Oil and gas are often said to be the nerve of life in our country. This is true when we consider the economy of the United Arab Emirates. The oil and gas sector provides around a third of the UAE's Gross National. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Oil and gas are often said to be the nerve of life in our country. This is true when we consider the economy of the United Arab Emirates. The oil and gas sector provides around a third of the UAE's Gross National.

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Title: Oil and gas are often said to be the nerve of life in our country. This is true when we consider the economy of the United Arab Emirates. The oil and gas sector provides around a third of the UAE's Gross National.


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2
Oil and gas are often said to be the nerve of
life in our country. This is true when we
consider the economy of the United Arab Emirates.
The oil and gas sector provides around a third of
the UAE's Gross National. This booklet
illustrates the fundamental of oil and gas
production and transportation. In addition it
shows the basic process of gas and refinery
plants. Each topic is supported by an internet
link for deep details these sites were selected
carefully to give the reader a variety of
information.
3
Oil in the United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, with total proven oil
reserves of 98.2 billion barrels, ranks fourth
and represents around 9.5 percent of the global
crude oil reserves. As for natural gas, the
proven recoverable reserves are estimated
currently at 5.8 billion cubic meters or 4
percent of the world total. This means that the
UAE possesses the third largest natural gas
reserves in the region and the fourth largest in
the world. At the current rate of utilization,
and excluding any new discoveries, these reserves
will last for over 150 years.
For more information, please visit this link
http//www.uae.gov.ae/Government/oil_gas.htmIntr
oduction
4
Oil in the United Arab Emirates
The oil and gas sector provides around a third of
the UAE's Gross National Product. Abu Dhabi is by
far the biggest oil producer in the UAE,
controlling more than 85 percent of the UAEs
total oil output capacity and over 90 percent of
its crude reserves. The UAE exports 62 of its
crude oil to Japan making it the UAEs largest
customer. Gas exports are almost entirely to
Japan, the world's largest buyer of liquefied
gas, with the UAE supplying almost one-eighth of
Japan's entire requirements.
For more information, please visit this link
http//www.uae.gov.ae/Government/oil_gas.htmIntr
oduction
5
Petroleum
Petroleum is the most important substance after
food it provides not only raw material but also
fuel for energy, industry, heating and
transportation. The word Petroleum derived from
the Latin Petra and Oleum, which means rock
oil. From a chemical point petroleum is a
complex mixture of a chemical compounds that are
a combination of Hydrogen (H) and Carbon (C)
atoms and called hydrocarbons, usually with small
amounts of impurities such as nitrogen, oxygen,
and sulfur.
For more information, please visit this
link http//science.howstuffworks.com/oil-drillin
g1.htm
6
Petroleum
Petroleum comes from the remains of plants and
animals life, which lived 10 to 5000 million
years ago. As the plants and animals died,
they were covered by sand and mud. The pressure
changed the sand mud to rock, and the remains of
plants and animals to oil or gas.
For more information, please visit this
link http//science.howstuffworks.com/oil-drillin
g1.htm
7
Location for Petroleum
Petroleum comes from the remains of plants and
animals, which sank to the bottom of seas. And
due to the earth changes over millions of years
oil and gas immigrated from the source rooks and
trapped in places where porous rock is covered by
non-porous rock, which prevents the oil and gas
from flowing out.

Oil
8
Types of traps
Anticline trap
It is formed when the layer of rock rose to form
a dome, the dome must be covered by
non-porous rock to trap the oil and the water
pressure will push the oil upward into the dome.
Fault Trap
It is a crack in the earth formed by the earth
pressure, this result in a layer of porous rock
next to non-porous rock. The oil which moved to
the non-porous rock will be stopped by water
behind it.
Salt Dome Trap
A mushroom-shaped made of salt, commonly having
an overlying cap rock. Here we see salt that has
moved up through the earth, punching through and
bending rock along the way. Oil can come to rest
right up against the salt, which makes salt an
effective trap rock.
For more information, please visit this
link http//www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/systems/traps/
structural/structural.html
9
How oil is found?
Geologists start looking for porous sedimentary
rocks with non-porous rocks around. Then a
special drill is used to take a rock sample
witch is examined for clues in finding oil.
After that the Geophysicists uses three different
devices to help in finding oil. These devises
are the gravimeter the magnetometer and
seismograph.
