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Give Me Liberty!

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Norton Media Library Chapter 17 Give Me Liberty! An American History Second Edition Volume 2 by Eric Foner ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Give Me Liberty!


1
Chapter 17
Norton Media Library
Give Me Liberty! An American History Second
Edition Volume 2
by Eric Foner
2
I. Agrarian revolt
  • The farmers plight
  • Generally
  • Falling agricultural prices
  • Growing economic insecurity
  • Regional variants
  • In trans-Mississippi West equipment debt
  • In South declining cotton prices
  • Farmers Alliance
  • Origins and spread Texas 1870s
  • Strategies
  • Initial cooperative approach credit exchanges
  • Turn to subtreasury plan, political engagement

3
I. Agrarian revolt (contd)
  • Advent of Peoples (Populist) party
  • Scope of following producing classes cotton
    wheat belts
  • Grassroots mobilization
  • Guiding vision
  • Commonwealth of small producers as fundamental to
    freedom (Jefferson)
  • Restoration of democracy and economic opportunity
  • Expansion of federal power
  • Omaha platform (1892)
  • Ignatius Donnelly (see quote, page 617)
  • Proposals direct election of senators, govt.
    control of currency, public financing for
    farmers, recognition of labor unions, and public
    ownership of railroads

4
I. Agrarian revolt (contd)
  • Populist coalition
  • Interracial alliance
  • Tom Watson (GA)
  • Colored Farmers Alliance
  • Involvement of women
  • Mary Elizabeth Lease less corn, more hell
  • Support for womens suffrage
  • Electoral showing for 1892
  • Prospects for Populist-labor alliance
  • Context
  • Economic collapse of 1893
  • Resurgence of conflict between labor and capital
  • Sharpening of government repression of labor

5
Map 67
6
Map 68
7
I. Agrarian revolt (contd)
  • Prospects for Populist-labor alliance
  • Key episodes
  • Miners strike at Coeur dAlene, Idaho
  • Coxeys Army
  • Pullman strike
  • American Railway Union
  • Attorney General Richard Olney
  • Eugene V. Debs
  • Populist appeals to industrial workers in 1894
  • Some success among miners
  • Minimal success among urban workers preference
    for Republicans

8
I. Agrarian revolt (contd)
  • Election of 1896
  • Campaign of William Jennings Bryan
  • Joint support by Democrats and Populists
  • Electrifying rhetoric (see quote, page 605)
  • Themes
  • Free silver
  • Social Gospel overtones
  • Vision of activist government
  • National tour to rally farmers and workers
  • Campaign of William McKinley
  • Insistence on gold standard
  • Massive financial support from big business
    (McKinley Tariff)
  • National political machine Mark Hanna

9
I. Agrarian revolt (contd)
  • Election of 1896
  • 3. Outcome
  • Sharp regional divide (see map)
  • McKinley victory
  • 4. Significance and legacy
  • Emergence of modern campaign tactics
  • Launching of Republican political dominance
  • Fading of Populism
  • The Wonderful Wizard of Oz

10
Map 69
11
II. The Segregated South
  • Redeemers in power
  • Dismantling of Reconstruction programs
  • Convict lease system
  • Failures of the New South
  • Limits of economic development
  • Persistence of regional poverty
  • Black life
  • Rural
  • Varied prospects around region
  • Elusive quest for land

12
II. The Segregated South (contd)
  • Black life
  • 2. Urban
  • Network of community institutions
  • The black middle class
  • Racially exclusive labor markets
  • Pockets of interracial unionism
  • Kansas Exodus (1879-1880)
  • Mass migration of 50,000 blacks
  • Benjamin Pap Singleton
  • Kansas reality

13
II. The Segregated South (contd)
  • Decline of black politics
  • Narrowing of political opportunity for black men
  • Church, law, private business
  • Shifting of political initiative for black women
  • National Association of Colored Women
  • Middle-class orientation
  • Pursuit of equal rights and racial uplift
  • Range of activities
  • Disfranchisement
  • Persistence of black voting following
    Reconstruction
  • Readjuster movement in Virginia
  • Mounting alarm over specter of biracial
    insurgency
  • Systematic elimination of black vote how?
  • Justifications and motivations (see quote on pp.
    612-613)

14
II. The Segregated South (contd)
  • Disfranchisement
  • 5. Effects
  • Massive purging of blacks from voting rolls
  • 1940 3 of adult southern blacks were registered
  • Widespread disfranchisement of poor whites as
    well
  • Emergence of southern white demagogues
  • Tom Watsons moral collapse
  • 6. The Norths blessing
  • Senate
  • Supreme Court

15
II. The Segregated South (contd)
  • Segregation
  • Fluidity of race relations following
    Reconstruction
  • Green light from Supreme Court for legal
    segregation
  • Civil Rights Cases (1883)
  • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
  • Separate but equal doctrine
  • Justice Harlan dissent
  • Spread of segregation laws across South
  • Unreality of separate but equal
  • Segregation as component of overall white
    domination
  • Social etiquette of segregation
  • Effects on other non-white groups

16
II. The Segregated South (contd)
  • G. Rise of lynching (see table 17.1, page 615)
  • Motivations
  • Shocking brutality (Sam Hose, Newnan, GA)
  • The rape myth
  • Ida B. Wellss antilynching crusade
  • A distinctly American phenomenon
  • H. Uses of historical Memory
  • Civil War as family quarrel among white
    Americans
  • Reconstruction as horrible time of Negro rule
  • Erasure of blacks as historical actors

