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Unit 1: Sentence structures

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Title: Unit 1: Sentence structures


1
Unit 1 Sentence structures
2
What is a sentence?
  • How to cook Thai green curry.
  • Do you like?
  • Made in Thailand.
  • I do.
  • Ready?
  • Hurry up!

3
What is a sentence?
  • A sentence contains at least one main clause
    (subject verb) and a complete idea.
  • Clauses Subject verb
  • Main clause expresses a complete idea.
  • Subordinate clause does not express a complete
    idea. It begins with a subordinator (or
    subordinate conjunction).

4
Example
  • Although he seldom plays, Raymond
  • S1 V1
    S2
  • is an excellent golfer.
  • V2
  • Raymond is an excellent golfer
  • S1 V1
  • although he seldom plays.
  • S2 V2

5
  • There is an implicit assumption that
  • leaders make a difference.
  • subordinator
  • Main clause
  • Subordinate clause

6
  • The ability to work collaboratively with others
    is becoming an essential component of
    contemporary school reform.
  • How many clauses?
  • What is the verb? And the subject?

7
  • Goal-setting theory suggests that appraisal
    criteria and performance goals should be clear
    and understandable so as to motivate the
    appraisee, otherwise the appraisee would not know
    what to work towards (Locke and Latham, 2002).
  • How many clauses are there?
  • What is/ are the verb(s)? And the subject (s)?

8
  • In order to teach well, it is widely believed
    that one must be able to question well. Asking
    good questions fosters interaction between the
    teacher and his/her students. Rosenshine (1971)
    found that large amounts of student-teacher
    interaction promote student achievement. Thus,
    one can conclude that good questions fosters
    student understanding. However, it is important
    to know that not all questions achieve this.

In order to teach well, it is widely believed
that one must be able to question well. Asking
good questions fosters interaction between the
teacher and his/her students. Rosenshine (1971)
found that large amounts of student-teacher
interaction promote student achievement. Thus,
one can conclude that good questions fosters
student understanding. However, it is important
to know that not all questions achieve this.
9
  • Teachers spend most of their time asking
    low-level cognitive questions (Wilen, 1991).

10
  • These questions concentrate on factual
    information that can be memorized.

11
  • It is widely believed that this type of question
    can limit students by not helping them to acquire
    a deep, elaborate understanding of the subject
    matter.

12
  • High-level-cognitive questions can be defined as
    questions that require students to use higher
    order thinking or reasoning skills.

13
  • It is popularly believed that this type of
    question reveals the most about whether or not a
    student has truly grasped a concept.

14
Parts of Speech
15
Nouns
  • Proper nouns Thaksin University,
  • Kanchanawanit Road, James Bond
  • Common Nouns a computer, a table, mother, a
    student, etc.
  • Nouns can be used as a subject (in front of a
    verb) or an object (after a verb or a
    preposition).

16
Pronouns
  • Pronouns can be used as a subject (in front of a
    verb) or as an object (after a verb or a
    preposition).
  • There are many different kinds of pronouns.
    (details in handouts)

17
Verbs
  • There are 2 kinds of verbs
  • Action verbs
  • Transitive verbs followed by a noun (object)
  • John made an apple pie for me.
  • S V O

18
  • Intransitive verbs no objects
  • Hans ran all the way home after the game.
  • S V
  • Linking verbs followed by an adjective or a noun
  • Helen is the manager of our company.
  • S V N complement

19
Adjectives
  • Modify and describe a noun or a pronoun a small
    round table
  • Adj. may come after a linking verb or be placed
    in front of the noun.
  • A poisonous plant is dangerous.

20
Example
  • Where reflection is absent, there
  • is the constant risk of making poor
  • decisions and bad judgments.

21
Adverbs
  • Modify verbs, adjectives or adverbs
  • The president walked across the room quickly.
  • Thelma almost always arrives on time for work.

22
  • Leaders actively shape and construct
  • their experience by selectively attending
  • to particular situations.

23
Prepositions
  • Links a noun or a pronoun to the rest of the
    sentence.
  • Prepo. Noun prepositional phrase
  • The cat from next door caught a rat.
  • Adv.
  • The burglar jumped from the window of our
    bedroom.
  • Adj

24
  • The role of the teacher is to encourage
  • N Adj.
  • the learners to develop their skills.
  • The creative leaders exemplify
  • V
  • creatively in their own behaviour.
  • Adv.

