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Title: GHSGT in Social Studies McEachern High School


1
GHSGT in Social Studies
  • McEachern High School

2
Social StudiesGHSGT
  • 90 multiple-choice questions.
  • 4 possible answer choices only one is the
    correct answer.
  • You should be able to complete the test in 60
    minutes. However, you have up to 3 hours and 10
    minutes if needed.

3
Social StudiesGHSGT Domains
  • Domain 1 American Government/Civics (18)
  • Domain 2 U.S. History to 1865 (26)
  • Domain 3 U.S. History since 1865 (25)
  • Domain 4 Geography (13)
  • Domain 5 World History (18)
  • Map and Globe Skills and Information Processing
    Skills

4
American Government/Civics(18 of test)
  • These items test your knowledge of the
    philosophical foundations of the U.S. government
    and how that philosophy developed into the
    structure and function of the U.S. government.
  • Also tested is your knowledge of the U.S.
    governments relationship to states and to its
    citizens.

5
US History(51 of test)
  • U.S. History to 1865 (approximately 26 of the
    test)
  • These items test your knowledge of major events
    and themes in U.S. history from early European
    colonization to the end of the Civil War.
  • U.S. History since 1865 (approximately 25 of the
    test)
  • These items test your knowledge of major events
    and themes in U.S. history from Reconstruction to
    the late twentieth century.

6
World Geography(13 of test)
  • These items test your knowledge of the importance
    and impact of physical and cultural geography on
    the development of regions throughout the world.
  • Assessment of this domain will focus on geography
    content that you will have had an opportunity to
    learn in your study of World History and U.S.
    History.

7
World History(18 of test)
  • Although the GPS World History standards begin in
    pre-history and extend to the early days of the
    twenty-first century, items in this domain will
    test your knowledge of major events and themes
    beginning with the Renaissance and Reformation
    period and ending in the second half of the
    twentieth century.

8
Map Globe Skills Information Processing Skills
  • Found in the transitional test content
    description but not assessed as separate domains.
  • These Social Studies skills are included in the
    content of test questions as appropriate.

9
Social StudiesGHSGT DOK
  • The questions on the test require a range of
    thinking skills.
  • You may be asked to identify, describe, explain,
    analyze, or evaluate important events, themes,
    and concepts.
  • Some questions may involve reading a short
    excerpt from a primary or secondary source
    others may require you to interpret a map, graph,
    or table.

10
Social StudiesGHSGT DOK
  • Level 1 Depth of Knowledge
  • Some items will ask you to recall facts
  • Who, what, when, and where questions.
  • Often ask you to identify
  • Measure your ability to recall important facts

11
Social StudiesGHSGT DOK
  • Level 2 Depth of Knowledge
  • Many questions will involve more complex mental
    processes than simply recalling facts.
  • describe or explain people, places, events, and
    concepts
  • demonstrate understanding of cause and effect
  • contrast or compare, give examples, or classify

12
Social StudiesGHSGT DOK
  • Level 3 Depth of Knowledge
  • You should expect to see many challenging
    questions on the test.
  • analyze or evaluate information
  • draw conclusions show evidence apply concepts
    to new situations
  • use concepts to solve problems analyze
    similarities and differences in issues and
    problems make connections

13
Sample QuestionDOK 1
  • 1. Based on the U.S. Constitution, which
    development would cause a state to gain
    representation in the House of Representatives?
  • A. the election of a governor
  • B. the election of a president
  • C. the growth of a states population
  • D. the creation of a new state political party

14
Sample QuestionDOK 1
  • American Government/Civics Standard 9
  • The student will explain the differences between
    the House of Representatives and the Senate, with
    emphasis on terms of office, powers,
    organization, leadership, and representation of
    each house.
  • An important difference between the House of
    Representatives and the Senate is that
    representation in the House is based on a states
    population.
  • The correct answer is C.

15
Sample QuestionDOK 2
  • 2. The term Manifest Destiny directly relates to
    which recurring theme in U.S. history during the
    1800s?
  • A. abolition
  • B. federalism
  • C. social reform
  • D. territorial expansion

16
Sample QuestionDOK 2
  • U.S. History Standard 7b
  • Describe the westward growth of the United
    States include the emerging concept of Manifest
    Destiny.
  • Explaining the growth of the United States in the
    first half of the 19th century includes the
    ability to describe the meaning of Manifest
    Destiny.
  • The correct answer is D.

17
Sample QuestionDOK 3
  • Use this map to answer the question.
  • 3. Which factor has had the greatest influence on
    shaping human culture in the shaded region on the
    map?
  • A. religion
  • B. agriculture
  • C. urbanization
  • D. democratization

18
Sample QuestionDOK 3
  • World Geography Standard 3e
  • Explain the impact of Judaism, Christianity, and
    Islam on the development of contemporary
    Northern Africa and Southwest Asias culture.
  • You have studied 20th century political events
    including ethnic conflicts and new nationalisms
    (World History Standards 19 and 20). You should
    be familiar with the influence of Islam in the
    shaded region on the map.
  • The correct answer is A.

19
Test Taking Strategies
  • Read everything carefully.
  • Many of the GHSGT questions include quotations,
    maps, diagrams, tables, or graphs. You should
    read all parts of each test item very carefully,
    including directions, questions, and all four
    answer choices.

20
Test Taking Strategies
  • Remember that there are no trick questions.
  • The questions are not designed to be tricky. If
    you read the entire question, including all
    accompanying material.
  • Think carefully about what the question is
    asking.
  • You may be looking for the best answer among the
    choices. If so, the word best will be emphasized.

21
Test Taking Strategies
  • Sometimes questions ask you for the choice that
    is not correct among the options.
  • Always notice words such as not, except, or but
    in the question. These words tell you to look for
    a choice that does not answer or complete the
    item stem correctly.
  • For example, you might be asked
  • Which power is not given to the Senate by the
    U.S. Constitution?
  • You should look for the answer that does not
    include a power of the Senate.
  • Three of the choices will be powers given to the
    Senate.

