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Current Best Practices For Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders

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Current Best Practices For Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders Dr. Karen A. Berkman Mindy Stevens Today s Presentation Agenda Review current research in the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Current Best Practices For Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders


1
Current Best Practices For Students With Autism
Spectrum Disorders
  • Dr. Karen A. Berkman
  • Mindy Stevens

2
Todays Presentation Agenda
  • Review current research in the field of ASD
  • Provide an overview of best practices in
    education for students diagnosed with ASD
  • Discuss implementation fidelity and review
    administrator observation tool for classrooms

3
Where Weve Been and Where Were Going
  • Autism research has been primarily focused on
    discovery for the past decade, but now the field
    is turning a corner such that movement toward
    development, refinement, translation, and
    delivery will be possible.
  • (Clara Lajonchere, Autismspeaks, 2008)

4
Current Theories
  • Genetic
  • Genetics contributes to 60-90
  • No single gene has been found with increased risk
    of 10-20 fold
  • Current thinking common alleles, possibly in
    uncommon combinations
  • Environment Recent evidence to suggest a gene x
    environment interaction

5
Current Trends in Autism
  • Bulk of the current research is on basic causes
    and psychological processes
  • Genetics
  • Neurobiology and Physiology
  • Developmental course
  • Etiology
  • Theory of Mind
  • Language and Communication
  • Perception and Cognition
  • Matson, JL. LoVullo, SV.(2008)

6
Treatment Research
  • Autism Speaks-funded research
  • GI
  • Sleep
  • Quality of Life
  • Combating Autism Initiative
  • Diet and Nutrition
  • Parent-Based Sleep Education Program
  • Hormonal Factors in Adolescents
  • Novel Screening Methods (EEG)
  • Partnerships
  • LEND Network (Education and Training)
  • American Academy of Pediatrics (Education and
    Dissemination)

7
CDC Autism Activities
  • Focus is on prevalence studies for 8 year
    children across 14 states
  • Updated statistics forthcoming from 2004-2006
  • Studies on relationship between MMR immunizations
    and autism

8
Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism
(CPEA)
  • Conducts research in the following areas
  • Causes of autism
  • Early detection
  • Behavioral and communication characteristics
  • Treatment

9
CPEA Network Project
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Second Year
    Stability and Change in Syndrome Expression
  • Results indicate stability of clinical diagnosis
    and syndrome expression in the second year
  • Highlights advantages and limitations of the
    ADI-R and ADOS-G for diagnosing and documenting
    symptoms of ASD in infants

(Chawarska, Klin, Volkmar, in press)
10
Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment
(STAART) Network
  • 8 centers funded by 5 NIH Institutes
  • Focus of STAART Network is
  • Causes
  • Diagnosis
  • Early Detection
  • Prevention
  • Treatment

11
STAART Network Project
  • Abnormal functional connectivity in autism
    spectrum disorders during face processing
  • A significant relationship between abnormal
    functional connectivity and clinical severity in
    the ASD group was observed
  • Results suggest that abnormal neural connection
    within the limbic system may contribute to the
    social impairments observed in ASD

(Kleinhans, Richards, Sterling, Stegbauer,
Mahurin, Johnson, Greenson, Dawson, Aylward, in
press)
12
Other Studies of Interest
  • Autism and Sleep Disorders
  • Autism in Infancy
  • Definition and development of the phenotype in
    autism
  • Neonatal social responses of infant siblings
  • Girls with autism spectrum disorders
  • Non-social rewards and autism

13
Other Studies of Interest
  • CeFAR (University of Pittsburgh) findings to
    date
  • Difficulty tracking faces extends to objects,
    although more subtle
  • The cause may, in part be due to general
    difficulties grouping parts to make a whole
  • The difficulty extends to all facial expressions,
    but mostly those which are expressed in the eye
    region of the face
  • This may be related to difficulty zooming out to
    focus on the bigger picture instead of one small
    detail
  • Brain activation is more than normal to common
    objects and less activated when looking at faces

14
Other Studies of Interest
  • Kennedy Krieger Studies underway are
  • Early diagnosis and intervention (R. Landa)
  • Brain activity and motor tasks (S. Mostofsky)
  • Metabolic disorders and ASD (E. Tierney)

15
What Determines Best Practice?
16
Key Questions
  • What are the anticipated outcomes from using a
    particular practice and do the outcomes match the
    students needs?
  • evidence-based research-based terms used
    loosely to sell products
  • Pass rigorous and objectively measured standards
  • Appraisal of the extent of the outcomes match
    needs of students

17
Key Questions
  • Are there potential risks associated with
    implementing a practice?
  • Dropping an existing method
  • Time/cost constraints

18
Key Questions
  • What are the most effective ways of
    evaluating a particular method or approach?
  • Evaluate negative outcomes and undesired side
    effects
  • Evaluation responsibilities

19
Educational Best Practices
20
Best Practices
  • DTT (Discrete Trial Training)
  • TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and
    Related Communication Handicapped Children)
  • Incidental Teaching
  • Pivotal Response Training
  • Verbal Behavior Training

