Chapter 13 Urbanization and Solid and Hazardous Waste - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter 13 Urbanization and Solid and Hazardous Waste PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3b6e15-MGMxM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 13 Urbanization and Solid and Hazardous Waste

Description:

Chapter 13 Urbanization and Solid and Hazardous Waste * * * * * * * * * * * 13-20 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:314
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 100
Provided by: saintjoeE
Learn more at: http://www.saintjoe.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 13 Urbanization and Solid and Hazardous Waste


1
Chapter 13Urbanization and Solid and Hazardous
Waste
2
13-1 What Are the Major Population Trends and
Problems in Urban Areas?
  • Concept 13-1 Urbanization continues to increase
    steadily, and most cities are unsustainable
    because of high levels of resource use, waste, as
    well as pollution and poverty.

3
Half of the Worlds People Live in Urban Areas
(1)
  • Urbanization
  • Creation and growth of urban and suburban areas
  • Percentage of people who live in such areas
  • Urban growth
  • Rate of increase of urban populations
  • Immigration from rural areas
  • Pushed from rural areas to urban areas
  • Pulled to urban areas from rural areas

4
Half of the Worlds People Live in Urban Areas
(2)
  • Push factors
  • Poverty
  • Lack of land to grow food
  • Declining labor market in agriculture
  • War, famine, conflicts
  • Pull factors
  • Jobs, food, housing
  • Education
  • Health care

5
Half of the Worlds People Live in Urban Areas
(3)
  • Four major trends
  • Proportion of global population living in urban
    areas is increasing
  • Number and size of urban areas is mushrooming
  • Megacities, hypercities
  • Urban growth slower in developed countries
  • Poverty is becoming increasingly urbanized
    mostly in less-developed countries

6
Global Outlook Satellite Image of Major Urban
Areas Throughout the World
Fig. 13-1, p. 276
7
Case Study Urbanization in the United States (1)
  • Four phases between 1800 and 2008
  • Migration from rural areas to large central
    cities
  • Migration from large central cities to suburbs
    and smaller cities
  • Migration from North and East to South and West
  • Migration from cities and suburbs to developed
    areas outside the suburbs exurbs
  • Urbanization went from 5 to 79

8
Case Study Urbanization in the United States (2)
  • Environmental problems decreasing
  • Better working and housing
  • Better water and sanitation
  • Better health care
  • Older cities
  • Deteriorating services
  • Aging infrastructures
  • U.S. 2.2 trillion behind in infrastructure
    maintenance

9
Urban Sprawl Gobbles Up the Countryside
  • Urban sprawl
  • Low-density development at edges of cities/towns
  • Contributing factors to urban sprawl in the U.S.
  • Ample land
  • Low-cost gasoline highways
  • Tax laws encouraged home ownership
  • State and local zoning laws
  • Multiple political jurisdictions

10
Urban Areas in North America
Fig. 13-2, p. 277
11
Natural Capital Degradation Urban Sprawl
Fig. 13-3, p. 278
12
U.S. Megalopolis of Bowash

Fig. 13-4, p. 278
13
Urbanization Has Advantages (1)
  • Centers of
  • Economic development
  • Innovation
  • Education
  • Technological advances
  • Jobs
  • Industry, commerce, transportation

14
Urbanization Has Advantages (2)
  • Urban residents tend to have
  • Longer lives
  • Lower infant mortality
  • Better medical care
  • Better social services
  • More recycling programs
  • Concentrating people in cities can help preserve
    biodiversity in rural areas

15
Urbanization Has Disadvantages (1)
  • Huge ecological footprints
  • Lack vegetation
  • Water problems

16
Urbanization Has Disadvantages (2)
  • Concentrate pollution and health problems
  • Excessive noise
  • Different climate and experience light pollution

17
Natural Capital Degradation Urban Areas Rarely
Are Sustainable Systems
Fig. 13-5, p. 279
18
Outputs
Inputs
Solid wastes
Energy
Waste heat
Food
Air pollutants
Water
Water pollutants
Raw materials
Greenhouse gases
Manufactured goods
Manufactured goods
Noise
Money
Wealth
Information
Ideas
Fig. 13-5, p. 279
19
Life Is a Desperate Struggle for the Urban Poor
in Developing Countries
  • Slums
  • Squatter settlements/shantytowns
  • Terrible living conditions
  • Lack basic water and sanitation
  • High levels of pollution
  • What can governments do to help?