22
Test Taking Strategies
  • Consider every choice.
  • From the four answer choices, you must choose the
    one that best answers the question.
  • Some of the alternative choices (distracters)
    will be attractive because they include an
    irrelevant detail, a common misconception, or the
    correct information applied in the wrong way.

23
Test Taking Strategies
  • Guess intelligently.
  • There is no penalty for guessing on any GHSGT
  • Guessing is easier if you can eliminate one or
    more distracters as clearly incorrect.
  • Be warned, however, that many of the distracters
    are very attractive because they are based on
    common mistakes students make

24
Test Taking Strategies
  • Spend test time wisely.
  • Many tests are arranged so that the easier items
    are first and the harder items are last.
  • The GHSGT is not arranged in this way. Therefore,
    it is possible to find several difficult
    questions followed by a set of easier questions
    later.
  • If you come to a few hard questions, do not get
    discouraged. It would be better to move on,
    answer as many questions as possible, and then go
    back to answer the remaining questions.

25
Preparing for the Test
  • The Social Studies Student Guide from the GADOE
    (on SS page of school website)
  • Describes the content that you can expect to find
    on the test.
  • Provides sample test items on pages 1118 that
    are representative of test items that assess
    content knowledge of each of the five domains
  • 35 questions practice test on pages 1933 to help
    you prepare to take the actual test.

26
Preparing for the Test
  • USA Test Prep
  • http//www.usatestprep.com/front/index.php
  • Username mceachern Activation Code Newton25
  • Georgia Online Assessment System
  • https//www.georgiaoas.org
  • Login is your GTID which you can get from your
    teacher.

27
Social Studies Skills Practice for the GHSGT
Information Processing Exercises to practice your
Social Studies Skills http//www.phschool.com/c
urriculum_support/ss_skills_tutor/ General Test
Taking Strategies 10 Tips for Terrific Test
Taking http//www.studygs.net/tsttak1.htm Hints
for Multiple Choice Tests http//www.studygs.net/
tsttak3.htm Practice Tests Online Practice Test
- Social Studies Skills http//ritter.tea.state.tx
.us/student.assessment/resources/online/2003/grade
10/socialstudies.htm Regents Test Prep - U.S.
History Government http//regentsprep.org/Regent
s/ushisgov/onlineresources/index.htm Vocabulary
Practice with Quizlet GEOGRAPHY TERMS -
human http//quizlet.com/491882/ghsgt-geography-f
lash-cards/ GEOGRAPHY TERMS - physical http//qui
zlet.com/492079/ghsgt-geography-physical-flash-car
ds/ EARLY U.S. HISTORY TERMS http//quizlet.com/4
91898/ghsgt-us-1-flash-cards/ LATER U.S. HISTORY
TERMS http//quizlet.com/491918/ghsgt-us-2-flash-
cards/ ECONOMICS TERMS http//quizlet.com/492039
/ghsgt-economics-flash-cards/ WORLD HISTORY
TERMS http//quizlet.com/492140/ghsgt-world-histo
ry-flash-cards/
28
Map Skills
29
When you approach a GHSGT or EOCT question that
contains a MAP, be sure to
  • Read the map TITLE first
  • Check the LEGEND or KEY for symbols
  • Read the map see where and how the symbols
    are used
  • Remember, to is where you are going from is
    where you started!
  • Read all maps carefully, follow any arrows and
    other clues provided
  • WRITE ON THE TEST!!! (Remember to DO this)

30
Sample Map Legends
31
Find these Map Features on the next slide
  • Map Title
  • Legend/Key
  • Directional Indicator
  • Scale

32
TITLE
COMPASS ROSE
LEGEND
SCALE
33
  • Find on this Map
  • The TITLE
  • Information shared in the LEGEND/KEY
  • The DIRECTIONAL INDICATOR
  • Region of this country with the highest elevation
  • Two cities located in the lowest elevation region
  • Body of water that borders this country
  • City that is further north Rustavi or Poti
  • City that is further east Gori or Batumi
  • Two countries that border Georgia
  • Importance of Mt. Elbrus
  • Capital city of Georgia
  • Approximate distance in miles from Sokhumi to
    Rustavi

34
LATITUDE imaginary lines that measure distance
north and south of the Equator LONGITUDE
imaginary lines that measure distance east and
west of the Prime Meridian
35
ARCTIC ZONE
N
TEMPERATE ZONE
TROPICAL ZONE
TEMPERATE ZONE
ARCTIC ZONE
36
Climate Zones Explained
  • TROPICS
  • North and south of Equator, between 22.5N and
    22.5S
  • Warmest climate region
  • Suns direct rays always shine here
  • ARCTIC ZONES
  • North of 66.5N and south of 66.5S
  • Coldest climate regions
  • Suns rays are never direct/winter season has
    very long nights/summer has very long days
  • TEMPERATE ZONES
  • Between Tropics and Arctic Zones in both
    hemispheres
  • Temperatures are moderate neither extremely
    cold nor extremely hot for long periods of time

37
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38
World History
39
World History
Students of World History must understand major
events and themes in world history from the
Renaissance and Reformation period to the second
half of the twentieth century. Assessment of this
domain focuses on students ability to describe,
explain, analyze, and evaluate important events,
themes, and concepts from the Italian Renaissance
to developments related to globalization in the
late 1900s. Assessment of World History includes
items that require students to interpret primary
source material, maps, graphs, and charts as well
as apply geographical knowledge to very specific
historical events.
40
Explain the military and diplomatic negotiations
between the leaders of Great Britain (Churchill),
the Soviet Union (Stalin), and the United States
(Roosevelt/Truman) from Tehran to Yalta and
Potsdam and the impact on the nations of Eastern
Europe.
  • WWII victors formed a new peacekeeping
    organization-the United Nations.
  • Major world powers were made part of the U.N.
    Security Council.
  • Each member has veto power over peacekeeping and
    other operations.
  • Germany was divided into four zones-each was
    occupied by an allied power.
  • An iron curtain divided the democratic West and
    the Communist East.
  • Military alliances of NATO and Warsaw Pact are
    formed.

