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MIDDLE AMERICA (CHAPTER 4)

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MIDDLE AMERICA (CHAPTER 4) U.S. TRADE WITH CANADA & MEXICO Canada remains as the United States largest export market. Since 1977, Mexico has moved into second ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MIDDLE AMERICA (CHAPTER 4)


1
MIDDLE AMERICA (CHAPTER 4)
2
INTRODUCTION TO MIDDLE AMERICA
  • DEFINING THE REALM
  • MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, CARIBBEAN ISLANDS
  • MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES
  • FRAGMENTED - PHYSICALLY AND POLITICALLY
  • DIVERSE CULTURALLY AFRICAN (CARIBBEAN), NATIVE
    AMERICAN SPANISH (MEXICO CENTRAL AMERICA)
  • POVERTY IS ENDEMIC (LEAST DEV. IN THE AMERICAS

3
REGIONS OF MIDDLE AMERICA
MEXICO
GREATER ANTILLES
LESSER ANTILLES
CENTRAL AMERICA
4
CENTRAL AMERICA
5
THE SEVEN REPUBLICS
  • Guatemala
  • Belize
  • Honduras
  • El Salvador
  • Nicaragua
  • Costa Rica
  • Panama

6
THE CARIBBEAN BASIN
  • The Greater Antilles
  • Cuba
  • Hispaniola Haiti Dominican Rep.
  • Jamaica
  • Puerto Rico
  • The Lesser Antilles
  • The smaller Islands, e.g. Bahamas, etc.

7
THE CARIBBEAN BASIN
8
MIDDLE AMERICA
9
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
  • LAND BRIDGE
  • ARCHIPELAGO (ISLAND CHAIN)
  • GREATER AND LESSER ANTILLES (ABOUT 7,000 ISLANDS)
  • NATURAL HAZARDS
  • EARTHQUAKES
  • VOLCANOES
  • HURRICANES
  • MOST DANGEROUS REALM OF ALL!

I wonder why?
10
WORLD TECTONIC PLATES
11
DISTRIBUTION OF EARTHQUAKES VOLCANOES
12
WORLD HURRICANE TRACKS
13
Pg 211, see caption
14
CULTURE HEARTH
  • SOURCE AREAS FROM WHICH RADIATED IDEAS,
    INNOVATIONS, AND IDEOLOGIES THAT CHANGED THE
    WORLD BEYOND.
  • STARTED IN WHAT IS NOW MEXICO

AZTEC
MAYA
15
MESOAMERICA (MIDDLE)
  • CULTURE HEARTHS
  • MAYA CIVILIZATION
  • 3000 BC
  • CLASSIC PERIOD 200-900 AD
  • HONDURAS, GUATEMALA, BELIZE, YUCATAN PENINSULA
  • THEOCRATIC STRUCTURE
  • AZTEC CIVILIZATION
  • 1300 AD
  • VALLEY OF MEXICO
  • TENOCHTITLAN (gt100,000 PEOPLE)

16
(No Transcript)
17
THE LEGACY OF COLONIALISM
  • LAND WAS APPROPRIATED - COLONIAL COMMERCIAL
    INTERESTS (MAP, PG 214)
  • LANDS PREVIOUSLY DEVOTED TO FOOD CROPS FOR LOCAL
    CONSUMPTION WERE CONVERTED TO CASH CROPPING FOR
    EXPORT
  • LAND ALIENATION INDUCES
  • FAMINE
  • POVERTY
  • MIGRATION
  • LITTLE AGRICULTURAL DIVERSITY

18
COLONIAL SPHERES
19
MAINLAND / RIMLAND FRAMEWORK
  • MAINLAND
  • EURO-INDIAN INFLUENCE
  • GREATER ISOLATION
  • HACIENDA PREVAILED
  • RIMLAND
  • EURO-AFRICAN INFLUENCE
  • HIGH ACCESSIBILITY (surrounded by oceans)
  • PLANTATION ECONOMY

20
MAINLAND RIMLAND DISTINCTION
21
MAINLAND vs RIMLAND
MAINLAND
RIMLAND
  • LOCATION GREATER ISOLATION GREATER
  • ACCESSIBILITY
  • CLIMATE ALTITUDINAL TROPICAL
  • ZONATION
  • PHYSIOGRAPHY MOUNTAINS ISLANDS
  • CULTURE EURO / INDIAN EURO / AFRICAN
  • RACE MESTIZO MULATTO
  • LANDHOLDING HACIENDAS PLANTATION
  • PATTERNS
  • CULTIVATION LESS INTENSIVE MORE INTENSIVE,
    HENCE SLAVES

