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Increasing Learning Opportunities for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Play and Daily Routines

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Title: Increasing Learning Opportunities for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Play and Daily Routines


1
Increasing Learning Opportunities for Young
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during
Play and Daily Routines
  • Jamie Owen-DeSchryver, Ph.D. Amy Matthews,
    Ph.D.
  • Grand Valley State University

2
Introductions Agenda
  • Introductions
  • Agenda
  • Foundations
  • Brief introduction to the START project
  • Brief introduction to core characteristics of
    young children with ASD
  • Primary Content
  • Increasing learning opportunities and engagement
    during daily routines and play activities
  • Increasing communication opportunities during
    daily routines and play activities
  • Increasing imitation skills during daily routines
    and play activities

3
START Project
4
  • Thinking Different about Autism Spectrum
    Disorders, Professional Development, and
    Statewide Support

5
Purpose of START
  • START serves as a coordinating and supporting
    entity for schools and regional networks across
    the state of Michigan to increase access to local
    training and resources for students with autism
    spectrum disorder.

6
START Primary Components
7
START Early Intervention Intensive Training
  • Targets preschool age, ECSE classrooms supporting
    children with ASD
  • Strategies
  • Are good for children with a variety of
    developmental disabilities
  • Will benefit children 0-3
  • Were developed based on review of Evidence-Based
    practices

8
Autism Spectrum Disorders
9
Michigan Students with an ASD Eligibility Label
10
Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Numbers of students with ASD are increasing
  • 1 in 150 (CDC)
  • 1 in 91 (Health Resources Services
    Administration)
  • Age of diagnosis is earlier
  • This leads to more and more students with ASD
    served in birth-3 and preschool-age programs

11
Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Fastest-growing developmental
    disability
  • 90 billion annual cost
  • 90 of current costs are in adult services
  • Cost of lifelong care can be reduced by 2/3 with
    early diagnosis and intervention
  • Autism Society of America, 2006

12
DSM-IV Definition Core Deficits of Autism
Differences in socialization
Differences in behavior
Differences in communication
13
Triad of ASD
14
Joint Attention
  • The core symptoms of autism are represented in
    the triad of impairments. Yet the earliest sign
    of autism is often manifested as a deficit in
    joint attention, which has a significant and
    pervasive impact on all developmental domains.

15
Intervention for Young Children with ASD
  • The Foundations

16
A Model Program for Children with ASD age 0-3
Boulware, et al. (2006) Project DATA for
Toddlers
16 hours of total intervention
17
Barriers to Implementing this Model?
  • Financial
  • Personnel
  • Philosophical
  • Status quo
  • Other??

Given these issues, what CAN we do?
18
We can increase
Learning Opportunities
Active Engagement
  • We can provide supported opportunities for
    learning that lead to better outcomes for
    children

19
(No Transcript)
20
What does a Learning Opportunity Look Like?
  • 1. Instruction/activity/ situation is presented
    to the child
  • 2. Child has an opportunity to respond
  • 3. Child is given feedback
  • Acknowledgement that response was correct or
    situation went well
  • Correction/prompt to help the child give a
    correct response or improve the situation

21
Engaged Time
  • It may not be possible to provide learning
    opportunities all the time, but we can increase
    time engaged.
  • Engaged time Active involvement in productive
    activities that lead to learning. Provide
    pre-teaching, interesting materials, and adult
    and peer support

22
Reaching Our Ultimate Goals
  • Why do we work so hard to increase learning
    opportunities?
  • Independence
  • Socialization
  • Preparation for typical school experiences
  • Quality of life

23
Increasing Learning Opportunities Engagement
during Daily Routines and Play Activities
24
Increasing Learning Opportunities Engagement
during Daily Routines Play Activities
  • Strategies for Daily Routines Play Activities
  • Goal Cards (CAMPS)
  • Teach Play Skills- 3 Rs goal cards
  • Incorporate Child Interests
  • Use Visual Supports (play schedule books,
    sequencing cards, visual schedule, computer book)
  • Strategies for the Playground or Backyard
  • Preteach Skills
  • Use Visual Supports (schedule, first-then)
  • Interrupt Redirect

25
Strategies to Increase Learning Opportunities
Engagement Goal Cards
  • Preschool Age
  • C Communication goals
  • L Literacy goals (letters, pre-reading)
  • A Academic goals (numbers, shapes, colors)
  • M Motor goals (gross, fine)
  • S Social goals
  • Birth 3
  • C Communication (verbal, PECS or sign
    language choice-making, yes/no)
  • A Academic/pre-academic (colors, pre-numeracy
    skills)
  • M Motor (gross, fine)
  • P Play (basic toy play skills, e.g., building,
    imitation, simple pretend play)
  • S Social (turn-taking fill-ins, joint
    attention)