41
Practice
  • 1. Which newspaper headline illustrates a policy
    of appeasement?
  • a. Dien Bien Phu Falls French to Leave
    Vietnam
  • b. Chamberlain Agrees to German Demands
    Sudetenland to Germany
  • c. Marshall Plan Proposes Economic Aid Program
    for Europe
  • d. Soviet Troops and Tanks Crush Hungarian
    Revolt

42
SSWH19abc
  • The student will demonstrate an understanding of
    the global social, economic, and political impact
    of the Cold War and decolonization from 1945 to
    1989.
  • Analyze the revolutionary movements in India
    (Gandhi, Nehru), China (Mao Zedong), and Ghana.
  • Describe the formation of the state of Israel.
  • Explain the arms race include the development of
    the hydrogen bomb (1954) and SALT.

43
Analyze the revolutionary movements in India
(Gandhi, Nehru), China (Mao Zedong), and Ghana.
  • India-first major country to gain independence
    after WWII, led by Mohandas Gandhi, non-violent
    resistance, protest of salt-tax, boycott
    British goods, India divided into India and
    Pakistan to prevent Muslim-Hindu violence.
  • Ghana-led by Kwame Nkrumah, used Gandhis
    non-violent methods, Gold Coast won independence
    in 1957, changed name to Ghana.

44
Practice
  • 1. Mohandas Gandhi used his philosophy of
    nonviolent non-cooperation in an effort to
  • a. form a Marxist government in India.
  • b. convince his fellow Indians to support the
    Allies in WWII.
  • c. persuade Pakistanis to separate from India.
  • d. achieve Indias independence from Great
    Britain.
  • In 1947, the Indian subcontinent became
    independent and was divided into India and
    Pakistan. The division recognized the
  • Hostility between religious groups.
  • Strength of Fascism.
  • Natural geographic boundaries.
  • Existing tribal divisions.

45
Describe the formation of the state of Israel.
  • Zionism-movement calling for Jews around the
    world to emigrate to Palestine-increased after
    the Holocaust.
  • The U.N. voted to create the country of Israel as
    a Jewish homeland.
  • Arab nations refused to recognize the new state.
  • Israel was attacked but victorious in 1956, 1967,
    and 1973 (added territory of Gaza Strip, Sinai
    Peninsula, West Bank, and Golan Heights).

46
Describe the formation of the state of Israel.
  • Camp David Accords-Egypt president (Anwar Sadat),
    Israeli prime minister (Menachim Begin), and US
    president (Jimmy Carter) agreed that Israel would
    return lands in exchange for peace.
  • PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) is
    formed.
  • Vowed to win back their homeland.
  • Used terrorism as political weapon.

47
Practice
  • Which event changed the political landscape of
    the Middle East in 1948?
  • The U.S. seizure of oil fields.
  • The British takeover of Palestine.
  • The creation of the state of Israel.
  • The collapse of the Ottoman Empire.

48
Explain the arms race include the development of
the hydrogen bomb (1954) and SALT.
  • US was the only country to create and use the
    atomic bomb during WWII, Soviets soon developed
    their own.
  • Cold War competition turned into a race to see
    who could build the most deadly weapons.
  • Hydrogen bomb-1000x the power of atom bomb
  • ICBM-could carry nuclear warheads across the
    world
  • Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962-Russia had nuclear
    bombs in Cuba, US had them in Turkey.
  • Both sides agreed to remove the weapons
  • Very narrowly escaped nuclear war
  • SALT-series of meetings in the 1970s were both
    sides agreed to limit the nuclear stocks

49
Practice
  • How did the effort to build a Hydrogen bomb in
    the 1950 affect U.S.-Soviet relations?
  • It united scientists from both nations.
  • It increased the nations fear of one another.
  • It led both nations to join the same treaty
    alliance.
  • It caused direct conflict between the nations.

50
SSWH20ac
  • The student will examine change and continuity in
    the world since the 1960s.
  • Identify ethnic conflicts and new nationalisms
    include pan-Africanism, pan-Arabism, and the
    conflicts in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Rwanda.
  • Analyze terrorism as a form of warfare in the
    20th century include Shining Path, Red Brigade,
    Hamas, and Al Qaeda and analyze the impact of
    terrorism on daily life include travel, world
    energy supplies, and financial markets.

51
Identify ethnic conflicts and new nationalisms
include pan-Africanism, pan-Arabism, and the
conflicts in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Rwanda.
  • Yugoslavia-liberation of Eastern Europe led to
    revival of old ethnic rivalries.
  • Croatia and Slovenia declared independence.
  • Serbia responded by attacking Croatia.
  • Fighting erupted between Bosnian Muslims and
    Serbs-ethnic cleansing.
  • US and NATO stopped the civil war.
  • Rwanda-ethnic tensions erupted between the Hutu
    and Tutsi in Rwanda and Burundi.
  • As many as 500,000 Tutsi were massacred by the
    Hutu majority.

52
Practice
  • 1. Which statement about the Balkan Peninsula
    since 1995 is most accurate?
  • a. Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia are now both
    controlled by Yugoslavia.
  • b. Ethnic tensions and conflict continue to be a
    problem in much of the region.
  • c. Slobodan Milosevic of Serbia became the first
    democratically elected leader of the region.
  • d. The Balkan Peninsula has become one of the
    most prosperous regions in Europe.
  • The genocide in Rwanda and the atrocities in
    Yugoslavia demonstrate
  • Inability of a command economy to satisfy the
    needs of people.
  • Fact that most conflict are caused by economic
    interests.
  • Isolation of these countries from international
    influences.
  • Inability of some societies to resolve religious
    and ethnic differences.

