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An Introduction to Tissue Engineering

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Tissue Engineering Cindy Handley, PhD, MT(ASCP) SCCC Biology Instructor Acknowledgements: Overview Tissue engineering defined Stem cell research Tissue model ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: An Introduction to Tissue Engineering


1
An Introduction to Tissue Engineering
  • Cindy Handley, PhD, MT(ASCP)
  • SCCC Biology Instructor

2
Acknowledgements
  • Pittsburgh Tissue Engineering Initiative
  • a network strategy to promote regional economic
    growth
  • through the advancement and creation of
    biomedical and related
  • technologies associated with engineered tissues,
    Including cell culturing,
  • gene therapy, organ transplantation and
    regeneration, biomaterials,
  • and computer-assisted analysis and design.
    http//www.ptei.org/
  • Mark Krotec, BS, MS
  • facilitator for the summer teachers workshop
    and major
  • contributor of data for this presentation via the
    Education Outreach
  • Manual in Tissue Engineering and the summer
    workshop.

3
Overview
  • Tissue engineering defined
  • Stem cell research
  • Tissue model constructs
  • and lab techniques
  • IV. Ethics

4
Tissue Engineering Defined
5
According to the Pittsburgh Tissue Engineering
Initiative,
  • Tissue engineering is an emerging
  • interdisciplinary field that applies
  • the principles of biology and
  • engineering to the development of
  • viable substitutes that restore,
  • maintain, or improve the function of
  • human tissues.

6
What are viable substitutes?
  • On a large scale, certain surgical interventions,
    like castration of a bull, have led to alteration
    of tissue function.
  • On a molecular level, gene therapy is has been
    very successful with plants and animals
  • On a cellular level, the research is currently
    focused on stem cells.

7
Stem cells
  • According to the Merriam-Webster Online
    Dictionary, a stem cell is,
  • an unspecialized cell that gives rise to
    differentiated cells
  • Two basic types
  • Embryonic pluripotential
  • Adult multipotential

8
Embryonic stem cells
  • According to Richard Mollard, Ph.D., of the
    International Society for Stem Cell Research,
    Human embryonic stem (ES) cells are cultured
    cell lines derived from the inner cell mass of
    the blastocyst that can be grown indefinitely in
    their undifferentiated state, yet also are
    capable of differentiating into all cells of the
    adult body.

9
http//www.time.com/time/2001/stemcells/
10
  • Animation Stem cells

http//www.dnalc.org/stemcells.html
11
Embryonic stem cells (cont)
  • Two sources
  • Fertilized egg from in vitro fertilization
  • Ovum that has had nucleus removed and nuclear
    material injected from intended recipient of
    final tissue product
  • (reproductive/therapeutic cloning)
  • Very controversial

12
Adult stem cells
  • Found in
  • Umbilical cord blood/tissue
  • Adult brain, blood cornea, retina, heart, fat,
    skin, dental pulp, bone marrow, blood vessels,
    skeletal muscle and intestines

13
(No Transcript)
14
II. Stem cell research
15
What progress has been madeto date?
  • Autologous stem cells have been injected into
    heart to regenerate damaged cardiac tissue
  • Corneal autologous stem cell grafts have been
    used to treat eye disease trauma
  • Skin replacement has been grown with stem cells
    for transplant in burn victims

16
Progress
  • Autologous stem-cell cartilage grafts have been
    used to treat joint disease
  • Leukemia other cancers have been treated with
    stem cells from bone marrow and umbilical cord
    blood
  • A human mandible has been produced using a
    titanium mesh and autologous bone-marrow stem
    cells

17
The future?
According to the Stem Cell Research Center Half
Of All Americans Could Benefit From Stem Cell
Research Experts are predicting that stem cell
research has the potential to help up to half of
all Americans, who suffer from some form of
presently incurable disease, injury or birth
defect. Some of Those conditions includeOne
million children with juvenile diabetes 8.2
million people with cancer 58 million with heart
disease Four million suffering from Alzheimer's
disease 10 million with osteoporosis 43 million
arthritis sufferers 250,000 people paralyzed by
spinal cord injuries 30,000 victims of Lou
Gehrig's disease 500,000 with Parkinson's
disease
www.stemcellresearchfoundation.org/WhatsNew/Benefi
t.htm
18
III. Tissue model constructs lab techniques
19
Tissue engineering requires three things
Cells
Signals
Scaffold
20
  • Weve already discussed different types of cells
    that may be used
  • The scaffold refers to the matrix within the
    tissue model construct
  • The signals refer to molecular signaling
    molecules, also known as growth factors

21
Basic scaffold criteria
  • Portions need to be biodegradable
  • Usually designed in the shape of the tissue
    product the researcher is working on

22
www.eng.nus.edu.sg/ EResnews/0210/rd/rd_10.html
23
Biomimetic Scaffold Fabrication
                                                  
                                                  
                                   
bms.dent.umich.edu/research/malab.html
24
www.millenium-biologix.com/Html/00_ScientificInfor
mationCartiGraft.htm
Autologous de novo cartilage formed on Skelite
tissue engineering scaffold (grown in vitro),
illustrating the configuration of the implant
that provides functional cartilage tissue at the
articular surface. The presence of functional
cartilage tissue represents a major advance over
current cell therapy techniques. Cell therapy
involves the implantation of cells that still
have to make new cartilage in vivo at the defect
site under very challenging conditions. The
histology image on the right shows that cells
are healthy and growing, while attaching
themselves to the Skelite and beginning to
differentiate into mature cartilage.
25
V. Ethics
26
Now that we see that we CAN, the question
is should we??????
27
ETHICS
  • The great divide over stem cells
    (www.mtulode.com/index.php?issuedatesection12a
    rtid4540)
  • The Ethics of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research
    (www.isscr.org/public/ethics.htm)
  • Research Ethics and Stem Cells
    (stemcells.nih.gov/info/ethics.asp)

28
Ethics (cont)
  • Stem Cell Research All sides to the dispute
    (www.religioustolerance.org/res_stem.htm)
  • Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell
    Research(www.iom.edu/report.asp?id26661)

29
SUMMARY
  • Tissue engineering defined
  • Stem cell research
  • Tissue model constructs
  • and lab techniques
  • IV. Ethics

30
Selected References Cited
  • Armon, C. (2005) Medscape Neurology
    Neurosurgery 7(1), 2005. Retrieved September 18,
    2005, from http//www.medscape.com/viewarticle/496
    732
  • Bhatia, R., Hare, J. (2005). Mesenchymal Stem
    Cells Future Source for Reparative Medicine
    Electronic version. Congestive Heart Failure,
    11(2), 87-91.
  • Carmichael, Mary. (2005). Organs under
    construction. Newsweek, Summer 2005, 46-48.
  • Lanza, R., Rosenthal, N. (2004). The Stem Cell
    Challenge. Scientific American, June 2004,
    93-99.
  • Pittsburgh Tissue Engineering Initiative (2001).
    An Education Outreach manual in Tissue
    Engineering, updated through June 2005.
    Pittsburg, PA, PTEI Author.
  • Weiss, R. (2005). The power to divide. National
    Geographic. July 2005, 3-27.

31
The End
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