26
Goal Card for Bath Time
  • C Communication goal
  • Requests water on/off, duck, pour, yes/no
  • A Academic/Preacademic goal
  • Counts or sorts bath toys/objects, Fills in words
    in songs this is the way we wash our _____
    tummy, points to body parts
  • M Motor goal
  • Scoops and pours water
  • P Play goal
  • Washes a baby doll
  • S Social goal
  • Plays peek-a-boo with caregiver using the
    washcloth fills in or participates in game
    ready, set, ___(go) (then pours water out of a
    cup or drops a toy in the water to make a splash)

27
Goal Card for Riding in the Car
  • C Communication goal
  • Verbalizes or signs for seatbelt on/off, music
    on/off, window up/down, signs all done
    before having seat belt removed
  • A Academic/Preacademic goal
  • Labels or points to objects in the environment
    (red car, yellow house, big truck, moon, etc.)
    points to picture that indicates destination
  • M Motor goal
  • Claps hands yeah, were here, uses pointer
    finger to touch colorforms/window decals on
    window
  • P Play goal
  • Sings songs with caregiver, if youre happy
    looks at book/listens to book on tape moves or
    plays with window decals
  • S Social goal
  • Waving to people or objects (wave bye-bye to the
    truck)

28
Goal Card for Putting Shoes On
  • C Communication goal
  • Labels shoes, socks, requests help me,
    signs all done when finished putting shoes on
  • A Academic/Preacademic goal
  • Labels or points to colors (wheres the red
    shoe?) counts how many shoes do you have?
    finds item, wheres the BIG shoe
  • M Motor goal
  • Pushes foot into shoe straps velcro pulls on
    socks using two hands
  • P Play goal
  • Yay, you have your shoes on, lets pretend were
    ice-skating, lets hop like a bunny, lets
    tiptoe
  • S Social goal
  • Responds to absurdities e.g., caregiver
    putting shoe on her head fills in words all
    ____ (done) time to ___(go)

29
Goal Card for Breakfast
  • C Communication goal
  • Chooses items (food, bowl, etc.,) either verbally
    or by pointing
  • A Academic/Preacademic goal
  • Sits in a chair for the meal, labels or points to
    colors/pictures on placemat
  • M Motor goal
  • Holds and uses spoon, uses a cup, drinks from
    straw
  • P Play goal
  • Pretends to feed stuffed animal/animal figurine
    feeds baby doll
  • S Social goal
  • Shares food (hands food to caregiver/sibling when
    requested) takes turns (my turn/your turn)

30
Strategies to Increase Learning Opportunities
Engagement Identify and Teach Appropriate Play
Skills
  • Children with ASD often
  • Have play skill deficits
  • Have a small play repertoire
  • Engage in stereotyped behavior when given the
    opportunity to play

31
Identify and Teach Age-Appropriate Play
Activities (Examples for children ages 2-3)
32
Basic Play Skill Targets
33
For More Information on Basic Play Skill Targets
  • Teach 2 Play http//www.teach2talk.com/teach2talk-
    teach2play-series.html
  • Smith, M. (2001). Teaching playskills to
    children with ASD
  • The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning
    Skills (ABLLS)

34
Blanc et al., 2005
  • The effects of adult guidance during play were
    beneficial for children with ASD, children with
    CI and for typical children, but more
    particularly for children with autism.
  • Children with autism showed more complex, and
    higher developmental levels of play when they
    were supported/ prompted by adults.

35
An Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Approach to
Presenting Instruction
3 Rs
  • Request
  • (Stimulus)
  • Response
  • Reaction
  • (Consequence)

36
The 3 Rs are the same as a Learning Opportunity

37
Using the 3 Rs
  • 100 Success is expected
  • A child will be assisted until he is successful
  • Failure is not an option
  • Dont make a request unless you are going to
    follow through

38
What Does this Look Like with Play Targets?
  • REQUEST Make the request
  • Put the cups together
  • Stack the blocks
  • Make a train
  • Fly the airplane
  • Feed the baby
  • RESPONSE If the child doesnt respond, or
    responds incorrectly, prompt the correct response
  • REACTION Praise and reward the child for the
    correct response

39
Incorporating an ABA Approach within Classroom
Activities
  • McBride Schwartz (2003)- embedded
    instructional episodes (Learning Opportunities
    or Request, Response, Reaction sequences) into
    ongoing classroom routines and activities
  • Teachers identified individualized IEP/IFSP goals
  • Addressed the target goals during classroom
    activities using an ABA approach

40
Goal cards can also focus on play Building
with Blocks
  • C Communication goal
  • Requests block says uh-oh when blocks fall
  • A Academic/pre-academic goal
  • Touch counts blocks (with help) labels colors of
    blocks
  • M Motor goal
  • Coordinates motor movements to build tower
  • P Play goal
  • Crashes tower with toy car imitates tower or
    model made by caregiver figurine jumps off of
    tower
  • S Social goal
  • Hands block to caregiver plays peek-a-boo behind
    the tower