20
Case Study Mexico City
  • Urban area in crisis
  • Severe air pollution
  • Water pollution
  • 50 Unemployment
  • Deafening noise
  • Overcrowding
  • Traffic congestion
  • Inadequate public transportation
  • 1/3 live in slums (barrios) or squatter
    settlements
  • What progress is being made?

21
13-2 How Does Transportation Affect Urban
Environmental Impacts?
  • Concept 13-2 In some countries, many people live
    in widely dispersed urban areas and depend mostly
    on motor vehicles for their transportation, which
    greatly expands their ecological footprints.

22
Cities Can Grow Outward or Upward
  • Compact cities
  • Hong Kong, China
  • Tokyo, Japan
  • Mass transit
  • Dispersed cities
  • U.S. and Canada
  • Car-centered cities

23
Motor Vehicles Have Advantages and Disadvantages
(1)
  • Advantages
  • Mobility and convenience
  • Jobs in
  • Production and repair of vehicles
  • Supplying fuel
  • Building roads
  • Status symbol

24
Motor Vehicles Have Advantages and Disadvantages
(2)
  • Disadvantages
  • Accidents 1.2 million per year, 15 million
    injured
  • Kill 50 million animals per year
  • Largest source of outdoor air pollution
  • Helped create urban sprawl
  • Traffic congestion

25
Reducing Automobile Use Is Not Easy, but It Can
Be Done (1)
  • Full-cost pricing high gasoline taxes
  • Educate consumers first
  • Use funds for mass transit
  • Opposition from car owners and industry
  • Lack of good public transit is a problem
  • Rapid mass transit
  • Difficult to pass in the United States
  • Strong public opposition
  • Dispersed nature of the U.S.

26
Reducing Automobile Use Is Not Easy, but It Can
Be Done (2)
  • Raise parking fees
  • Tolls on roads, tunnels, and bridges into major
    cities
  • Charge a fee to drive into a major city
  • Car-sharing

27
It is Difficult to Reduce Automobile Use (3)
  • Bicycles
  • Heavy-rail systems
  • Light-rail systems
  • Buses
  • Rapid-rail system between urban areas

28
Trade-Offs Bicycles
Fig. 13-6, p. 282
29
Trade-Offs Mass Transit Rail
Fig. 13-7, p. 282
30
Trade-Offs Buses
Fig. 13-8, p. 282
31
Trade-Offs Rapid Rail
Fig. 13-9, p. 283
32
13-3 How Can Cities Become More Sustainable and
Livable?
  • Concept 13-3A Urban land-use planning can reduce
    uncontrolled sprawl and slow the resulting
    degradation of air, water, land, biodiversity,
    and other natural resources.
  • Concept 13-3B An ecocity allows people to choose
    walking, biking, or mass transit for most
    transportation needs to recycle or reuse most of
    their wastes to grow much of their food and
    protect biodiversity by preserving surrounding
    land.

33
Smart Growth Works (1)
  • Smart growth
  • Reduces dependence on cars
  • Controls and directs sprawl
  • Cuts wasteful resource
  • Uses zoning laws to channel growth

34
Smart Growth Works (2)
  • Curitiba, Brazil
  • China stand on urban sprawl
  • Europe compact cities

35
Solutions Smart Growth Tools
Fig. 13-10, p. 284
36
The Ecocity Concept Cities for People Not Cars
  • Ecocities or green cities
  • Build and redesign for people
  • Use renewable energy resources
  • Recycle and purify water
  • Use energy and matter resources efficiently
  • Prevent pollution and reduce waste
  • Recycle, reuse and compost municipal waste
  • Protect and support biodiversity
  • Urban gardens farmers markets
  • Zoning and other tools for sustainability

37
Case Study The Ecocity Concept in Curitiba,
Brazil
  • Ecocity, green city Curitiba, Brazil
  • Bus system cars banned in certain areas
  • Housing and industrial parks
  • Recycling of materials
  • Helping the poor
  • New challenges

38
13-4 What Are Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste,
and Why Are They Problems?
  • Concept 13-4 Solid waste contributes to
    pollution and represents the unnecessary
    consumption of resources hazardous waste
    contributes to pollution, natural capital
    degradation, and human health problems.

