DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING AND SELECTION HISOTRY OF BREEDING - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING AND SELECTION HISOTRY OF BREEDING PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3b6f41-YmU5O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING AND SELECTION HISOTRY OF BREEDING

Description:

DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING AND SELECTION HISOTRY OF BREEDING LIVESTOCK & THE STUDY OF REPRODUCTION I. Introduction to Breeding Livestock A. History of livestock breeding ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:667
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 21
Provided by: virtualMj
Learn more at: http://virtual.mjc.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING AND SELECTION HISOTRY OF BREEDING


1
DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING AND SELECTION
  • HISOTRY OF BREEDING LIVESTOCK THE STUDY OF
    REPRODUCTION

2
I. Introduction to Breeding Livestock
  • A. History of livestock breeding of all four
    major domestic species is 1000s of years old.
  • 1. This past breeding performance can be defined
    as Controlled Breedingwhich means giving
    direction to what we want the outcome to be.
  • 2. It likely began with the OX- fossil bones
    found in Asia indicate this animal was around 3
    to 4 million years past.
  • a. 6 tall, horns like a goat at 6 to 7 feet,
    and grazed on twigs and shoots of trees as well
    as grass. (pg. 3, AN. Sc. Hus. By Blakely.

3
  • 3. Also Old Stone Age 8000 to 10000 years B.C..
    No domestication at this time due in part to some
    kind of superstition. They did kill and eat
    those they could catch and those that died or
    were killed by other animals.
  • 4. New Stone Age 6000 to 8000 years B.C..
  • a. Began some domestication of cattle.
  • b. A change from Hunter to Husbanders.
  • c. The Major beginning of the study of Animal
    Science.
  • 5. Neolithic Age 4000 to 6000 years B.C..
  • a. Domestication of sheep and swine in about
    4800 B.C..
  • b. Also a horse about 3 tall in North America
    Continent but became extinct before Columbus
    arrived here.

4
  • 6. Columbus to America in 1492
  • a. His 2nd voyage, In 1493, he arrived with a
    number of cattle.
  • b. This followed with numerous importations of
    cattle to U.S., Mexico, etc.
  • 7. It is believed that all of our current U.S.
    Cattle are actually descendents of the OX.

5
II. What has controlled breeding done for us?
  • A. It has determined the direction that our
    cattle are going to be designed for..as follows
  • 1. The size of our cattle a small Jersey and a
    large Holstein a small Angus and a large
    Limousine.
  • 2. More muscle and less and less fat.
  • 3. Increase in more Milk Protein.
  • 4. Less cholesterol in eggs we consume.
  • 5. Longer wool in sheep.
  • 6. Increase in multiple births in some species
    such as in swine and sheep not so much in beef
    and dairy.
  • 7. Tremendous growth in feed conversion and feed
    efficiency.
  • 8. Major increase in milk production and rapid
    growth in poultry meat and number of eggs. (more
    change in dairy and poultry)

6
  • B. The animal breeder has 2 basic tools to work
    with
  • 1. Selection based on Type
  • a. Visual observationphysical appearance or
    what you see on the outside of the animal.
  • 2. Selection based on Performance
  • a. What is happening inside of the animal that
    we cannot see.
  • b. PROOFas a result of testing for performance
    feed trials, records of production, change in
    genetics.
  • c. Performance takes into account numerous
    specific areas
  • 1) Feed conversion (lbs. Feed / lb.gain)
  • 2. Pounds gained per day.
  • 3) Gallons milk per day.
  • 4) Fertility improvement.
  • 5) Longevity changes.
  • 6) Large middles for milk cows.
  • d. Success depends on your knowledge of the
    tested facts and how you use them.

7
III. Controlled breeding is both an ART and a
Science
  • A. ART..A skill in performance acquired by
    experience a knack for having success. Same as
    the Eye of the Master.
  • 1. Rule of thumb.
  • 2. Native intelligence.
  • 3. Learned by accident or chance by trial and
    error.
  • 4. What your parents did.
  • 5. Not what you learned in school, but rather by
    just getting out and doing it.
  • a. Getting involved.
  • b. Shoveling manure.
  • c. Milking at 300 a.m.
  • d. Practice judging and clipping.
  • e. Seeing as many different cattle and places as
    you can.
  • f. No substitute for The School of Hardknocks.