41
Strategies to Increase Learning Opportunities
Engagement Incorporate Child Interests
Braiding the ABA and developmental approaches
42
Developmental Practices
  • DAP Position Statement (NAEYC.org)
  • Pivotal Response Treatment (Koegel et al., 2003)
  • Naturalistic Instruction
  • Capitalizes on childrens interests natural
    consequences
  • Targets functional skills

43
Developmentally Appropriate Practice National
Association for the Education of Young Children,
2009 (naeyc.org)
  • Teaching to enhance development and learning
  • Developmentally appropriate teaching practices
    provide an optimal balance of adult-guided and
    child-guided experiences child-guided experience
    proceeds primarily along the lines of childrens
    interests and actions, with strategic teacher
    support (p. 17).

44
Incorporate Child Interests
  • If youre working with a child who likes Thomas
    the Tank Engine, how can you teach important
    skills using Thomas?
  • Communication - requests Thomas
  • Academic sorts engines by color completes a
    Thomas puzzle with help
  • Motor - jumps over Thomas
  • Play - re-enacts a scene from a Thomas video
  • Social tolerates turn-taking with Thomas

45
Strategies to Increase Learning Opportunities
Engagement Use Visual Supports
  • Visual supports can be used to teach early play
    skills
  • Early learners may not understand symbolic
    representations in pictures
  • Initially, these students may require additional
    repetition, prompting and feedback (the 3 Rs) to
    use the visual supports effectively

46
Visual Supports Play Schedule Book
  • Identify specific functional play targets for the
    student use pictures to cue the activities

47
Play Schedule Book Where are you going with it?
48
Play Schedule Book Where are you going with it?
49
Visual Supports Play Sequences
  • Create picture schedules of play scenarios with
    sequenced steps

3-Step Sequencing Cards Cooking
50
Visual Supports Emerging Dramatic Play
51
Visual Supports Emerging Dramatic Play
  • Going Fishing

Put on hat
Put on boots
Get bucket and fishing pole
Catch a fish
52
Emerging Dramatic Play
  • Computer Book for Going on a Picnic

Its Time for a Picnic!
53
Strategies to Increase Learning Opportunities
Engagement Preteach Skills
  • Preteach play skills that are useful during
    outdoor play

54
Using Visual Supports on the Playground/ in the
Backyard
  • Create appropriate routines expose the child to
    new activities incorporate social opportunities

55
Visual Supports
First Sandbox
Then Swing
56
Interrupting and Redirecting
  • Get in the way!
  • Make the path to the desired item or equipment
    through you
  • Prompt and reinforce the child for appropriate
    play

57
SUMMARY Increasing Learning Opportunities
Engagement during Daily Routines Play Activities
  • Strategies for Daily Routines Play Activities
  • Goal Cards (CAMPS)
  • Teach Play Skills- 3 Rs goal cards
  • Incorporate Child Interests
  • Use Visual Supports (play schedule books,
    sequencing cards, visual schedule, computer book)
  • Strategies for the Playground or Backyard
  • Preteach Skills
  • Use Visual Supports (schedule, first-then)
  • Interrupt Redirect

58
Increasing Communication Opportunities during
Daily Routines Play Activities
59
Increasing Communication Opportunities during
Daily Routines Play Activities
  • Identify and teach a Functional Communication
    system
  • Increase motivation for communication (natural
    and contrived events)
  • Plan for and create communication opportunities
    (e.g., MITS approach, multiple domains)
  • Prompt and fade support

60
Communication
  • Communication needs to be taught throughout the
    day, every day, by all adults in all environments
  • Communication should be a TOP priority of 0-3
    programming
  • Decreases problem behaviors
  • Associated with better prognosis

61
Each Child should have a Functional Communication
System
  • The ability to request
  • Desired items (e.g., Want train)
  • Necessary items (e.g., I need a fork)
  • Assistance (e.g., Help please)
  • Attention (e.g., Watch me!)
  • Actions (e.g., Swing me)
  • Information (e.g., What is it?)
  • Negative reinforcement removing something
    unwanted (e.g., Go away, Take a break)

62
What is the Right Communication System?
  • 1. Individualized
  • 2. Total communication
  • 3. Whats better, signing or pictures?
  • 4. Should we use alternative systems or just
    focus on language development?

63
Using Natural Events to Increase Motivation for
Communication
  • When is a child most likely to be hungry?
    Thirsty?
  • If the child is thirsty, what has become more
    valuable?
  • What behaviors might the child show?
  • Good communication behaviors opening cabinet,
    going to sink, getting a cup
  • Poor communication behaviors screaming, crying
  • This scenario provides us with opportunities to
    teach requesting (e.g., cup, open cabinet, pour
    juice, etc.)

