
    and foolish elite?
  • C Wright Mills
  • Picked up on Webers and Mannheims theories of
    bureaucracy in modern society by combining the
    notion of bureaucracy interdependence and elite
    rule.
  • Noted declining significance of middle class
  • Noted the limited access social institution of
    the economic elite.
  • The inner core of those who hold key roles in
    multiple spheres.
  • The fact that these core roles are not equal
    opportunity positions.

66
Mills and the MIC
  • Industry benefits from the military and industry
    seeks to control government decision-making.
  • The same players appear in all three spheres.
  • Eisenhower coined the phrase military-industrial
    complex and warned of its inherent threats.
  • Mills felt that theres no checks balances
    against MIC.
  • Mills points out that its not that there arent
    valid military threats, but that the MIC takes
    control of governmental strategy to work in to
    the favor of the Elites and not to the nation as
    a whole.
  • And, every state needs an enemy if its not
    communism, or capitalism, or terrorism (and the
    more vague the better), then its drugs,
    heretics, morality, or someone elses culture.

67
Functionalism View of Elite Deviance
  • Defining and controlling of deviance is a
    technique for invoking social control forces
  • Power is not distributed equally across society
  • Power is desirable
  • Lots of power enables control over others
  • Those with a lot of power can choose to deprive
    others of their own rights (including access to
    knowledge info)
  • Power Elite is not individual behavior, its a
    group relationship.
  • Application of socially-controlling deviance must
    have societal buy-in for it to work.
  • Claims-making becomes a required marketing method
    to get widespread acceptance
  • Claims are not always true but will lead to EDs
    desired outcome.

68
Michels Law of Oligarchy
  • Organizations become oligarchical through the
    following process
  • A rather small number of people carry out the
    bulk of the decisions because its more
    expeditious
  • This delegated set of leaders takes on more
    power, seeking to extend their authority, and new
    leaders are selected by old.
  • Decisions are carried out behind-the-scenes.
  • Leaders become more conservative in that they
    oppose change, as they begin to re-interpret the
    organizations mission to serve them.
  • Members expect that the organization will fulfill
    their needs but leaders look to fulfill their
    own needs.
  • It usually takes a crisis for anything to get
    fixed.
  • Members dont oppose because
  • They dont know whats going on
  • Theyre too spread out to have power

69
Michels - 2
  • Who says organization really means
    oligarchy.
  • It may not be so much evil as delinquent, but it
    can be grossly irresponsible.
  • What is the cure?
  • Crisis to catalyze change (but not always)
  • Regular, detailed communications to members
  • Accountability, e.g., outside audits, with
    separation from board members.
  • Adherence to by-laws
  • Competent leadership
  • Start with a core, or toss out the old bunch.
  • Activist leadership people seeking and knowing
    how to bring about change that is in line with
    whats needed and wanted.

70
Claims-Making
  • Claims-making
  • Defining deviance in a way that it will benefit
    someone through latent functions.
  • Its therefore a technique in the arsenal of
    social control.
  • To get the word about the new deviance it
    requires marketing. Thats what claims making is.
  • It may be a real problem now recognized (e.g.,
    child abuse)
  • Or a condition blown completely out of proportion
    (e.g., stranger-abducted missing children).
  • It doesnt matter if the condition exists, just
    that a claim is being made about it.
  • Claims-makers shape our sense of what the problem
    is for their own benefit.
  • Words are important (teen pregnancy versus teen
    promiscuity)
  • As with other marketing efforts, claims become
    fads.

71
Claims-making -2
  • Consequences
  • Punish or socially control violators
  • Enhance certain socio-political actors or
    institutions
  • Make money
  • Rationalize problematic behavior (medicalization)
  • How to make claims
  • Evoke negative emotionality horror, fear,
    outrage
  • Separate context from condition and make atypical
    seem typical
  • Use attention grabber
  • Rely on official sources
  • Make all responsibility the individuals not the
    system
  • Stigmatize them
  • Typify the trouble-makers

72
Lies, Damned Lies, and Statistics?
  • Statistics can be a tool for claims-making
  • Use big numbers
  • Use official sources
  • Use big numbers from official sources
  • Trust the media to repeat it over again.
  • You dont need statistics for the last point, any
    fact will do, especially if experts said

73
Process of Claims-Making
  • Process
  • Cite Evidence
  • Use rhetoric
  • Assert solution
  • Who makes claims?
  • Victims grass roots
  • Professionals PR Firms
  • Actors and organizations that will profit in one
    way or another.

74
Medical Sociology - Introduction
  • Health and illness are socially defined using
  • Science religious experience, insanity,
    witchcraft, evil
  • Associated with stigma or sin
  • Vary by culture (takes on different meanings) and
    across time.
  • Dis-ease and dis-ability and dys-function
    implying lack of productivity, activity
  • Some diseases are obvious (e.g., cancer)
  • Others, not
  • Health levels and health behavior are linked
  • Per capital wealth, economic development,
    industrialization
  • Age, sex
  • Education and income, social class
  • Form of government
  • Payment system form of health care
  • Race, ethnicity, religion (culturally defined)

75
Medical Sociology Physicians and their world
  • Physicians were healers of spiritual ills.
  • Shamans, priests, priestesses, wise women,
    midwives.
  • Several developments changed that.
  • Sanitation
  • Germs, vaccines and antibiotics
  • Painkillers
  • Quackery arose and the need for some oversight
    and overhaul needed
  • 2 yrs of biology and physical sciences,
  • School affiliated with university
  • Rigorous licensing
  • Result better quality but also a trade guild.
  • Exclusion of Jews, blacks, women.
  • Pecking order of medical providers
  • Physician-patient status hierarchy.
  • Since the 70s, more physicians are women and
    minorities, patients are better educated and
    better informed (Internet!), HMOs are the boss,
    so theres less hierarchy.

