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Chapter 18: Global Climate Change

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Title: Chapter 18: Global Climate Change


1
Chapter 18 Global Climate Change
2
Climate
  • area's long-term atmospheric conditions
  • temperature
  • humidity
  • wind
  • precipitation
  • barometric pressure
  • solar radiation
  • global climate change sees all these factors but
    considering the whole planet

3
Global Warming
  • increase in Earth's average surface temperature
    only

4
Rate of Atmospheric Changes
  • climate varies naturally overtime
  • the rate has increased
  • fossil fuel combustion and deforestation

5
Factors that Influence Climate
  • Milankovitch cycles
  • affect intensity of solar radiation
  • cause long-term temperature changes like
    glaciation
  • axial wobble? 19 to 23,000 year cycle
  • variation in tilt? 41,000 year cycle
  • variation in orbit? 100,000 year cycle

6
Factors that Influence Climate
  • ocean absorption
  • CO2 is soluble in ocean water
  • but as temperature increases solubility decreases
  • phytoplankton absorbs some in photosynthesis
  • but not enough to compensate the extra CO2
    produced today
  • positive feedback effect

7
Factors that Influence Climate
  • ocean currents
  • El Niño
  • air pressure decreases in western Pacific
  • weakens the equatorial winds
  • warm water flows east towards America
  • shuts down delivery of nutrients
  • fish population plumbs
  • ocean birds, reptiles and mammals are also
    affected
  • causes billions of economical losses

www.noaa.gov
8
Factors that Influence Climate
  • La Niña
  • opposite of El Niño
  • cold waters extend to the west
  • El Niño/La Niña occur in cycles but these have
    become irregular
  • Scientists are investigating if there is any
    relation between irregularity of phenomena and
    air/water temperature increases

www.noaa.gov
9
Thermohaline Circulation
www.aw-bc.com/Withgott
10
Thermohaline Circulation
  • interruption might trigger rapid climate change
    (hypothesis)
  • data suggest circulation is slowing down

11
Study of Climate Change
  • proxy indicators indirect evidence
  • ice cores
  • tree rings
  • sediment beds
  • coral reef

12
Study of Climate Change
  • direct atmospheric sampling
  • studies present-day climate
  • measures conditions of the atmosphere
  • concentrations of CO2
  • monitoring of temperature

13
Study of Climate Change
  • Climate Models
  • simulations
  • mathematical
  • sophisticated computer programs that combine
  • atmospheric circulation
  • ocean circulation
  • atmosphere-ocean interactions
  • feedback
  • old data is used to see if the model works before
    it is applied

14
Current Climate Change Impacts
  • international panel of scientists (IPCC)
  • Fourth Assessment Report of 2007 (fig. 18.12)
  • contains thousands of studies
  • includes some predictions
  • addresses impacts of current and future climate
    changes
  • discusses possible strategies

15
Temperature Increase
  • most of the increase occurred in the last few
    decades
  • 1995-2006 were among the warmest on record
  • the number of heat waves have increased
  • a temperature increase of 0.2ºC is expected per
    decade if there is no control of emissions
  • IPCC predicts that by 2100 temperature will rise
    1.8-4ºC depending on the emission scenario

16
Temperature Increase
  • Arctic changes of up to 3ºC are causing
  • ice melting earlier
  • forming later
  • ice area is decreasing
  • thinner ice
  • no food for Inuit people
  • no food for polar bears
  • permafrost is melting

17
  • Projected Temperature Changes
  • for the decade of 2090-2099

www.aw-bc.com/Withgott
IPPC calculates an increase of 0.1ºC per decade
during the 21st century If we don't control the
emissions it might get to an increase of
4ºC Ocean temperature is also increasing causing
more intense hurricanes
18
Changes in Precipitation
www.aw-bc.com/Withgott
It is predicted to increase at high latitudes and
decrease at low and middle Will worsen water
shortages near the tropics Away from the tropics
heavy precipitation will become more frequent
increasing chances of flooding Droughts will
become more severe and frequent
19
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20
Melting Ice and Snow
  • risks of sudden floods
  • ice dams burst
  • reduction of summertime water supply
  • Artic/Antarctic ice surface is decreasing
  • resulting in larger darker ocean surfaces which
    capture heat and melt the ice faster
  • more dark surfaces on Earth reduces the albedo
    effect (light reflection)
  • as a result Earth's surface increases in
    temperature
  • positive new shipping lanes and possible sites
    for oil and gas exploration

21
Rising Sea Levels
1938
1957
1972
1988
Backwater National Wildlife Refuge in
Maryland marsh loss can occur if the rise is so
fast that plants can't adapt
22
Rising Sea Levels
  • increase in level worldwide (17cm6.7 in)
  • caused by
  • melting of ice
  • increase in runoff
  • increase in temperature?causes expansion of the
    volume of water already there

23
Problems with Rising Sea Levels
  • beach erosion
  • Florida, Washington, California, Texas, etc.

24
  • coastal floods
  • Venice, Italy

25
  • intrusion of salt water into aquifers
  • Los Angeles

26
  • loss of wetlands (mangroves)

Guayaquil, Ecuador 1985 2000
27
loss of coal reefs possible evacuations and
migration of people Island nations of Tuvalu and
Maldives
  • loss of coral reefs
  • Maldives
  • possible evacuations and migration of people
  • Island nations of Tuvalu and Maldives

28
Climate Change Effects on Organisms Ecosystems
  • alterations of the environment affect living
    organisms
  • adaptations take generations to acquire