64
Using Contrived Events to Increase Motivation
for Communication
  • Create a situation that makes something more
    valuable
  • Give the child his yogurt without a spoon
  • Give the child only a small amount of her drink
  • Before recess, provide the child with only one of
    his boots
  • Hand the child a preferred item thats been
    placed in a clear box that she cant open on her
    own

65
Other Strategies to Increase Motivation for
Communication
  • In sight, but out of reach
  • Begin favorite activity, then pause for
    communication
  • Missing materials
  • Offer choices
  • Display pictures of preferred items and
    activities throughout the environment
  • Expectant look
  • Show an interesting but unfamiliar item, prompt
    the child to ask questions (e.g., What is it?)

66
MITS Creating Learning Opportunities for
Communication
  • Multiple Incidental Teaching Sessions (MITS)
    (Charlop-Christy Carpenter, 2000)
  • Child initiates request by using adult as tool
    (child grabs adults arm and attempts to reach to
    the upper shelf for the cars)
  • Adult verbally models I want cars and hands
    child one car
  • Adult immediately implements two more trials of
    requesting adult verbally models I want cars
    and provides more cars to the child after each
    appropriate request

67
Increasing Communication Skills
  • Plan for and create communication opportunities
  • Focus on initiation of communication--requesting
    is more important than labeling
  • Identify motivating items from multiple domains
    (not just food)

68
Communication Targets from Multiple Domains
69
How to Teach Requesting Using Sign Language
  • Begin with the preferred item present
  • First opportunity Provide a freebie while
    verbally labeling the item, bubbles!
  • Next opportunity
  • Model the sign while verbally labeling the item,
    bubbles
  • Then physically prompt the student to sign for
    the item label it again, bubbles
  • Provide the item and label it again, bubbles

70
Teaching Verbal Requesting
  • Again, the first opportunity is a freebie
  • The label is provided, tickle
  • Child receives item/activity immediately upon
    approximating the word

71
SUMMARY Increasing Communication Opportunities
during Daily Routines Play Activities
  • Identify and teach a Functional Communication
    system
  • Increase motivation for communication (natural
    and contrived events)
  • Plan for and create communication opportunities
    (e.g., MITS approach, multiple domains)
  • Prompt and fade support

72
Increasing Imitation Skills during Daily Routines
and Play Activities
73
Increasing Imitation Skills during Daily Routines
and Play Activities
  • Strategies to Increase Imitation
  • Reciprocal imitation
  • Teach imitation using the 3 Rs
  • Observational play with matched toy sets
  • Observational play through video modeling

74
Imitation
  • Due to impairments in joint attention possibly,
    due to differences in a region of the brain that
    holds mirror neurons children with ASD often
    show deficits in imitation
  • Like other early learner skills, imitation may
    need to be systematically taught

75
For Children who Show Limited Awareness of
Others Use Reciprocal Imitation
  • Reciprocal imitation involves the adult (or a
    peer) imitating the actions of the child using
    matched or similar toys (appropriate play
    actions, not inappropriate behaviors)

76
Teach Imitation Using the 3Rs
  • Adult Says Do this and pushes a bus
  • Child (no response)
  • Adult physically assists child to push the bus
    and says This is pushing the bus

77
Learning through Observation
  • Learning observationally, or learning from the
    environment
  • Watching peers and/or adults and imitating their
    behaviors

78
SUMMARY Increasing Imitation Skills during Daily
Routines and Play Activities
  • Strategies to Increase Imitation
  • Reciprocal imitation
  • Teach imitation using the 3 Rs
  • Observational play with matched toy sets
  • Observational play through video modeling

79
THANKS!!
  • Please complete an evaluation form
  • Our Contact Information
  • Jamie Owen-DeSchryver, Ph.D.
  • owendesj_at_gvsu.edu
  • Amy Matthews, Ph.D.
  • matthewa_at_gvsu.edu

80
Selected References
  • Blanc, R., Adrien, J., Roux, S., Barthelemy, C.
    (2005). Dysregulation of pretend play and
    communication development in children with
    autism. Autism, 9, 229-245.
  • Boulware, G., Schwartz, I., Sandall, S McBride,
    B. (2006). Project DATA for toddlers An
    inclusive approach to very young children with
    Autism Spectrum Disorder. Topics in Early
    Childhood Special Education, 26, 94-105.
  • McBride, B.J. Schwartz, I.S. (2003). Effects of
    teaching early interventionists to use discrete
    trials during ongoing classroom activities.
    Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 23,
    5-17
  • National Association for the Education of the
    Young Children (NAEYC, 2009). Developmentally
    Appropriate Practice in early childhood programs
    serving children from birth to age 8. Draft
    Position Statement, adopted 2009.
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