39
We Throw Away Huge Amounts of Useful Things and
Hazardous Materials (1)
  • Solid waste
  • Industrial solid waste
  • Mines, farms, industries
  • Municipal solid waste (MSW)
  • Trash
  • Hazardous waste (toxic waste)
  • Threatens human health of the environment
  • Organic compounds
  • Toxic heavy metals
  • Radioactive waste

40
We Throw Away Huge Amounts of Useful Things and
Hazardous Materials (2)
  • 8090 of hazardous wastes produced by developed
    countries
  • Why reduce solid wastes?
  • ¾ of the materials are an unnecessary waste of
    the earth's resources
  • Huge amounts of air pollution, greenhouse gases,
    and water pollution

41
Case Study Solid Waste in the United States
  • Leader in solid waste problem
  • What is thrown away?
  • Leader in trash production, by weight, per person
  • Recycling is helping

42
What Harmful Chemicals Are in Your Home?
Fig. 13-11, p. 286
43
Electronic Waste is a Growing Problem (1)
  • Electronic waste, e-waste fastest growing solid
    waste problem
  • Composition includes
  • High-quality plastics
  • Valuable metals
  • Toxic and hazardous pollutants

44
Electronic Waste is a Growing Problem (2)
  • Shipped to other countries
  • What happens in China?
  • International Basel Convention
  • Bans transferring hazardous wastes from developed
    countries to developing countries
  • Not signed by the United States
  • European Union
  • Cradle-to-grave approach

45
Electronic Waste is a Growing Problem (3)
  • What should be done?
  • Recycle
  • E-cycle
  • Reuse
  • Prevention approach remove the toxic materials

46
13-5 What Should We Do With Solid Waste?
  • Concept 13-5A A sustainable approach to solid
    waste is first to reduce it, then to reuse or
    recycle it, and finally to safely dispose of what
    is left.
  • Concept 13-5B Technologies for burning and
    burying solid wastes are well developed, but
    burning contributes to pollution and greenhouse
    gas emissions, and buried wastes eventually
    contribute to the pollution and degradation of
    land and water resources.

47
We Can Burn or Bury Solid Waste or Produce Less
of It
  • Waste Management
  • Reduce harm, but not amounts
  • Waste Reduction
  • Use less and focus on reuse, recycle, compost
  • Integrated waste management
  • Uses a variety of strategies

48
Integrated Waste Management Priorities for
Dealing with Solid Waste
Fig. 13-12, p. 287
49
We Can Cut Solid Wastes by Reducing, Reusing, and
Recycling (1)
  • Waste reduction is based on
  • Reduce
  • Reuse
  • Recycle

50
We Can Cut Solid Wastes by Reducing, Reusing, and
Recycling (2)
  • Six strategies
  • Redesign manufacturing processes and products to
    use less material and energy
  • Develop products that are easy to repair, reuse,
    remanufacture, compost, or recycle
  • Eliminate or reduce unnecessary packaging
  • Use fee-per-bag waste collection systems
  • Establish cradle-to grave responsibility
  • Restructure urban transportation systems

51
What Can You Do? Solid Waste
Fig. 13-13, p. 288
52
Reuse Important Way to Reduce Solid Waste,
Pollution and to Save Money
  • Reuse clean and use materials over and over
  • Downside of reuse in developing countries
  • Salvaging poor exposed to toxins
  • Flea markets, yard sales, second-hand stores,
    eBay, Craigslist, freecycle.org
  • Rechargeable batteries

53
Case Study Use of Refillable Containers
  • Reuse and recycle
  • Refillable glass beverage bottles
  • Refillable soft drink bottles made of
    polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic
  • Bottle deposits create jobs and reduce litter and
    landfill amounts
  • Paper, plastic, or reusable cloth bags
  • Pros
  • Cons

54
What Can You Do? Reuse
Fig. 13-14, p. 289
55
There Are Two Types of Recycling (1)
  • Primary, closed-loop recycling
  • Materials recycled into same type aluminum cans
  • Secondary recycling
  • Materials converted to other products tires
  • Types of wastes that can be recycled
  • Preconsumer internal waste
  • Postconsumer external waste

56
There Are Two Types of Recycling (2)
  • Do items actually get recycled?
  • What are the numbers?

57
We Can Mix or Separate Household Solid Wastes for
Recycling
  • Materials-recovery facilities (MRFs)
  • Can encourage increased trash production
  • Source separation
  • Pay-as-you-throw
  • Fee-per-bag
  • Which program is more cost effective?
  • Which is friendlier to the environment?

