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Wild Boar Introducing a new species into Nova Scotia By

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Wild Boar Introducing a new species into Nova Scotia By Dustin Stone & Sean Dunn Conclusions Based on economic, ecological and social values introducing wild boar ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wild Boar Introducing a new species into Nova Scotia By


1
Wild Boar
  • Introducing a new species into Nova Scotia
  • By Dustin Stone Sean Dunn

2
Outline
  • Context
  • Biology of Wild Boar
  • Diet
  • Habitat
  • Population Dynamics
  • Effects of Boar
  • Agriculture
  • Ecological
  • Diseases
  • Social/Economic
  • Summary
  • Conclusion

3
Context
  • North America - introduction of more than 30
    species of exotic free ranging mammals since
    colonization.
  • Species introduced for hunting include
  • Sitka Deer
  • Cattle
  • Horses
  • Wild Boar
  • Play an important role in many economies

4
Types of Pigs
  • Wild Boar
  • Pure breeding wild boar
  • Feral Pigs
  • Pigs living wild with domestic ancestor
  • Hybrids
  • Wild Boar/feral or domestic pig crossbreeding

5
Feral Pigs
  • Domestic pigs originated from wild boar from
    Europe and Asia 5000-9000 years ago.
  • Wild boar introduced into feral pig populations
    to improve characteristics for hunting
  • Found in lower costal plains
  • Limited by snow and winter conditions
  • Prefer habitat swamp and river bottom lands
  • Do not migrate

6
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7
Wild Boar Biology
  • General Characteristics
  • Latin name (Sus scrofa)
  • Length 5 feet
  • Weight 300 pounds
  • Mane of hair grey-brown colour, longitudinal
    stripes, fewer teats
  • Males large tusks which protrude from the lower
    mouth
  • Life Span up to 11 years
  • Primarily Nocturnal

http//www.organicpork.co.uk/Young20wildboar20co
py.JPG
8
Not to be outdone
  • Hogzilla was an extremely rare case in which the
    boar reached 12 feet long and weighed 1,000 pound
    with 9in tusks

http//news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/05/im
ages/070501-hogzilla-picture.jpg
9
Wild Boar Diet
  • Opportunistic omnivores
  • Mostly eat vegetables (86)
  • Mostly mast, roots, green plant matter and
    agricultural crops
  • Energy rich plants such as acorns, beechnuts,
    chestnuts, pine seeds are needed to survive
    winter conditions
  • Also consume animal foods such as insects, birds,
    small mammals, amphibians and reptiles

10
Wild Boar Diet
  • Autumn/winter diet
  • Acorns
  • Hickory Nuts
  • Winter ground vegetation
  • Summer diet
  • Grass
  • Mushrooms
  • Roots
  • Eggs

http//www.veggiegardeningtips.com/wp-content/uplo
ads/2006/02/Shiitake-Mushrooms.jpg
11
Competition and Predators
  • Competition
  • Deer
  • Small mammals
  • Humans
  • Predators
  • Coyote
  • Humans

12
Wild Boar Habitat
  • Habitat Preferences
  • Prefer forested areas near bodies of water
  • Wallow in mud to cool off and to remove parasites
    like ticks
  • Adapted to live in a variety of weather
    conditions
  • Capable of surviving winter conditions up to 30
    cm snow
  • Thrive in areas of human activity
  • Prefer deciduous forested landscapes

http//www.tworiversoutdoorclub.com/images/Hay-Bai
l.jpg
13
Migration
  • Seasonal use of mountains
  • Due well in Northern hardwood ecosystems and
    Oak-Pine Appalachian mountains
  • Northern Hardwood migration
  • April-August
  • Occurs in the GRSM
  • Home range varies from 3-12km2 on average

14
Wild Boar Reproduction
  • Nest is made of sticks, grass and mud
  • Young remain in the nest for 1 week approx. Until
    they are capable of following the mother
  • At 45 days the young are capable of living on
    their own
  • Males do not contribute to rearing the young

http//newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/41153000/jpg
/_41153946_boars_pa_203203.jpg
15
Wild Boar Population Dynamics
  • Reason for boar population success
  • High fertility
  • Low predation
  • Very adaptive species (not a specialist)
  • Social organization nucleus of related females
    and litters

16
Wild Boar Population Dynamics
  • Females reproduce once a year
  • Average number of young is 5, however litters can
    reach as many as 14
  • On average 373 piglets per 100 sow for each year
  • An average 81 of sows reproduce each year
  • Depopulation is difficult due to very high
    reproductive rate

17
Distribution
  • Indigenous to
  • Western Europe to Asia
  • North Africa
  • Introduced to
  • Americas
  • Australia
  • New Zealand

18
http//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thum
b/e/e0/Boar_distribution.png/800px-Boar_distributi
on.png
19
Past Introductions
  • Scotland
  • Scientifically politically and legally promoted
    as creative conservation
  • England
  • Became extinct due to habitat loss and
    persecution

20
Introduction of Wild Boar
  • First came to North America by colonizing
    Spaniards in early 16th century
  • Accidental escape of wild boar in Tennessee and
    North Carolina from hunting enclosure 1912
  • Populations started interbreeding with feral pigs

21
Wild Boar Populations In the US
  • National park populations Tennessee, North
    Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Florida
  • Variety of wild boar, feral pigs and mixes
  • Populations are mostly stable except in the Great
    Smokey Mountain national park.

http//wildlifemanagementpro.com/wp-content/upload
s/2007/06/feral_hog_distribution_us.jpg
22
Effects of Wild Boar Populations
  • Agriculture
  • Ecological Damage
  • Disease
  • Other Management Issues
  • Personal Safety
  • Domestic Animals

23
Agriculture Damage Crops
  • Crops consumed include maize, wheat, potatoes,
    oats, rye and beans.
  • Maize is the preferred crop
  • Damage is caused by tramping and uprooting
  • Noted to be an increasing problem in Europe since
    1940.