53
Analyze terrorism as a form of warfare in the
20th century include Shining Path, Red Brigade,
Hamas, and Al Qaeda and analyze the impact of
terrorism on daily life include travel, world
energy supplies, and financial markets.
  • Fundamentalists believe that people should adopt
    basic religious values and that religion should
    influence government policies.
  • Terror usually refers to an attack on civilians
    that is not directed by a government.
  • Examples
  • 2001 bombing of the World Trade Center in
    NYC-3,000 people lost their lives
  • 1995 Oklahoma City Bombing-168 people died

54
Practice
55
SSWH21ab
  • The student will analyze globalization in the
    contemporary world.
  • Describe the cultural and intellectual
    integration of countries into the world economy
    through the development of television,
    satellites, and computers.
  • Analyze the global economic and political
    connections include multinational corporations,
    the United Nations, OPEC, and the World Trade
    Organization.

56
Describe the cultural and intellectual
integration of countries into the world economy
through the development of television,
satellites, and computers.
  • Globalization-
  • Major industries do trade in a world market
  • Labor market is being outsourced to lower paid
    foreign workers
  • Pros of globalization
  • More countries communicate with each other, the
    less likely they are to go to war.
  • Cons of globalization
  • Countries will loose their distinct
    characteristics
  • Industrial nations are controlling world
    resources and causing pollution

57
Practice
  • Technological changes in developing countries
    have most often resulted in
  • Migrations from rural to urban areas.
  • Fewer education opportunities.
  • A weakening of traditional values.
  • a decreased use of natural resources.
  • A valid statement about technology in the 20th
    century is that it has
  • Eliminated famine and disease throughout the
    world.
  • Delayed economic progress.
  • Reduced the destructiveness of war.
  • Accelerated the pace of cultural diffusion.

58
Analyze the global economic and political
connections include multinational corporations,
the United Nations, OPEC, and the World Trade
Organization.
59
Practice
  • 1. Which group of countries earns much of their
    revenue from the sale of oil?
  • a. China, Korea, Jordan
  • b. Turkey, Brazil, Lebanon
  • c. Argentina, Malaysia, Chile
  • d. Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Venezuela

60
US HISTORYBEFORE 1865
61
Northwest Ordinance- 1787
  • One important thing from the Articles of
    Confederation
  • Importance- sets guidelines on how future land
    the U. S. acquired would be included in the
    country.
  • New land would be split up and made into new
    states- Ill., Ind., Mich., Ohio
  • Set requirements to be a state- minimum
    population requirement and a vote had to be held
    on statehood
  • civil liberties and education encouraged

62
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63
Jacksonian Democracy (1828-1836)
  • Named for 7th President Andrew Jackson
  • Universal White Male Suffrage- helped Jackson
  • The Common Man loved Jackson
  • Strong Presidential Leadership-
  • Example-Trail of Tears
  • Jackson ignores the Supreme Court and kicks
    Cherokee Indians off of land.

64
Andrew Jackson
65
THE ERIE CANAL
66
The Erie Canal was one of the earliest and most
successful canal projects in the U.S. It
stretched 363 miles across New York State from
the Hudson River in the east to Lake Erie in the
west. It was 12 times longer than any previously
built canal. The Erie Canal connected the old
Northwest to New York Harbor and the Atlantic
Ocean.
67
Started in 1817, it turned a profit long before
it was finished in 1825. It sparked a canal boom
as others tried to copy its success linking
eastern cities to the Great Lakes and western
rivers.
68
Before the Erie Canal was built, it took 3 weeks
to haul one ton of goods from New York City to
Buffalo. The financial cost was 95 to 125 per
ton. The canal reduced the time required for the
journey to 8 days and the dollar cost to just 4
within ten years of completion.
69
There was an explosion of trade. In 1829, there
were 3,640 bushels of wheat transported down the
Canal from Buffalo. Within 15 years of the
Canal's opening, New York was the busiest port in
America, moving tonnages greater than Boston,
Baltimore and New Orleans combined. The effect of
the Erie Canal was immediate and dramatic and
settlers poured west. 
70
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71
Interactive Example of Lock (watch closely)
  • This figure demonstrates how a typical locking
    system operates.
  • The ship in this example approaches from the
    higher water elevation.
  • The lock doors and filling valve are closed.
  • The emptying valve is then opened and the water
    is forced out of the lock until it reaches its
    natural elevation.
  • The lower lock doors are then opened, and the
    ship proceeds. http//huron.lre.usace.army.
    mil/SOO/alock.html

72
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73
  • The opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 was
    important because it
  • Established the role of the federal government in
    internal improvements
  • Strengthened the ties between the eastern
    manufacturing and western agricultural regions
  • Made the invention of the steamboat economically
    viable
  • Spurred innovation in the railroad industry

74
The Missouri Compromise of 1820
  • (1) Missouri was admitted as a slave state and
    Maine (formerly part of Massachusetts) would be a
    free state
  • (2) except for Missouri, slavery was to be
    excluded from the Louisiana Purchase lands north
    of latitude 3630.
  • Basically this divides the nation in half by
    saying that slavery is allowed under the 3630
    line.

75
The Missouri Compromise
76
  • The Missouri Compromise was a victory for
    antislavery advocates because it
  • Provided for the gradual emancipation of slaves
    in Missouri
  • Closed most of the Louisiana Purchase to slavery
  • Excluded slavery from all territory north of the
    Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River
  • Prohibited slavery from future territorial
    acquisitions

77
  • The Monroe Doctrine was the declaration by
    President James Monroe, in December 1823, that
    the United States would not tolerate a European
    nation colonizing an independent nation in North
    or South America.

78
What events prompted the Monroe Doctrine?
  • Latin America was in a period of revolution and
    liberation.
  • Chile, Venezuela, Mexico and Brazil had gained
    their freedom from Spain and Portugal. The United
    States recognized them as legitimate countries.
  • America feared that other foreign countries like
    France and Britain may now want to control these
    countries in Latin America.

79
What were the major points of the Monroe Doctrine?
  • European nations were warned that they could not
    set up colonies or interfere in Latin American
    problems anymore.
  • The United States would protect North and South
    America from any European influence.
  • The United States would not involve itself in
    European affairs militarily or politically.