22
ALTITUDINAL ZONATION
Middle South Americas Vertical Climate Zones
23
HACIENDA vs PLANTATION
  • HACIENDA
  • SPANISH INSTITUTION
  • NOT EFFICIENT BUT BROUGHT SOCIAL PRESTIGE
  • WORKERS LIVED ON THE LAND
  • PLANTATION
  • NORTHERN EUROPEAN ORIGINS
  • EXPORT ORIENTED MONOCROPS
  • IMPORTED CAPITAL AND SKILLS
  • SEASONAL LABOR
  • EFFICIENCY IS KEY

24
AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTIONS
PLANTATION
HACIENDA
  • PRODUCTION FOR EXPORT
  • SINGLE CASH CROP
  • SEASONAL EMPLOYMENT
  • PROFIT MOTIVE
  • MARKET VULNERABILITY
  • DOMESTIC MARKET
  • DIVERSIFIED CROPS
  • YEAR ROUND JOBS
  • SMALL PLOT OF LAND
  • SELF-SUFFICIENT

EJIDO
  • SMALL SURPLUSES
  • LAND OWNERSHIP
  • COMMUNAL VILLAGE
  • COLLECTIVE

25
MAQUILADORAS
26
MAQUILADORAS
  • Modern industrial plants
  • Assemble imported, duty-free components/raw
    materials
  • Export the finished products
  • Mostly foreign-owned (U.S., Japan)
  • 80 of goods reexported to U.S.
  • Tariffs limited to value added during assembly

27
GDP PER CAPITA ALONG THE US-MEXICAN BORDER
28
MAQUILADORAS
  • Initiated in the 1960s
  • Assembly plants that pioneered the migration of
    industries in the 1970s
  • Today
  • gt4,000 maquiladoras
  • gt1.2 million employees

29
MAQUILADORAS
  • Maquiladora products
  • Electronic equipment
  • Electric appliances
  • Auto parts
  • Clothing
  • Furniture

30
MAQUILADORAS
  • Advantages
  • Mexico gains jobs.
  • Foreign owners benefit from cheaper labor costs.
  • Disadvantages U.S. Jobs
  • Effects
  • Regional development
  • Development of an international growth corridor
    between Monterrey and Dallas - Fort Worth

31
NAFTA
  • Effective 1 January 1994
  • Established a trade agreement between Mexico,
    Canada and the US, which
  • Reduced and regulated trade tariffs (taxes),
    barriers, and quotas between members
  • Standardized finance service exchanges

32
NAFTA
How has Mexico benefited from NAFTA?
33
MEXICO AND NAFTA
  • Foremost, it promises a higher standard of
    living.
  • NAFTA creates more jobs for Mexicans as US
    companies begin to invest more heavily in the
    Mexican market.
  • Mexican exporters increase their sales to the US
    and Canada.
  • Downside cheap U.S. corn now floods Mexico,
    leading to bankruptcies among local farmers.

34
U.S. TRADE WITH CANADA MEXICO
  • Canada remains as the United States largest
    export market.
  • Since 1977, Mexico has moved into second place
    (displacing Japan).
  • 85 of all Mexican exports now go to the United
    States.
  • 75 of Mexicos imports originate in the United
    States.

35
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
  • Tropical Deforestation
  • 3 million acres of woodland in Central America
    disappear each year! (well talk about Brazil in
    South America later)

What are the causes of tropical deforestation?
36
CAUSES OF TROPICAL DEFORESTATION
  • Clearing of rural lands to accommodate meat
    production and export
  • Population explosion forests are cut to provide
    crop-raising space and firewood
  • Rapid logging of tropical woodlands to meet
    global demands for new housing, paper, and
    furniture

37
Costa Rica, pg 231.
38
TOURISM A MIXED BLESSING?
  • Advantages
  • Presents state and regional economic options
  • A clean industry
  • Disadvantages
  • Disjunctive development
  • Degrades fragile environmental resources
  • Inauthentic representations of native cultures
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