8
  • B. Science..Knowledge of the truths as tested
    and found correct (especially past 50 years or
    so).
  • 1. Critical for the success of todays dairyman.
    (hard work one-time is all you had to do but not
    today)
  • 2. Education in
  • a. Feeding and nutrition
  • b. Operating computers
  • c. Understanding genetics and heredity
  • d. Reproduction, conception and parturition
  • e. Health and diseases
  • f. Bull selection and mating
  • g. Milk production and secretion
  • 3. Both are still neededif you had to choose
    then the Science would out weight the Art.

9
IV. Introduction and History of Reproduction
  • A. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) wrote the first
    scientific paper on embryology.
  • 1. He was so far ahead of his time not much was
    added to his writing on reproduction for almost
    2000 years.
  • 2. He postulated that embryos formed from the
    menstrual blood of their mother. Of course this
    is where he was in error.

10
  • B. In the mid 1600s to the mid 1700s several
    discoveries were made with the help of
    microscopes.
  • 1. Disproved Aristotles theory of the fetus
    arising from the menstrual blood in 1668.
  • 2. The ovarian follicle was described in 1672
  • 3. Spermatozoa was observed in 1677.
  • 4. Study of chick embryo development
    began.(1759-1769)
  • 5. Preformed animal theory, existed in sperm
    cell.

11
  • C. 1800s time of discovery.
  • 1. Pasteur proved that bacteria reproduced by
    cell division.
  • 2. Driesh in 1900 separated daughter cells of a
    fertilized egg, and showed that they could
    develop into an embryo.
  • D. Reproduction has at least three purposes
  • 1. Perpetuation of the species.
  • 2. To provide food.
  • 3. Genetic Improvement.

12
V. Genetic Improvement
  • A. Genetic improvement is accomplished by
    selecting males and female with superior
    transmitting ability as parents of new
    generations.
  • B. The rate of genetic improvement depends upon
  • 1. Variation genetic variation among a
    population.
  • 2. Heritability or Genetic Variation measure
    of the transmitting potential of a trait.
  • a. Ranges from 0 - 60 heritability
  • 1) Milk Production 25
  • 2) Litter size in pigs 5 - 10
  • 3) Fertility in Cattle 5
  • 3. Environmental Variation trait expressed due
    to environment.
  • 4. Selection intensity stock kept for
    breeding/not culled.
  • 5. Generation interval Length of time from
    birth until that generation gives birth.

13
  • C. Artificial Insemination
  • 1. A tremendous impact, especially in beef and
    dairy cattle, has been made due to A.I. and the
    data collection, evaluation and interpretation by
    USDA etc.
  • D. Other reproductive processes that have been
    or may be used as genetic tools are
  • 1. Frozen Semen
  • 2. Separation of Male/Female producing sperm
  • 3. Synchronization of estrus
  • 4. Superovulation
  • 5. Embryo Transfer
  • 6. Storing embryos
  • 7. In vitro fertilization
  • 8. Environmental influence on puberty
  • 9. Splitting and cloning embryos
  • 10. Transferring genetic material

14
  • What Is the Best Animal?
  • You should understand
  • The difference between traits and phenotypes.
  • The concept of interaction of system components
  • The difference between a genotype by environment
    interaction and an environmental effect.
  • How knowledge of interactions involving genotype
    helps us determine breeding objectives.

15
  • The difference between populations that are
    genetically adapted and populations that are
    environmentally adapted.
  • How seedstock producers differ from commercial
    producers and in what animal industries these
    terms are meaningful.
  • The industry influences which cause distortion in
    breeding objectives.
  • How correctly defining an end user and
    understanding the end users system leads to
    appropriate breeding objectives.
  • Why directional change in a trait is not always
    desirable.

16
  • How Are Animal Populations Improved?
  • You should understand
  • The difference between the two basic tools of
    animal breeding selection and mating.
  • How selection works, i.e., how selecting parents
    with better breeding values improves future
    generations.
  • The difference between phenotypic selection and
    other forms of selection.

17
  • How heritability influences the effectiveness of
    selection.
  • The importance of prediction of breeding values.
  • The concept of accuracy of prediction.
  • How information on relatives increases the
    effectiveness of selection.
  • The difference between simply-inherited and
    polygenic traits and how selection differs for
    each.
  • The difference between complementarity and hybrid
    vigor.

18
  • Why mating systems used by commercial producers
    are often different from those used by seedstock
    producers.
  • How selection and mating can be interdependent.
  • The combined roles of selection of individuals,
    between-breed selection, and mating systems in
    improving the genetic merit of populations.

19
(No Transcript)
20
THE END
About PowerShow.com