80
Monroe Doctrine Political Cartoon
81
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82
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83
  • The Monroe Doctrine was important to American
    history because it
  • Expressed Americas willingness to intervene in
    the internal conflicts of Europe
  • Directly opposed further European colonization
    anywhere in the world
  • Showed that the United States would protect the
    Americas as a sphere of influence
  • Accepted Spanish and French expansion in the
    Americas in order to form an alliance

84
  • The Monroe Doctrine was important to American
    history because it
  • Expressed Americas willingness to intervene in
    the internal conflicts of Europe
  • Directly opposed further European colonization
    anywhere in the world
  • Showed that the United States would protect the
    Americas as a sphere of influence
  • Accepted Spanish and French expansion in the
    Americas in order to form an alliance

85
Dred Scott Decision - FACTS
Dred Scott was a slave from Missouri. (MO)
Dred Scott
86
Dred Scott Decision - FACTS
Scott and his owner moved to Wisconsin for four
years.
Dred Scott
87
Dred Scott Decision - FACTS
Scotts owner died after returning to Missouri.
Dred Scott
88
Dred Scott Decision - FACTS
Scott sued for his freedom. He claimed that he
should be a free man since he lived in a free
territory (WI) for four years.
Dred Scott
89
SUPREME COURT DECISIONS
Q Was Scott a U.S. citizen with the right to sue?
A NO
Q Did living in a free territory make Scott a
free man?
A NO
Q Did Congress have the right to outlaw slavery
in any territory?
A NO
90
  • Which is a reason why the Supreme Courts Dred
    Scott decision increased tensions between slave
    and free states?
  • Slave states could no longer import blacks for
    the purpose of slavery.
  • Slave states could now enslave any free blacks
    passing through their territory.
  • A slave who entered a free state would now be
    considered a free U. S. citizen.
  • A slaves status of enslavement would now be
    recognized within free states.

91
  • Which is a reason why the Supreme Courts Dred
    Scott decision increased tensions between slave
    and free states?
  • Slave states could no longer import blacks for
    the purpose of slavery.
  • Slave states could now enslave any free blacks
    passing through their territory.
  • A slave who entered a free state would now be
    considered a free U. S. citizen.
  • A slaves status of enslavement would now be
    recognized within free states.

92
Emancipation Proclamation (1863)
  • Written by Abraham Lincoln
  • Said slaves were free in rebelling
    states(Southern States only).
  • Makes slavery the central issue of the Civil War.
  • Intended to cause problems in the southern states
    and hurt their war effort.

93
GHSGT US History post 1865
  • Great Depression,
  • New Deal, World War II

94
GHSGT Part IV
  • However, the GREAT DEPRESSION followed the stock
    market crash in 1929 as a result of economic
    speculation. FDRS NEW DEAL replaced
    laissez-faire and used government agencies to
    provide relief, recovery, and reform. WORLD WAR
    II resulted from similar depressions in Europe
    and the rise of fascist dictators. The United
    States enters the war after the bombing at Pearl
    Harbor, fights on the side of the Allies. The
    Cold War was due to development of nuclear
    weapons by the two superpowers U.S. and Soviet
    Union. They never confronted each other in open
    warfare.

95
GHSGT
  • The Great Depression

96
Describe the causes of the Great Depression
(1929-1941)
97
Describe the Causes of the Great Depression
(1929-1941)
  • Causes of the Depression include
  • Slowdown in agriculture
  • easy credit
  • Structural weaknesses in banking
  • Conservative government reaction
  • Over production
  • Under consumption
  • uneven wealth distribution
  • Stock Market speculation and buying on margin
    results in
  • Crash in October 29, 1929 left those in debt
    exposed

98
  • The stock market
  • the public invests in companies. by purchasing
    stocks in return for this they expect a profit
  • because of booming 1920's economy, money was
    plentiful, so banks were quick to make loans to
    investors
  • also investors only had to pay for 10 of the
    stock's actual value at time of purchase
  • this was known as BUYING ON MARGIN, and the
    balance was paid at a later date

99
  • this encouraged STOCK SPECULATION - people would
    buy and sell stocks quickly to make a quick
    buck
  • because of all this buying selling, stock value
    increased (Ex Coca-Cola stock 130 ? 396/share)
  • this quick turnover didn't aid companies. ? they
    needed long term investments so they could pay
    bills (stock value was like an illusion)
  • unscrupulous traders would buy and sell shares
    intentionally to inflate a given company's stock
    value
  • all of this gave a false sense of
    security/confidence in the American market

100
  • beginning in Oct. 1929, investors confidence
    dropped, leading to a
  • market collapse
  • all tried to sell at once and bottom fell out of
    market panic selling (many bankruptcies as
    banks called in loans)
  • only a tiny minority of people traded on the
    stock exchange, but they possessed vast wealth,
    and the crash had a ripple effect on the economy

101
  • For the poor.......
  • mass consumption was already low (poor could
    afford to buy little)
  • unemployment rose ? no gov't assistance at first
  • since people could not buy, productivity was cut
    back further unemployment.
  • so with additional unemployment ? purchasing
    power declined again ? reduced productivity yet
    again ( ECONOMIC CYCLE)
  • Unemployment
  • Purchasing Power Productivity

102
Question
  • Which was an important cause of the Great
  • Depression?
  • A. speculation on the stock market
  • B. shortages of consumer goods
  • C. the collapse of the international gold
    standard
  • D. higher oil and farm prices

103
Question/Answer
  • Which was an important cause of the Great
  • Depression?
  • A. speculation on the stock market
  • B. shortages of consumer goods
  • C. the collapse of the international gold
    standard
  • D. higher oil and farm prices

104
Explain the consequences of widespread
unemployment
  • Over 100,000 businesses failed
  • Economic output down by 30 by 1933
  • Unemployment at 25 by 1933
  • Bank failures
  • Low spending and the search for work
  • Net farm income down by 70

105
  • a 2nd major problem uneven dist. of wealth
  • 0.1 at top owned as much as bottom 42 of
    American families (42 below poverty line)
  • of the 58 above the poverty line, most fell into
    the middle class category - they were not
    wealthy they had jobs because of the
    industrialization consumerism of the American
    market place
  • this middle class depended on their salaries and
    when productivity declined they lost their jobs
  • and because of low savings, they had to cut back
    on their purchases
  • this decline in consumption among the middle
    class ruined the whole country