25
Conjunctions
  • Co-ordinating conjunctions and, but, or, so,
    yet, for, nor (FANBOYS)
  • The rain had fallen steadily all week long, so
    the river was close to overflowing.

26
Conjunctions
  • Co-ordinating conjunctions
  • Critical thinking is an important and
  • vital topic in modern education so now
  • all educators are interested in teaching
  • critical thinking to their students.

27
  • Subordinating conjunctions
  • When people perceive the locus of
  • control to reside within themselves,
  • they are more creative and productive.

28
Review Parts of speech
  • Needs analysis is a useful tool to
  • adj. noun
  • understand students needs and to help
  • noun
  • the implementation of educational
  • adj.
  • policies.

29
  • Needs analysis can be done before the
  • course, during the course or with a
  • adv. of time (When?)
  • combination of both.

30
Exercises
  • Teachers do not use high-level-
  • cognitive questions with the same
  • amount of frequency as they do with
  • low-level-cognitive questions.

31
  • A student needs to have a deep

  • adj.
  • understanding of the topic in order to
  • answer this type of question.
  • adj.

32
  • Arends (1994) argues that many of the findings
    about the effects of using lower-level-cognitive
    versus higher-level-cognitive questions have been
    inconclusive.

33
  • Adj.
  • When children are hesitant to admit
  • that they do not understand a concept,
  • teachers must try to encourage them to
  • ask questions by assuring them that their
    questions will neither be stupid or bad.

  • conj.

34
  • Adj.
  • Some mistakes that teachers make during the
    question and answer process include the
    following asking vague questions, asking trick
    questions, and asking questions that may be too
    abstract for children of their age.

35
  • Basic
  • sentence structures

36
1. Subject verb.
  • The students work in two groups.

37
2. Subject linking verb subj complement.
  • Processes of learning and the transfer of
    learning are central to understanding how people
    develop important competencies.

38
3. Subject verb direct object.
  • Motivation affects the amount of time
  • that people are willing to devote to
  • learning.

39
4. Subject verb indirect object direct
object.
  • The shared learning gives students an
  • opportunity to engage in discussion, take
  • responsibility for their own learning, and
  • thus become critical thinkers.

40
5. Subject verb direct object object
complement.
  • Learning in a group setting often helps
  • each member achieve more.

41
Passive voice pattern. ( be V.3)
  • Passive Voice
  • Most of the research
  • studies on collaborative
  • learning have been done
  • at the primary and
  • secondary levels.
  • Active Voice
  • Researchers have done most of the research
    studies on collaborative learning at the primary
    and secondary levels.

42
Types of sentences
  • A simple sentence contains only one main clause
    (one subject predicate).
  • Predicate / predicative
  • action verb (object)
  • linking verb complement ( adjective or noun)

43
Examples
  • Learning English is fun.
  • Subject Predicative
  • Deaf people use their eyes very well.

44
  • Subject verb (SV)
  • Different parts of the brain may
  • be ready to learn at different
  • times.

45
Subject subject verb (SSV)
  • Processes of learning and the
  • transfer of learning are central to
  • understanding peoples development of their
    important competencies.

46
Subject verb verb (SVV)
  • The subjects were given 30 minutes to discuss
    the solutions within the group and were told to
    present their ideas in front of the class.

47
Subject subject verb verb (SSVV)
  • Two or more groups work on the same task
    independently and then come together to compare
    strategies.

48
Compound Sentences
49
Compound Sentences
  • Deaf people use their eyes very well, so they do
    not need help driving.
  • Most people use their ears for hearing the car
    motor, but deaf people feel vibrations.

50
Complex Sentences
  • Although there are some quite diverse definitions
    of critical thinking, nearly all emphasize the
    ability and tendency to gather, evaluate, and use
    information effectively (Beyer, 1985).

51
Complex Sentences
52
Complex Sentences
  • Main clause subordinator subordinate clause.
  • Subordinator subordinate clause, main clause.

53
Adverb clauses
  • After the task was explained, group members
    pulled chairs into close circles and started
    working on the worksheet.

54
Adjective clauses
  • The term collaborative learning refers to an
    instruction method in which students at various
    performance levels work together in small groups
    toward a common goal.

55
Noun clauses
  • Proponents of collaborative learning claim that
    the active exchange of ideas within small groups
    not only increases interest among the
    participants but also promotes critical thinking.

56
Compound-complex sentences
  • Many teachers find that authentic assessment is
    most successful when students know what teachers
    expect, so teachers should always clearly define
    standards and expectations.
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