17
III. Contrasting notions of nationhood
  • New nativism
  • Against new immigrants from southern and
    eastern Europe
  • Depictions of new immigrants
  • As lower races
  • As threat to American Democracy
  • Campaigns to curtail
  • Immigration Restriction League
  • Efforts to bar entry into United States
  • State disfranchisement measures

18
III. Contrasting notions of nationhood (contd)
  • New nativism
  • Against immigrants from China
  • Congressional exclusion of Chinese women
  • Congressional exclusion of all Chinese
  • Passage in 1882
  • Renewal in 1892, 1902
  • Discrimination and violence against
    Chinese-Americans
  • Uneven positions of Supreme court on rights of
    Chinese
  • Yick Wo v. Hopkins
  • United States v. Wong Kim Ark
  • Fong Yue Ting
  • Precedent for legal exclusion of other groups

19
III. Contrasting notions of nationhood (contd)
  • Booker T. Washington and the scaling back of
    black demands
  • Background on Washington
  • 1895 Atlanta address
  • Washington approach
  • Repudiation of claim to full equality
  • Acceptance of segregation
  • Emphasis on material self-help, individual
    advancement, alliance with white employers

20
III. Contrasting notions of nationhood (contd)
  • American Federation of Labor and the scaling back
    of labors outlook
  • Rise of the AFL, Samuel Gompers
  • AFL-Gompers approach
  • Reproduction of broad reform vision, political
    engagement, direct confrontation with capital
  • Emphasis on bargaining with employers over wages
    and conditions business unionism
  • Narrower ideal of labor solidarity
  • Concentration on skilled labor sectors
  • Exclusion of blacks, women, new immigrants

21
III. Contrasting notions of nationhood (contd)
  • Ambiguities of the womens era
  • Widening prospects for economic independence
  • Expanding role in public life
  • Growing network of womens organizations,
    campaigns
  • Womens Christian Temperance Union
  • Growing elitism of womens suffrage movement
  • Ethnic
  • Racial

22
IV. Becoming a world power
  • The new imperialism
  • Traditional empires
  • Consolidation and expansion of imperial powers
  • Cultural justifications for imperial domination
  • Abstention of United States from scramble for
    empire before 1890s
  • Continuing status as second-rate power
  • Confinement of national expansion to North
    American continent
  • Minimal record of overseas territorial
    acquisition
  • Preference for expanded trade over colonial
    holdings
  • Leading advocates

23
IV. Becoming a world power (contd)
  • C. Emerging calls for American expansion
  • Leading advocates
  • Josiah Strong (Our Country)
  • Alfred T. Mahan (The Influence of Sea Power Upon
    History)
  • Themes
  • Moral
  • Global application of manifest destiny
  • Uplift of inferior races
  • Economic
  • Expanded markets for American goods
  • Protection of international trade
  • Strategic
  • Influence

24
IV. Becoming a world power (contd)
  • Intervention in Hawaii
  • American trade and military agreements
  • Economic dominance of American sugar planters
  • Over throw of Queen Liliuokalani (1893)
  • Rise of assertive nationalism
  • Contributing factors
  • Depression-era quest for foreign markets
  • Concern over economic and ethnic disunity
  • Manifestations
  • Rituals
  • Pledge of Allegiance
  • Star-Spangled Banner
  • Flag Day
  • Yellow journalism Hearst and Pulitzer

25
IV. Becoming a world power (contd)
  • Spanish-American War (The splendid little war)
  • Background
  • Long Cuban struggle for independence from Spain
  • Renewal of struggle in 1895
  • Harsh Spanish response
  • Growing American sympathy for Cuban cause
  • Toward intervention
  • Destruction of battleship Maine
  • War fever, fanned by yellow press
  • U.S. Declaration of war Teller Amendment

26
Map 71
27
IV. Becoming a world power (contd)
  • Spanish-American War
  • 3. The war
  • In Philippines
  • Admiral George Deweys victory at Manila Bay
  • Landing of American troops
  • In Cuba and Puerto Rico
  • Landing of American troops
  • Naval victory of Santiago
  • Theodore Roosevelts Rough Riders legendary
    charge up San Juan Hill
  • Swift defeat of Spain

28
Map 70
29
IV. Becoming a world power (contd)
  • From liberator to imperial power
  • Postwar attainment of overseas empire
  • Varied arrangements
  • Annexation of Hawaii (1898)
  • Acquisition of Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam
  • McKinleys duty to uplift and civilize
  • Qualified sovereignty for Cuba, Platt Amendment
  • Value as outposts for U.S. naval and commercial
    power
  • Open Door policy with China (1899)
  • Initial welcome in former Spanish colonies for
    U.S. forces
  • As agent of expanded trade and social order
  • As agent of social reform and national self-rule

30
Map 72
31
IV. Becoming a world power (contd)
  • From liberator to imperial power
  • 4. Growing disenchantment in Philippines
  • Founding of provisional government by Emilio
    Aguinaldo
  • U.S. failure to recognize insistence on
    retaining possession
  • 5. Philippine war (1899-1903)
  • Bloodiness and brutality
  • Controversy in United States (precursor to
    Vietnam?)
  • Outcome
  • 6. Legacy of poverty and inequality in American
    possessions

32
IV. Becoming a world power (contd)
  • Status of territorial peoples
  • Kiplings white mans burden
  • Limits on claims to American freedom
  • Forakaer Act
  • Insular Cases
  • Divergent futures for American territories
  • Hawaii (statehood)
  • Philippines (independence)
  • Guam (unincorporated territory)
  • Puerto Rico (commonwealth, or insular territory)
  • I. American debate over imperial expansion
  • Opponents (Anti-Imperialist League) republic or
    empire?
  • Proponents benevolent imperialism
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