106
How did UNEMPLOYMENT happen?
  • In 1920's U.S. Economy was based on the
    productivity purchasing power - employment
    cycle
  • For many goods to be produced , purchasing demand
    had to be there this resulted in high employment
    and a healthy economy
  • Between 1924-27, U.S. productive capacity doubled
    but it was because of technological innovation
  • ? electricity and mechanical advances made for
    better production, but no new jobs were added to
    the economy
  • So more consumer goods were available, but there
    weren't necessarily. more people to buy them
    (OVERPRODUCTION)

107
Question
  • In the 1920's, speculators in the stock market
    bought their stocks on margin. This meant that
    speculators could purchase stock for 3 of its
    value and borrow the rest from the broker. This
    system worked well as long as everyone was buying
    stock. However, on October 29, 1929, people sold
    their stocks. Stock values fell 15 billion
    dollars in one day.
  • What was one direct effect of this stock market
    crash?
  • A. Many businesses and corporations went bankrupt
  • B. Crop failures began in agriculture
  • C. The United States followed a policy of
    isolationism
  • D. Prohibition was repealed

108
Question/Answer
  • In the 1920's, speculators in the stock market
    bought their stocks on margin. This meant that
    speculators could purchase stock for 3 of its
    value and borrow the rest from the broker. This
    system worked well as long as everyone was buying
    stock. However, on October 29, 1929, people sold
    their stocks. Stock values fell 15 billion
    dollars in one day.
  • What was one direct effect of this stock market
    crash?
  • A. Many businesses and corporations went bankrupt
  • B. Crop failures began in agriculture
  • C. The United States followed a policy of
    isolationism
  • D. Prohibition was repealed

109
GHSGT
  • The New Deal

110
The New Deal
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) increased the role of
    the federal governments management of the
    economy by providing
  • - relief
  • - recovery
  • - reform.
  • The three Rs were provided through various
  • programs such as

111
Describe the creation of the Tennessee Valley
Authority
112
Describe the creation of the Tennessee Valley
Authority
  • TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY (TVA) - used to
    promote hydroelectric power, control flooding -
    lower rates ? private industry, manufacture
    fertilizer ?federal government took ownership
    (nationalization v. privatization)

113
Describe the creation of the Tennessee Valley
Authority
  • This was established in 1933 to build dams and
    power plants along the Tennessee River and its
    tributaries. The Tennessee Valley itself runs
    through seven states, so the project was very
    large.
  • The TVA built dozens of dams to control the
    environment by preventing disastrous floods. Each
    dam had its own hydropower plants, parks, and
    navigation aids.
  • This construction created hundreds of jobs for
    unemployed workers.

114
Describe the Wagner Act
115
Describe the Wagner Act
  • NEW DEAL - SOCIAL REFORM ASPECT- after 1935,
    with immediate economic relief and reform
    addressed,
  • New Deal turned to Social Welfare - more
    legislation...
  • The Second New Deal refers to the programs
    President Roosevelt instituted after his original
    New Deal failed to completely fix the American
    economy.
  • one of those was the National Labor
    Relations Act
  • (aka Wagner Act)
  • - it legitimized unions and labor tactics such
    as
  • collective bargaining collective action
    (strikes, etc.)
  • - it outlawed BLACKLISTS other anti-union
    activities.

116
Describe the Wagner Act
  • This law established collective bargaining rights
    for workers and prohibited such unfair labor
    practices as intimidating workers, attempting to
    keep workers from organizing unions, and firing
    union members.
  • The law also set up a government agency where
    workers could testify about unfair labor
    practices and hold elections to decide whether or
    not to unionize.
  • After passage of the Wagner Act, industrial
    workers began to unionize.

117
Describe the Wagner Act
  • The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was
    hesitant to organize industrial unionism, because
    it was committed to craft-based workers such as
    carpenters and railroad engineers.
  • As a consequence, the Congress of Industrial
    Organizations (CIO) was created to represent
    industrial workers who felt they were not being
    represented by the AFL.
  • The AFL and CIO clashed on and off before merging
    in 1955 to become the AFL-CIO that exists today.

118
Explain the passage of the Social Security Act
119
Explain the passage of the Social Security Act
  • Social Security Act (1935)- feared by opponents
    as "socialism"- this act typifies the WELFARE
    STATE - unemployment insurance, old age pensions
  • Problem it took some out of circulation
    (payroll deductions) at a time when purchasing
    power was already low- also, it only covered the
    unemployed

120
Explain the passage of the Social Security Act
  • One of the most important actions of the
    Second New Deal was the Social Security Act,
    which was passed in 1935. This law consisted of
    three components
  • Old-age insurance for retirees aged 65 or older
    and their spouses, paid half by the employee and
    half by the employer
  • Unemployment compensation paid by a federal tax
    on employers and administered by the states
  • Aid for the disabled and for families with
    dependent children paid by the federal government
    and administered by the states

121
Question
  • Passed in 1935, the Social Security Act (SSA) was
    legislation that provided income and medical care
    for the elderly. The act also compensated
    unemployed workers. The money was primarily
    derived from the paychecks of all employees and
    employers.
  • What was important about the passing of the
    Social Security Act (SSA)?
  • A. The SSA was created to provide healthcare for
    all working Americans
  • B. The SSA assured that no one in the United
    States would have to live in poverty
  • c. The SSA produced millions of new jobs in the
    United States economy
  • D. The SSA gave government the responsibility of
    providing for the elderly

122
Question/Answer
  • Passed in 1935, the Social Security Act (SSA) was
    legislation that provided income and medical care
    for the elderly. The act also compensated
    unemployed workers. The money was primarily
    derived from the paychecks of all employees and
    employers.
  • What was important about the passing of the
    Social Security Act (SSA)?
  • A. The SSA was created to provide healthcare for
    all working Americans
  • B. The SSA assured that no one in the United
    States would have to live in poverty
  • c. The SSA produced millions of new jobs in the
    United States economy
  • D. The SSA gave government there responsibility
    of providing for the elderly

123
GHSGT
  • World War II

124
World War II
  • The Axis Powers consisted of Nazi Germany,
    Fascist Italy, and Militant Japan.
  • Germany conquered former territories in Europe
    lost at the end of the WWI.
  • Italy conquered Ethiopia.
  • Japan conquered Manchuria, Eastern China, and
    other Pacific islands.