24
Agricultural Damage Other
  • Damage Fencing used to contain livestock
  • Exposed soil caused by uprooting and wallowing
    can infect grasses with potentially harmful
    micro-organisms

http//www.britishwildboar.org.uk/issuesfencing.jp
g
25
Ecological Damage Rooting
  • Herbs, Ferns and Sedges are mostly effected
  • Plant cover reduced by 87
  • Stimulated Beech Growth however survival rate
    was low
  • Corms and macro invertebrates decreased 80
  • Protecting the area resulted in
  • 100 recovery of corms
  • 40 Macro invertebrates

26
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27
Diseases
  • CSF Classical Swine Fever
  • Outbreaks in Europe
  • 46 of outbreaks in domestic pigs are due to wild
    boar
  • Disease control includes
  • Vaccinations (expensive)
  • Cull (difficult due to high reproductive rate)

28
Diseases
  • Aujeskys Disease virus (ADV)
  • Also known as pseudorabies
  • ADV persists in wild boars
  • Contracted in boars, domestic and feral pigs and
    cattle
  • Comes from western Europe

29
Nova Scotias Economy
  • Nova Scotia has a highly developed forestry
    sector with four pulp and paper mills and several
    hundred sawmills.
  • Nova Scotia has a highly specialized commercial
    agriculture sector. Dairy is the largest sector,
    followed by horticultural crops, poultry, eggs,
    beef cattle and hogs.

30
Nova Scotias Economy
  • Export commodities include blueberries, apples
    and processed fruits, vegetables and juices.
  • Total tourism receipts exceed 800 million and
    over 30 000 are employed in the industry

31
Nova Scotias Economy
http//www.ec.gc.ca/nature/8EconoBen.htm
32
Wild Boar Meat
  • Sweet, nutty and intense flavour
  • High in protein
  • Leaner and deeper red colour compared to its
    cousin pork
  • Current price for boar meat is approx 10/lb

http//z.about.com/d/italianfood/1/0/b/0/1/salcine
lonzino.jpg
33
Summary
  • Positives
  • Negatives
  • New available meat market with higher quality
    meat compared to domestic swine
  • Potential for increases in predator populations
    such as lynx
  • New revenue generated by new species for hunting
  • Agricultural Damage
  • Ecological Damage
  • Diseases
  • Competition with local species
  • Potential decrease in eco-tourism opportunities

34
Conclusions
  • Based on economic, ecological and social values
    introducing wild boar into Nova Scotia would not
    be beneficial
  • However if wild boar where to be introduced the
    following recommendations should be considered

35
Recommendations
  • Deciduous mixed woodland
  • Buffer of heathland, grassland or seminatural
    pines 50km
  • Distance between agriculture or urban areas and
    the habitat should be at least 5km
  • Distance of habitat patch from main roads should
    be at least 1km

36
Recommend Habitat
  • Expected patch size and carrying capacity
  • 10km2 30-50
  • 50km 2 150-250
  • 100km2 300-500
  • 500km 2 1500-2500

37
Questions to Consider
  • Do you think wild boar would benefit Nova Scotia
    in any ways that have not been considered?
  • Any negative effects?
  • Does hunting boar appeal to anyone?
  • What about introduction in contained hunting
    reserves?

38
References
  • Andrzejewski R. and Jezierski W. (1978)
    Management of a Wild Boar Population and its
    effects on Commercial Land. Acta Theriologica 23
    (19) 309-339
  • Baker S.J. (1990) Escaped Exotic Mammals in
    Britain. Mammal Review 20 (2/3) 75-96
  • Barrett R.H. (1978) The Feral Hog on the Dye
    Creek Ranch, California. Hilgardia 46
    283-1356-1366
  • Caley P. (1997) Movements, Activity Patterns and
    Habitat Use of Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in a
  • Tropical Habitat. Wildl. Res. 24 77-87
  • Choquenot D., McIlroy J. and Korn T. (1996)
    Managing Vertebrate Pests Feral Pigs. Australian
    Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Coblentz B.E. and Baber D.W. (1987) Biology and
    Control of Feral Pigs on Isla Santiago, Jacob
    S.A. (1993) A Simple Device for Scaring Away Wild
    Boar (Sus scrofa) in Newly Planted Oil Palm
    Fields. The Planter 69 475-477
  • Janeau G. and Spitz F. (1984) The Use of Space by
    Wild Boar (Sus scrofa scrofa L.) Distribution
    and Patterns of Use. Gibier Faune Sauvage 1 73-89
    (English Summary) TA.D. Poyser
  • Macchi E., Gallo Orsi U., Perrone A. and Durio P.
    (1992) Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Damages in
  • Cuneo Province (Piedmont, Italy NW).
    Ongules/Ungulates 91 431-433
  • Saez-Royuela C. and Telleria J.L. (1986) The
    Increased Population of the Wild Boar (Sus
  • scrofa L.) in Europe. Mammal Rev. 16 (2) 97-101
  • Williamson M. (1996) Biological Invasions.
    Chapman and Hall, London. Wood G.W. and Barrett
    R.H. (1979) Status of Wild Pigs in the United
    States. Wildl. Soc.
  • Wollenhaupt H. (1991) Game Damage and its
    Compensation Proposals and Recommendations for
    Matters under Special Consideration Regarding the
    Wild Boar (Sus scrofa). Report No. FO BHV/85/016
    Jan 91 Wildlife Mgmt. Bhutan.
  • Yalden D.W. (1986) Opportunities for
    Reintroducing British Mammals. Mammal Review 2
    53-63

39
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