29
Changes Attributed to Climate Change
  • temperature-dependant
  • plants blooming timing
  • animals breeding timing
  • birds migration timing
  • insects hatching timing
  • plants and animals are migrating north or higher
    elevations
  • bleaching of corals

30
Societal Impacts
  • Agriculture Related
  • earlier crop planting
  • shift of seasons
  • droughts and floods become more severe
  • predictions say production may increase but only
    temporarily
  • tropical and subtropical regions will lower
    production due to drought
  • hunger will increase

31
  • Forestry
  • longer drier fire season
  • El Niño 97-98
  • invasive species are more common
  • zebra mussel has arrived to Texas (4/09)
  • found in lake Texoma
  • insect and diseases are more frequent
  • elm trees

Asian long horned beetle
zebra
zebra mussel
32
www.aw-bc.com/Withgott
  • Health Issues
  • respiratory diseases
  • more frequent
  • expansion of tropical diseases
  • floods overcoming sewage treatment
  • cholera
  • drowning more probable
  • hunger/ malnourished

Deaths attributed to hot weather
33
Economics
  • people's perception of greenhouse effects has
    shifted
  • insurance companies began noticing increase in
    weather related disasters
  • industry also changed its point of view
  • An Inconvenient Truth helped spark the interest
  • companies are asking for legislation to require
    significant reduction in greenhouse gas emittions

34
Responding to Climate Change
  • mitigation or adaptation?
  • mitigation pursue actions that reduce greenhouse
    gas emittions
  • energy efficiency
  • switching to clean renewable energy
  • farm practices that protect soil and water
    quality
  • prevent deforestation
  • recovery of gasses from landfills

35
  • adaptation lessen the impact of future climate
    changes
  • seawall in Galveston
  • restricting coastal development
  • adjusting farm practices to drought conditions
  • modification of water management due to water
    conditions (floods, drought and salt intrusion)

36
Electricity Generation Source of Greenhouse
Gasses
  • it is the largest source (40) of greenhouse
    gasses in the U.S.
  • 69 of the electricity in the U.S. is generated
    by fossil fuels. 50 is from coal.
  • ways to lessen the amount of fossil fuels used
  • encouraging conservation
  • switching to cleaner and renewable sources

37
Conservation and Efficiency Saves Money in the
Long Run
  • new technologies
  • high-efficiency light bulbs for example
  • ethical choices
  • EPA's Energy Star Program
  • more efficient electric appliances
  • efficient heating and cooling systems
  • efficient office equipment
  • turn off lights when not in use
  • turn off equipment when not in use

38
Sources of Electricity Cleaner is Better
  • altering the types of energy we use
  • coal?oil?natural gas
  • natural gas produces half the emissions that coal
    produces
  • carbon sequestration (or carbon capture) will
    reduce the CO2 emitted to the air
  • use of OTHER energy sources
  • nuclear power hydroelectric geothermal
  • wind power ocean tides photovoltaic

39
Transportation
  • second-largest source of greenhouse gasses
  • 1/3 of the average American city is devoted to
    car use
  • average American family makes 10 trips/day
  • in the U.S. 200 million is spend daily in
    construction and repairs

40
Typical Automobile is Inefficient
www.aw-bc.com/Withgott
41
Automotive Technology
  • fuel-efficient vehicles
  • hybrids
  • fully electric
  • alternative fuels (hydrogen cells)

42
Public Transportation
  • it is a lifestyle choice
  • car use decreases if living near their workplace
  • cities are working on the use of mass transit
  • people are including bike or walk
  • it is not accessible to everyone
  • Arlington refuses to include the train and bus
    system
  • Allen refuses to include the DART train system

43
Strategies to Reduce Emissions
  • double fuel efficiency in vehicles
  • decrease the miles you drive daily
  • maximize efficiency in buildings
  • double efficiency in coal power plants
  • switch from coal to natural gas
  • capture and store carbon dioxide (sequestration)
  • increase nuclear power production (3x)
  • ?increase wind (50x) solar (700x) energy
    production
  • halt tropical deforestation
  • adopt conservation tillage on croplands

44
Mandates, Incentives or Both?
  • commandment-and-control policy
  • mandates are often resisted by industry
  • incentives may be more effective
  • whatever desition it has to be
  • fair
  • economically palatable
  • effective
  • enforceable

45
International Treaties
  • 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change-
    voluntary approach
  • by 2006
  • U.S. has increased its emissions by 17.9
  • Germany decreased its emissions by 17.2
  • U.K. dropped its emissions by 14.3

46
1997 Kyoto Protocol
  • mandates reduction of emittions to those of 1990
  • reduction must be accomplished by 2008-2012
  • U.S. refused to ratify accusing China and India
    of polluting without having to follow the
    protocol
  • creating resentment with allies
  • emittions had increased 11 worldwide by 2004

47
Climate Change Policies from Cities and States
  • in responce to inaction from the G.W. Bush
    administration and Congress
  • "meet or beat" Kyoto Protocol guidelines
  • mayors of 600 cities
  • urging state and federal government to act
  • California passed the Global Warming Solutions
    Act in 2006- 25 reduction of greenhouse gasses
    by 2020
  • cap-and-trade program in the NE

48
Carbon Offset Key to Mitigating
  • voluntary payment
  • pays the entity that is willing to reduce
    emissions that one in not willing to do
  • becoming very popular
  • carbon-neutrality no net carbon is emitted
  • now it may not be as efficient as thought
  • has to be transparent and enforceable

49
Carbon Footprint
  • individual everyday life choices
  • reduce the emissions you create
  • transportation
  • EPA Star Program
  • THE END

www.starbozz.worldpress.com
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