76
Medical Sociology Health differentials
  • Reasons
  • Biological gender, race, age.
  • Social and cultural lifestyle, dietary
    behaviors
  • Economic access to medical care, nutrition,
    exercise, safe environments, safe occupations.
  • Differences
  • Gender men have brute strength but women are
    healthier.
  • Age age-related diseases for childhood through
    old age from genetics or exposure
  • Race some genetic (e.g., sickle cell,
    Tay-Sachs).
  • Social smoking, diets, meaning of fitness
    health, alcoholic consumption, interaction of
    gender and social behavior.
  • Economic Adequate food, health care insurance
  • Theorists
  • Weber Health and healthy lifestyles are status
    symbols
  • Marx unhealthy working and living conditions
    signify exploitation.
  • Consumerism wealthy consumers as patients
    negotiate better deals.

77
Medical Sociology Forms of Medical Deviance
  • Physician-level (white collar)
  • Negligent behavior, assault while patient is
    sedated.
  • Unsafe staffing practices at hospitals
  • Using lower paid assistants instead of RNs.
  • Treating health issues as criminality
  • Criminalizing unhealthy behavior (e.g., drug
    addiction)
  • Focusing on individual aspects of illness rather
    than the environmentally or socially constructed
    or configured causes.
  • Infertility as a womens problem and their
    decisions to delay childbearing
  • Fetal health and women
  • Harmful experiments
  • CIA conducted experiments with LSD in the 1950s
    on unsuspecting agents and civilians.
  • Using inmates in prisons and mental hospitals.

78
Medical Sociology Forms of Social Control
  • Medicalization seeks to eliminate, modify,
    isolate, or regulate socially defined behavior as
    deviant, with medical means, in the name of
    health. (p. 564).
  • Phrases like disease-management or pain
    management treating symptoms instead of
    disease, lent itself to treating social behavior
    as symptoms to be managed and controlled.
  • Medical information can be used to deny health
    insurance, employment, marriages
  • Medical conditions can be used to excuse behavior
  • Medicalization confers status to physicians,
  • Gives patients a role and an excuse.

79
Medical Sociology - Medicalization
  • Pluses
  • Removes stigma
  • Offers sick role as a way to reconcile
    problematic self-image.
  • Optimistic outcome a disease to be treated and
    maybe cured.
  • Expands authority of medicine (debatable plus)
  • More flexible than judicial control
  • Minuses
  • Absolves person of responsibility
  • Allows moral neutrality of medicine to run
    unchecked.
  • Conferred social control (power) to medical world
    without due process
  • Excuses evil instead of confronting it for what
    it is.

80
Medical Sociology
  • Discussion Questions for Bad Blood
  • In the Tuskegee experiment, the research question
    itself had much to do with the outcome of the
    research process. Discuss how this is so, and
    think of how similar problems might occur with
    other research (not just medical).
  • It seems that the medical establishment in
    general had few or no problems with the Tuskegee
    experiment. Why would this be so? To what extent
    is this because medical professionals bear the
    same social values as others in the society? To
    what extent is it the result of something
    specific to medical power relationships?
  • Many people and organizations concerned with AIDS
    and with public health in general believe that
    the federal (and now internationally in Africa,
    many governments) acted slowly on research and
    prevention. These critics argue that such
    inaction or slow action was due to a belief that
    AIDS victims were somehow unworthy or at fault.
    How do you evaluate this criticism? Do you have
    an alternative explanation(s)?
  • How could Nurse Rivers have continued to
    participate the way she did? Explain this
    behavior based on race, class, gender. Then
    GOOGLE Nurse Rivers Tuskegee obituary and see
    what explanations you find.

81
Corporate Deviance
Financial Crime for Profiteering
  • Corporate crime is big money.
  • Victims are consumers, taxpayers and stockholders
  • Small percentage of felonies serve prison. Fines
    are usually small enough to incorporate into Cost
    of Goods Sold (COGS) calculations.
  • It goes on till it gets caught, and its hard to
    uncover.
  • Once uncovered, corporate lawyers know how to
    stall to jack up the costs of investigation and
    prosecution, leading to deals and low penalties.
  • Bad management is immoral?
  • Dont forget to review slides 60-66.

82
Corporate Deviance
Financial Crime for Profiteering
  • Anti-competitive behavior
  • Fraud (advertising, product content, baitswitch)
  • Tax Fraud
  • Stock market manipulations
  • Discriminatory practices in hiring and promotion.
  • Deals with organized crime.
  • Illegal contracts
  • CEO benefits

83
Corporate Deviance
Financial Crime for Profiteering
  • Fraud
  • Misrepresenting a business or deal as having
    certain features while masking the unequal nature
    of it.
  • Profits through deception
  • Product content
  • Advertising
  • Securities violations
  • Tax fraud
  • Not reporting all income
  • Reporting exaggerations or overstating of
    expenses.
  • Money laundering
  • Off shoring corporate headquarters
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