21
Discrete Trial Training
  • Breaking a task down into its smallest units
  • Teaching a unit with a distinct beginning and
    end, separated by a brief interval
  • One teaching unit is called a trial
  • Trials can be massed or distributed
  • Reinforcing each correct response

22
Advantages of DTT
  • Can assure massive numbers of opportunities/trials
  • Teacher controlled
  • Little thought involved
  • Easy to assess the data

23
Disadvantages of DTT
  • Prompt dependency
  • Cost
  • Generalization
  • Need to reprogram for spontaneous skill use
  • Requires specific programming time blocks
  • Doesnt build fluency ( correct)

24
TEACCH
  • Person-centered support of individuals of all
    ages and skill levels.
  •  
  • Employs approach known as Structured Teaching
  • Work systems
  • Independence
  • Predictability
  • Visual Cues

25
Advantages of TEACCH
  • Independence
  • Predictability
  • Routine
  • Structure
  • Consistency

26
Disadvantages of TEACCH
  • Social interaction and verbal communication are
    not emphasized
  • Does not promote interaction with typical peers

27
Incidental Teaching
  • Developed by Hart and Risley, and adapted for
    autism by McGee, Charlop, McClanahan
  • Child-initiated, activity based instruction
  • Appropriate for use with inclusive groups
  • Natural activity-based contexts
  • Promotes generalization and spontaneous skill use
  • Reinforcer built into the episode
  • Targets speech, play, social and academic skills

28
Advantages Of Incidental Teaching
  • Can be done anywhere, any time, by anyone
  • Does not require massive training
  • Inherent generalization built-in
  • Consistent with developmentally appropriate
    teaching and inclusion
  • Workable in a developmental classroom setting
  • Short episodes
  • Natural, activity-based
  • Spill-over to play skills
  • Less protest/escape/aversive control
  • Encourages spontaneous skill use

29
Disadvantages of Incidental Teaching
  • Depends on engagement
  • Cannot control number of trials/data analysis
    issues
  • Teacher must remain hyper vigilant or created
    opportunities
  • Must create opportunities

30
Pivotal Response Training
  • Pivotal Responses central to wide area of
    function and will produce change across a number
    of behaviors
  • Ex motivation, self-initiation
  • Involves discrete trial format
  • Uses natural reinforcement
  • Intersperse mastery and teaching trials
  • Use child selected materials
  • Actively teaches child-initiated responses

31
Advantages of PRT
  • Child initiates
  • Natural reinforcers
  • Increased motivation
  • Deters inappropriate behavior

32
Disadvantages of PRT
  • Labor intensive
  • Staff must be adequately trained in the method

33
Verbal Behavior Training
  • Language as a behavior
  • Find out what the child wants then teaching them
    how to request it
  • Child led
  • ABLLS (Assessment of Basic Language and Learning
    Skills)

34
Advantages of Verbal Behavior Training
  • ABLLS allows for tracking of a childs progress
  • Useful verbal operators
  • May be used at school and in the home

35
Disadvantages of Verbal Behavior Training
  • Cost may be high to the school districts
  • Labor intensive
  • Requires small staff to pupil ratios

36
Characteristics of Effective Programs
  • Early implementation
  • Systematic teaching
  • Functional skills (core deficits)
  • Specified curriculum, evaluation methods
  • Supportive environments and routines
  • Family involvement
  • Inclusion opportunities
  • Inensity
  • Staff and program development
  • Caveat emptor programsdesigned for
    preschoolers

37
Administrators Role in Choosing and Evaluating
Best Practices
  • A team approach
  • Make a commitment to the method
  • Provide district training(s) on the method
  • Consider using the Observation Instrument for
    Autism Classrooms and tying it with a teachers
    Professional Development Plan (PDP) or any other
    type of evaluation
  • Create a process for conducting yearly reviews
    and evaluations of the methods in designated time
    frame

38
Observation Instrument for Autism Classrooms
  • Brief overview
  • Instruction and Interaction
  • Classroom staff responsibilities

39
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40
References
  • Evidence-Based Practices and Students With
    Autism Spectrum Disorders. Simpson, Richard.
    Focus on Autism and Other Developmental
    Disabilities Fall 2005 Proquest Education
    Journal
  • NCLB, 2002
  • Dawson Osterling, 1997 Izeman Strain, 1995
    Harris and Handelman, 1992
  • CARD, University of Central Florida
  • Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Verbal
    Behavior by Mary Barbera, RN, MSN, BCBA
  • Mesibov, G.B., Shea, V., Schopler, E. (with
    Adams, L., Burgess, S., Chapman, S.M., Merkler,
    E., Mosconi, M., Tanner, C. Van Bourgondien,
    M.E.). (2005). The TEACCH approach to autism
    spectrum disorders.  New York Kluwer
    Academic/Plenum.

41
References
  • HOW TO TEACH PIVOTAL BEHAVIORS TO CHILDREN WITH
    AUTISM A TRAINING MANUAL, Robert L Koegel
  • AutismWeb
  • Autism Research Institute, Stephen Edelson, Ph.D.

42
CARDCenter for Autism and Related
Disabilitieshttp//card-usf.fmhi.usf.edu
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