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4G Technology

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4G Technology Presented By Nithin Raj 4G Definition 4G is not one defined technology or standard, but rather a collection of technologies at creating fully ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 4G Technology


1
4G Technology
  • Presented
  • By Nithin Raj

2
4G Definition
  • 4G is not one defined technology or standard, but
    rather a collection of technologies at creating
    fully packet-switched networks optimized for
    data.
  • 4G Networks are projected to provide speed of
    100Mbps while moving and 1Gbps while stationary.

3
0G (Zero Generation Mobile System)
  • At the end of the 1940s, the first radio
    telephone service was introduced, and was
    designed to users in cars to the public land-line
    based telephone network.
  • In the 1960s, a system launched by Bell Systems,
    called, Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS),
    brought quite a few improvements such as direct
    dialing and more bandwidth. The very first analog
    systems were based upon IMTS and were created in
    the late 60s and early 70s.

4
1G Technology
  • 1G refers to the first-generation of wireless
    telephone technology was developed in 1970s.
  • 1G had two major improvements
  • the invention of the microprocessor
  • the digital transform of the control link between
    the phone and the cell site.
  • Analog signal

5
2G Technology
  • Around 1980s
  • Better quality capacity - More people could use
    there phones at the same time
  • Digital Signals consist of 0s 1s

6
Previous Technology - 2G
  • Digital consist of 0s and 1s
  • Digital signal
  • 1.Low level, 2.High level, 3.Rising edge
  • and 4.Falling edge

7
Previous Technology - 2G
  • Digital data can be compressed and multiplexed
    much more effectively than analog voice encodings
  • Multiplexing -multiple analog message signals or
    digital data streams are combined into one signal
  • For 1 and 2G standards, bandwidth maximum is 9.6
    Kbit/sec, (I.E) approximately 6 times slower than
    an ISDN

8
Previous Technology - 2G
  • Allows for lower powered radio signals that
    require less battery
  • PowerCODEC introduction -program that encodes
    and decodes digital data stream or signal
  • Translates data from digital to analog and vice
    versa

9
Previous Technology - 2G
10
Advantages in Previous Technology - 2G
  • The digital voice encoding allows digital error
    checking
  • increase sound quality
  • lowers the noise level
  • Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of
    digital data transfer
  • SMS short message service
  • E-mail

11
Disadvantages in Previous Technology - 2G
  • Cell towers had a limited coverage area
  • Jagged Decay curve
  • Abrupt dropped calls
  • Analog gradual sound reduction
  • Spotty coverage

12
3G Technology
  • Large capacity and broadband capabilities
  • Allows the transmission of 384kbps for mobile
    systems and up to 2Mbps
  • Increased spectrum efficiency 5Mhz
  • A greater number of users that can be
    simultaneously supported by a radio frequency
    bandwidth
  • High data rates at lower incremental cost than
    2GGlobal roaming

13
Previous Technology - 3G
  • CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
  • Form of multiplexing
  • Does not divide up the channel by time or
    frequency
  • Encodes data with a special code associated with
    each channel

14
Code Division Multiple Access
15
Types of Multiplexing
  • FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access
  • Each phone call is allocated one frequency for
    the entire duration of the call

16
Types of Multiplexing
  • TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access
  • Each phone call is allocated a spot in the
    frequency for a small amount of time, and "takes
    turns" being transmitted

17
Types of Multiplexing
  • CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access
  • Each phone call is uniquely encoded and
    transmitted across the entire spectrum, in a
    manner known as spread spectrum transmission

18
Reasons for New Research
  • Even though 3G has successfully been introduced
    to mobile users, there are some issues that are
    debated by 3G providers and users.
  • High input fees for the 3G service licenses
  • Great differences in the licensing terms
  • 3G phones are expensive

19
Fourth Generation
20
What is 4G?
  • Fourth Generation Technology
  • Faster and more reliable
  • 100 Mb/s
  • Lower cost than previous generations
  • Multi-standard wireless system
  • Bluetooth, Wired, Wireless
  • Ad Hoc Networking
  • IPv6 Core
  • OFDM used instead of CDMA
  • Potentially IEEE standard 802.11n
  • Most information is proprietary

21
Communications Architecture
  • Broadcast layer
  • fix access points, (i.e.) cell tower connected by
    fiber, microwave, or satellite (ISP)
  • Ad-hoc/hot-spot layer
  • wireless LANs (i.e. internet at Starbucks)

22
Communications Architecture
  • Personal Layer Gateway
  • devices that connect to upper layers cell phone,
    fax, voice, data modem, MP3 players, PDAs
  • Info-Sensor layer
  • environmental sensors
  • Fiber-optic wire layer
  • high speed subterranean labyrinth of fiber optic
    cables and repeaters

23
Ad Hoc Networks
  • Spontaneous self organization of networks of
    devices
  • Not necessarily connected to internet
  • 4G will create hybrid wireless networks using Ad
    Hoc networks
  • Form of mesh networkingVery reliable

24
Enhance Mobile Gaming
  • Experience enhance wireless capabilities that
    deliver mobile gaming interaction with less than
    five seconds
  • Play online multi player games while traveling at
    high speeds or sitting outside

25
Broadband access in Remote location
  • 4G will provide a wireless alternative for
    broadband access
  • I will provide first opportunity for broadband
    access in remote locations without an
    infrastructure to support cable or DSL access.

26
Thanking You
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