Gravimeter
Magnetometer
Seismograph
10
Gravimeter
Is used to measure the pull of the earth gravity
this device could measure the different gravity
between the porous and non-porous rocks.
Gravimeter
Magnetometer
Is used to measure the strength of earth magnetic
field, this device also tells the kinds of rock
lying underground.
Magnetometer
Seismograph
Is used to measure the vibrations in the earth.
Geologists use this device to measure the
vibrations generated by vibrations truck. As the
vibrations travel through the different layers of
rock, the seismograph will show the types of
structure and the density of the rock, this
device could also show the shapes of rocks lying
underground.
Seismograph
For more information, please visit this
link http//www.petrostrategies.org/Learning20Ce
nter/Exploration.htm
11
Drilling
Drilling for oil is the next step after the
geologists have found the location for petroleum.
Cable tool drilling was used to drill the first
oil well in 1859 in the USA. Most modern wells
are drilled by using the rotary drill, because it
is allowing to drill much greater wells.
Nowadays the high technology has led to
horizontal drilling, which saves a lot of time
and money. The purpose of horizontal drilling is
to reduce the number of rigs and to produce from
different zones from one well.
For more information, please visit this
link http//www.petrostrategies.org/Learning20Ce
nter/Production.htm
12
Well Head
After a well has been drilled and prepared for
production a wellhead a special type of
equipment used to control the flow is fixed on
the well. The wellhead consists of the pieces of
equipment mounted at the opening of the well to
regulate and monitor the extraction of
hydrocarbons from the underground formation.
It also prevents leaking of oil or natural gas
out of the well, and prevents blowouts due to
high pressure formations. Formations that are
under high pressure typically require wellheads
that can withstand a great deal of upward
pressure from the escaping gases and liquids.
Subsurface Safety Valve
A subsurface safety valve is installed in the
tubing string near the surface.  The valve
remains open as long as fluid flow is normal.
When the valve senses something amiss with the
surface equipment of the well, it closes,
preventing the flow of fluids.
For more information, please visit this
link http//www.petrostrategies.org/Learning20Ce
nter/Production.htm
13
Recovering the oil
The whole amount of crude oil can not be
recovered from the reservoir only around 50
from the total amount can be recovered. To
recover the oil three important derives must be
available in the oil reservoir. These derives
are the dissolved gas, gas cap and the water
derive.
Dissolved gas
Is often dissolved in the oil, as the gas expand
into the reservoir it is producing a pressure,
which pushes the oil through the rock to the
surface.
Gas cap
Is a large amount of gas above the oil and it is
pushing the oil from the top through the rock
until it reached the surface.
Water derive
Is the most effective of the three derives, oil
above water is forced out by the pressure of the
water under it.
For more information, please visit this
link http//www.petrostrategies.org/Learning20Ce
nter/Production.htm
14
Improved Recovery Methods
There comes a point in the life-cycle of any oil
reserve when primary recovery can no longer be
undertaken due to natural gas depletion. Extra
compression is required to force the oil to the
surface in a process known as secondary recovery.
Water Gas injection and electric submersible
pumps are such form of secondary recovery. Water
injection Water is injected to maintain formation
pressure, which allows the oil to flow more.
water is pumped into the oil reservoir through
injection wells to force oil towards production
wells.
For more information, please visit this
link http//www.rolls-royce.com/energy/overview/o
ilgas/appsintro.jsp
15
Improved Recovery Methods
Gas injection Gas is injected to maintain
formation pressure, which allows the oil to flow
more. Denser oil from the depths of the reservoir
is displaced towards the bores of the producing
wells. Artificial left When the pressure in the
oil reservoir is insufficient to left the oil to
the surface, various methods are used to left the
oil like electrical subsurface pumps.
For more information, please visit this
link http//www.rolls-royce.com/energy/overview/o
ilgas/appsintro.jsp
16
Surface handling of well fluids
Fluids from a well stream consists of
hydrocarbons liquids and gases mixture with water
and water vapor, solids such as sand and shale
sediments. Also it contains carbon dioxide and
hydrogen sulfide. Several steps are necessary to
separate oil and gas and made them ready to
transport. The well stream is passed first
through horizontal separators to separate the oil
from the gas and to remove the water and solids.
First stage separator separation is achieved by
buffering the crude oil into the 1st stage
separator to reduce its pressure and speed. This
causes the water and the gas to separate from the
oil due to the different specific gravity. Heat
exchanger is used to heat the crude oil prior
entering the 2nd stage separator to enhance the
separation of the H2S and the water.