125
Explain the U.S. entry and domestic impact of
World War II
  • The events that led to the United States entry
    into World War II
  • Germany invaded Poland (September 1, 1939)
    initiating the Second World War.
  • The United States remained neutral throughout the
    first two years of the war.
  • On December 7, 1941, the United States entered
    WWII following a surprise attack by Japan at
    Pearl Harbor.

126
Explain the U.S. entry and domestic impact of
World War II
  • This day will live in infamy On the morning
    of December 7, 1941, the navy of the Empire of
    Japan launched a surprise attack on the U.S. Navy
    base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
  • 2,403 dead, 1,178 more were wounded
  • Sank 19 ships, 300 aircrafts
  • Similar attacks on U.S. positions in the
    Philippines and Guam
  • U.S declares war on Japan

127
Interment Camps
  • Japanese, Italian and German camps were located
    in the US.
  • Japanese was the largest of all of these.

128
Interment Camps
  • One effect of Americas entry into the war was
    alarm about the loyalty of Japanese Americans
    120,000 Japanese Americans lived in the United
    States, most of them on the West Coast. Fears of
    spies and sabotage led to prejudice and sometimes
    violence against Japanese Americans.
  • In the name of national security, Roosevelt
    ordered Executive Order 9066 on February, 1942.
    All people of Japanese ancestry be moved from
    West Coast California and parts of Washington,
    Oregon, and Arizona to rural internment (prison)
    camps.

129
Japanese Internment Camps
  • John DeWitt The Japanese race is an enemy
    race. . .
  • In the name of national security, Although
    most of the people imprisoned in these internment
    camps were Japanese Americans, there were also
    small numbers of German Americans and Italian
    Americans imprisoned under the same law, as well
    as hundreds of Native Americans from Alaska.

130
Explain the U.S. entry and domestic impact of
World War II
  • The War Effort at Home
  • The Draft
  • Wartime Production
  • The Labor Force
  • Paying for the War

131
Explain the U.S. entry and domestic impact of
World War II
  • In response to Germanys invasion of Poland.
  • FDR persuades Congress in special session to
    allow the US to aid European democracies in a
    limited way
  • The US could sell weapons to the European
    democracies on a cash-and-carry basis.
  • FDR was authorized to proclaim danger zones which
    US ships and citizens could not enter.
  • Results of the 1939 Neutrality Act
  • Aggressors could not send ships to buy US
    munitions.
  • The US economy improved as European demands for
    war goods helped bring the country out of the
    1937-38 recession.
  • America becomes the Arsenal of Democracy.

132
Home Front Mobilization
  • After Pearl Harbor, 5 million men volunteered for
    military service, but more were needed
  • to fight the war.
  • The Selective Service System expanded the draft,
    and 10 million more men joined the ranks of the
    American armed forces. So great was the need of
    the military,
  • a Womens Auxiliary Army Corps was formed to fill
    noncombat positions otherwise filled by men,
    freeing up the men for frontline duty.
  • The Draft
  • Wartime Production
  • The Labor Force
  • Paying for the War

133
Home Front Mobilization
  • The men needed tanks, planes, ships, guns,
    bullets, and boots. To equip the troops, the
    entire American industry was dedicated to
    supplying the military.
  • More than 6 million workers in the plants,
    factories, and shipyards were women.
  • With the men who once did these jobs now fighting
    overseas, women filled the void.
  • Women volunteered for this work even though they
    were paid on average only 60 as much as men
    doing the same jobs.
  • It was the hard work of people and the industrial
    might of the United States that helped America
    win World War II.
  • The Draft
  • Wartime Production
  • The Labor Force
  • Paying for the War

134
Home Front Mobilization Labor Force
  • War Production Board and other federal agencies
  • Scrap drives, Victory Gardens, and other
    austerity measures
  • Centrality of women to wartime production Rosie
    the Riveter
  • 16 million men and women serve
  • 1 million African Americans in segregated units
  • Women enjoyed expanded military role as WACs,
    WAVES
  • FDR signs Executive Order 8022 banned
    discrimination in industry related to the defense
    of the US.

135
Home Front Mobilization
  • As time went on, the war industry needed more raw
    materials. One way Americans helped the war
    effort was through wartime conservation.
  • Workers would carpool to work or ride bicycles to
    save gasoline and rubber.
  • People participated in nationwide drives to
    collect scrap iron, tin cans, newspaper, rags,
    and even cooking grease to recycle and use in war
    production.
  • Another way Americans conserved on the home front
    was through the mandatory government rationing
    system. Under this system, each household
    received a c book with coupons that were used
    to buy scarce items such as meat, sugar, and
    coffee. Gas rationing was also used to help save
    gasoline for military use.

136
Home Front Mobilization
  • The Draft
  • Wartime Production
  • The Labor Force
  • Paying for the War
  • The war cost 350 billion ten times the
    cost of World War I. Americans bought war bonds
    to finance he war. The United States changed from
    a creditor to a debtor nation.

137
Describe the development of the atomic bomb and
its implications
  • Albert Einstein persuaded FDR to develop an
    atomic bomb before the Nazis did.
  • Scientists sent to Los Alamos, New Mexico
    and other locations and developed and exploded
    the A-bomb in 1945.