58
Science Focus Bioplastics (1)
  • Plastics from soybeans not a new concept
  • Key to bioplastics catalysts that speed
    reactions
  • Sources
  • Corn
  • Soy
  • Sugarcane

59
Science Focus Bioplastics (2)
  • Sources cont
  • Switchgrass
  • Chicken feathers
  • Some garbage
  • CO2 from coal-burning plant emissions
  • Benefits lighter, stronger, cheaper, and
    biodegradable

60
Case Study Recycling Plastics (1)
  • Plastics composed of resins created from oil and
    natural gas
  • Most containers discarded 4 recycled
  • Litter beaches, oceans
  • Kills wildlife
  • Gets into food chain and seafood

61
Case Study Recycling Plastics (2)
  • Low plastic recycling rate
  • Hard to isolate one type of plastic
  • Low yields of plastic
  • Cheaper to make it new

62
We Can Copy Nature and Recycle Biodegradable
Solid Wastes
  • Composting
  • Individual
  • Municipal
  • Benefits

63
Recycling Has Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages

64
Trade-Offs Recycling
Fig. 13-15, p. 291
65
We Can Encourage Reuse and Recycling (1)
  • What hinders reuse and recycling?
  • Market prices dont include harmful costs
    associated with production, use, discarding
  • Recycling industries get less favorable
    government treatment than large industries do
  • Prices for recycled materials fluctuate

66
We Can Encourage Reuse and Recycling (2)
  • Encourage reuse and recycling
  • Government
  • Increase subsidies and tax breaks for using such
    products
  • Decrease subsidies and tax breaks for making
    items from virgin resources
  • Fee-per-bag collection
  • New laws
  • Citizen pressure

67
Burning Solid Waste Has Advantages and
Disadvantages
  • Waste-to-energy incinerators
  • 600 Globally
  • Most in Great Britain
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages

68
Solutions A Waste-to-Energy Incinerator with
Pollution Controls
Fig. 13-16, p. 292
69
Electricity
Smokestack
Turbine
Steam
Crane
Generator
Wet scrubber
Furnace
Boiler
Electrostatic precipitator
Water added
Waste pit
Dirty water
Bottom ash
Conveyor
Fly ash
To waste treatment plant
Ash for treatment, disposal in landfill, or use
as landfill cover
Fig. 13-16, p. 292
70
Electricity
Smokestack
Turbine
Steam
Crane
Generator
Wet scrubber
Electrostatic precipitator
Water added
Waste pit
Dirty water
Bottom ash
Conveyor
Fly ash
Ash for treatment, disposal in landfill, or use
as landfill cover
Stepped Art
Fig. 13-16, p. 292
71
Trade-Offs Incineration
Fig. 13-17, p. 292
72
Burying Solid Waste Has Advantages and
Disadvantages
  • Open dumps
  • Widely used in less-developed countries
  • Rare in developed countries
  • Sanitary landfills

73
Solutions State-of-the-Art Sanitary Landfill
Fig. 13-18, p. 293
74
When landfill is full, layers of soil and clay
seal in trash
Topsoil
Electricity generator building
Sand
Clay
Leachate treatment system
Methane storage and compressor building
Garbage
Probes to detect methane leaks
Pipes collect explosive methane for use as fuel
to generate electricity
Methane gas recovery well
Leachate storage tank
Compacted solid waste
Groundwater monitoring well
Leachate pipes
Garbage
Leachate pumped up to storage tank for safe
disposal
Sand
Leachate monitoring well
Synthetic liner
Groundwater
Sand
Clay and plastic lining to prevent leaks pipes
collect leachate from bottom of landfill
Clay
Subsoil
Fig. 13-18, p. 293
75
Compacted solid waste
Groundwater
Stepped Art
Fig. 13-18, p. 293
76
Trade-Offs Sanitary Landfills
Fig. 13-19, p. 293
77
13-6 How Should We Deal with Hazardous Waste?
  • Concept 13-6 A sustainable approach to hazardous
    waste is first to produce less of it, then to
    reuse or recycle it, then to convert it to less
    hazardous materials, and finally to safely store
    what is left.

78
We Can Use Integrated Management of Hazardous
Waste
  • Integrated management of hazardous wastes
  • Produce less
  • Convert to less hazardous substances
  • Rest in long-term safe storage
  • Increased use for postconsumer hazardous waste

79
Integrated Hazardous Waste Management
Fig. 13-20, p. 294
80
We Can Detoxify Hazardous Wastes
  • Collect and then detoxify
  • Physical methods
  • Chemical methods
  • Bioremediation
  • Phytoremediation
  • Incineration

81
We Can Store Some Forms of Hazardous Waste (1)
  • Burial on land or long-term storage
  • Last resort only
  • Deep-well disposal
  • 64 of hazardous liquid wastes in the U.S.