For more information, please visit this
link http//www.adventuresinenergy.org/interactiv
e/main.swf
17
Surface handling of well fluids
Second stage separator its function is similar
to the first stage separator, except the pressure
is maintained lower than the 1st separator and
some time it is bigger in size to give the fluids
more residence time to settle down. H2S stripper
it is used to strip the H2S gas from the crude
oil injecting lean gas at the bottom of the
stripper while the oils input at the top so the
lean gas is taking H2S with it from the top of
the stripper. The oil is pumped to the storage
tank in order to pump it to the terminal. The
separated water is injected back to the ground,
whereas the gas is taken by Gas Company.
For more information, please visit this
link http//www.adventuresinenergy.org/interactiv
e/main.swf
18
Natural Gas
Raw natural gas comes from three types of wells
oil wells, gas wells, and condensate wells.
Natural gas that comes from oil wells is
typically termed 'associated gas'. This gas can
exist separate from oil in the formation (free
gas), or dissolved in the crude oil (dissolved
gas). Natural gas from gas and condensate wells,
in which there is little or no crude oil, is
termed 'nonassociated gas'. Whatever the source
of the natural gas, once separated from crude oil
(if present) it commonly exists in mixtures with
other hydrocarbons principally ethane, propane,
butane, and pentanes. In addition, raw natural
gas contains water vapor, hydrogen sulfide (H2S),
carbon dioxide, helium, nitrogen, and other
compounds.
For more information, please visit this
link http//www.naturalgas.org/naturalgas/well_co
mpletion.asp
19
Natural Gas
Natural gas processing consists of separating all
of the various hydrocarbons like ethane, propane,
butane, and pentanes, to produce what is known as
dry natural gas. During the processing the gas is
cooled from -45C to -80C. If natural gas
(methane ethane) needs to be liquefied, its
temperature is dropped to 162C. In fact,
associated hydrocarbons, known as 'natural gas
liquids' (NGLs) can be very valuable by-products
of natural gas processing.
For more information, please visit this
link http//www.naturalgas.org/naturalgas/well_co
mpletion.asp
20
Refinery
Refinery is a plant where the components of crude
oil are separated and converted into useful
products. The various components of crude oil
have different sizes, weights and boiling
temperatures. So, the first step is to separate
these components. Because they have different
boiling temperatures, they can be separated
easily by a process called fractional
distillation. The steps of fractional
distillation are shown in the next page.
For more information, please visit this
link http//science.howstuffworks.com/oil-refinin
g4.htm
21
Refinery
You heat the mixture of two or more substances
(liquids) with different boiling points to a high
temperature about 600C. The mixture boils,
forming vapor (gases) most substances go into
the vapor phase. The vapor enters the bottom of a
long fractionating column and vapor rises in the
column and as the vapor rises through the column,
it cools. When a substance in the vapor reaches
a height where the temperature of the column is
equal to that substance's boiling point, it will
condense to form a liquid. (The substance with
the lowest boiling point will condense at the
highest point in the column substances with
higher boiling points will condense lower in the
column).
For more information, please visit this
link http//science.howstuffworks.com/oil-refinin
g4.htm
22
Storage and transportation of crude oil
Crude oil is stored in tanks prior export, then
crude it must be moved from the production sites
to refineries and consumers. These movements are
made using a number of different modes of
transportation, like pipelines and tankers.
Export crude oil price specifications
Exported crude oil price depends on the oil the
API gravity, which is function in the oil
Viscosity. Exported Crude oil has to be free of
water, salt and Gases like H2S.
For more information, please visit this
link http//www.petrostrategies.org/Learning20Ce
nter/Oil_Transportation.htm
23
Storage and transportation of Liquefied Natural
Gas (LNG)
In order to transport natural gas in areas not
served by pipelines, the gas is liquefied to
reduce its volume. When the gas is liquefied, it
shrinks to l/600 of its gaseous volume. Tankers
equipped with pressurized, refrigerated, and
insulated tanks are used to transport natural gas
liquids and liquefied natural gas (LNG). At the
delivery point the LNG is regasified and charged
into a gas pipeline system.
For more information, please visit this
link http//www.petrostrategies.org/Learning20Ce
nter/Oil_Transportation.htm
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