138
Describe the development of the atomic bomb and
its implications
  • homeland, and both sides could possibly lose
    millions of people in the process. President
    Truman decided there was only one way to avoid an
    invasion of Japan and use a brand-new weapon that
    no one had ever seen before the atomic bomb.
  • Allied leaders planning the war against Japan
    knew that once they defeated the Japanese navy in
    the Pacific Ocean they would still have to invade
    Japan itself to end the war.
  • They knew Japan still had a huge army that would
    defend every inch of the

139
Describe the development of the atomic bomb and
its implications
  • The American government had developed two atomic
    bombs in a secret laboratory in Los Alamos, New
    Mexico. The bombs were dropped on Japan in early
    August 1945. On September 2, 1945, the Japanese
    surrendered, and World War II was finally over.
    The projects code name was The Manhattan
    Project.

140
Describe the development of the atomic bomb and
its implications
  • The implications of developing and using atomic
    bombs in World War II were enormous.
  • From a military standpoint, it was clear that not
    only did the United States have a powerful weapon
    that no other country had, but the American
    government was not afraid to use it.
  • The Soviet Union quickly began developing an
    atomic bomb of its own, an act that helped begin
    the Cold War.
  • Also, nuclear power would soon be used to power
    aircraft carriers and submarines. Scientifically
    and economically, the atomic bomb led to nuclear
    power for civilian use, such as generating
    electricity for homes and businesses.
  • Nuclear power is also used in technologies such
    as positron emission tomography (PET) scans,
    which are used by physicians to study the
    workings of the human body, including brain
    functions.

141
Describe the development of the atomic bomb and
its implications
  • Germany was defeated , FDR died and Harry
    Truman is President and he feared the invasion of
    Japan would lead to many more lost lives. So, he
    used the A-bomb over Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
    100,000 people died and the Japanese surrendered.

142
Question
  • The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki resulted in
  • A. the outbreak of World War II
  • B. U.S. entry into the war against Japan
  • C. The surrender of Japan
  • A decrease in the spread of Communism

143
Question and Answer
  • The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki resulted in
  • A. the outbreak of World War II
  • B. U.S. entry into the war against Japan
  • C. The surrender of Japan
  • A decrease in the spread of Communism

144
Question
  • What was the purpose of Japans attack on
    Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941?
  • A. to pressure the United States to join the Axis
    powers
  • B. to prepare for an immediate full invasion of
    the United States
  • C. to stop the United States from sending more
    troops to fight in Europe
  • D. to limit the ability of the United States to
    resist a Japanese attack on Southeast Asia

145
Question/Answer
  • What was the purpose of Japans attack on
    Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941?
  • A. to pressure the United States to join the Axis
    powers
  • B. to prepare for an immediate full invasion of
    the United States
  • C. to stop the United States from sending more
    troops to fight in Europe
  • D. to limit the ability of the United States to
    resist a Japanese attack on Southeast Asia

146
GHSGT
  • Post World War II and the Cold War

147
Describe U.S. Policies after World War II
  • United States foreign policyIsolationism until
    World War II
  • Under the leadership of presidents Warren G.
    Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover, the
    United States remained neutral in the 1920s and
    1930s
  • Despite the rise of dictators, the United States
    remained neutral until 1941

148
Describe U.S. Policies after World War II
  • Cold War begins
  • The Policy of Containment
  • Marshall Plan
  • Division of Germany and Berlin Airfift,1948
  • When the Soviet Union refused to allow
    elections in Poland, the United States refused to
    share the secrets behind the atomic bomb . The
    SU army continued to occupy Eastern Europe and
    spread communism.

149
Describe U.S. Policies after World War II
  • Cold War begins
  • The Policy of Containment
  • Marshall Plan
  • Division of Germany and Berlin Airfift,1948
  • US leaders responded to the domination of
    Eastern Europe by developing a policy of
    containment.
  • Under this policy, the US would not attempt
    to overturn communism where it already existed,
    but prevent it from spreading to new areas.

150
Describe U.S. Policies after World War II
  • Truman believed people were accepting
    communism because they were desperate.
  • Secretary of State George Marshall proposed
    that massive aid be given to the countries of war
    torn Europe to rebuild their economies.
  • It speed the economic recovery of Western
    Europe.
  • Cold War begins
  • The Policy of Containment
  • Marshall Plan
  • Division of Germany and Berlin Airfift,1948

151
Describe U.S. Policies after World War II
  • 1948 the French, British and American merged
    zones into a single West German state.
  • The old capital (also divide into four zones)
    was in the Soviet zone. The Soviet reacted by
    closing all links to West Berlin.
  • In order to feed and get medical supplies
    etc. General Clay began an airlift. The Soviets
    gave up and lifted the blockade.
  • Cold War begins
  • The Policy of Containment
  • Marshall Plan
  • Division of Germany and Berlin Airfift,1948

152
Question
  • A key factor in bringing about the Cold War was
  • a. Trade competition between the United States
    and Europe.
  • b. Differences in ideology between the U.S. and
    the Soviet Union.
  • c. The rejection of Soviet membership in the
    United Nations.
  • d. The forced relocation of Japanese-Americans
    in detention camps.

153
Question/Answer
  • A key factor in bringing about the Cold War was
  • a. Trade competition between the United States
    and Europe.
  • b. Differences in ideology between the U.S. and
    the Soviet Union.
  • c. The rejection of Soviet membership in the
    United Nations.
  • d. The forced relocation of Japanese-Americans
    in detention camps.

154
Explain the impact of the communists regime in
China and the Korean War
155
Explain the impact of the communists regime in
China and the Korean War
  • As American leaders believe it had kept the
    spread of communism not only in Europe but also
    the rest of the world. China, turned to
    Communism.
  • President Truman denied diplomatic
    recognition to Communism China, used veto power
    to prevent admission of China to UN, pledged to
    protect Taiwan from Communist attack.

156
Explain the impact of the communists regime in
China and the Korean War
  • The onset and outcome of the Korean War
  • When WWII ended, the former Allied Powers of the
    United States and Soviet Union each controlled a
    portion of the Korean Peninsula.
  • President Harry S. Truman ordered United States
    troops into Korea
  • China entered the war and created a stalemate.
  • North Korea remains Communist and South Korea
    remains a free market democracy.

157
Explain the impact of the communists regime in
China and the Korean War
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