82
Trade-Offs Deep-Well Disposal
Fig. 13-21, p. 295
83
We Can Store Some Forms of Hazardous Waste (2)
  • Surface impoundments
  • Lined ponds or pits
  • Secure hazardous landfills

84
Trade-Offs Surface Impoundments
Fig. 13-22, p. 295
85
Solutions Secure Hazardous Waste Landfill
Fig. 13-23, p. 296
86
Gas vent
Topsoil
Bulk waste
Plastic cover
Earth
Impervious clay cap
Sand
Clay cap
Impervious clay
Water table
Earth
Leak detection system
Groundwater
Double leachate collection system
Plastic double liner
Groundwater monitoring well
Reactive wastes in drums
Fig. 13-23, p. 296
87
What Can You Do? Hazardous Waste
Fig. 13-24, p. 296
88
Case Study Hazardous Waste Regulation in the
United States (1)
  • 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
    (RCRA)
  • EPA sets standards and gives permits
  • Cradle to grave
  • Covers only 5 of hazardous wastes

89
Case Study Hazardous Waste Regulation in the
United States (2)
  • 1980 Comprehensive Environmental, Compensation,
    and Liability Act (CERCLA)
  • National Priorities List
  • 2010 1300 sites, 340 sites cleaned so far
  • Pace of cleanup has slowed
  • Superfund is broke
  • Laws encouraging the cleanup of brownfields

90
13-7 How Can We Make the Transition to a More
Sustainable Low-Waste Society?
  • Concept 13-7 Shifting to a low-waste society
    will require individuals and businesses to reduce
    resource use and to reuse and recycle more of
    their wastes at local, national, and global
    levels.

91
Grassroots Action Has Led to Better Solid and
Hazardous Waste Management
  • Not in my backyard
  • Produce less waste
  • Not in anyones backyard
  • Not on planet Earth
  • Environmental Justice
  • Everyone is entitled to protection from
    environmental hazards
  • Discrimination

92
International Treaties Have Reduced Hazardous
Waste (1)
  • Basel Convention
  • 1992 in effect
  • 1995 amendment bans all transfers of hazardous
    wastes from industrialized countries to
    less-developed countries
  • 2009 Ratified by 195 countries, but not the
    United States

93
International Treaties Have Reduced Hazardous
Waste (2)
  • 2000 Delegates from 122 countries completed a
    global treaty
  • Control 12 persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
  • Dirty dozen
  • DDT, PCBs, dioxins
  • Everyone on earth has POPs in blood
  • 2000 Swedish Parliament law
  • By 2020 ban all chemicals that are persistent and
    can accumulate in living tissue

94
We Can Make the Transition to Low-Waste Societies
  • Norway, Austria, and the Netherlands
  • Committed to reduce resource waste by 75
  • East Hampton, NY, U.S.
  • Reduced solid waste by 85
  • Follow guidelines to prevent pollution and reduce
    waste

95
Case Study Industrial Ecosystems Copying Nature
  • Biomimicry using natural principles to solve
    human problems
  • Nature wastes of one organism are nutrients for
    another apply to industry
  • Ecoindustrial parks
  • Two major steps of biomimicry
  • Observe how natural systems respond
  • Apply to human industrial systems

96
Industrial Ecosystem in Denmark
Fig. 13-25, p. 299
97
Sludge
Pharmaceutical plant
Local farmers
Sludge
Greenhouses
Waste heat
Waste heat
Waste heat
Fish farming
Waste heat
Surplus natural gas
Fly ash
Oil refinery
Electric power plant
Surplus sulfur
Waste calcium sulfate
Surplus natural gas
Waste heat
Cement manufacturer
Sulfuric acid producer
Wallboard factory
Area homes
Fig. 13-25, p. 299
98
Three Big Ideas
  • Most expanding urban areas are unsustainable with
    their large and growing ecological footprints and
    high levels of poverty, but most urban areas can
    be made more sustainable and livable.

99
Three Big Ideas
  • The order of priorities for dealing with solid
    and hazardous wastes should be to produces less
    of them, reuse and recycle as much waste as
    possible, convert hazardous material to less
    hazardous material, and safely store or dispose
    of what is left.
  • We need to view solid wastes as wasted resources
    and hazardous wastes as materials that we should
    not be producing in the first place.
About PowerShow.com