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Luxfer the Introduction to OH&S

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Title: Luxfer the Introduction to OH&S


1
Metal Fabrication Welding
Mt Druitt College of TAFE
Occupational Health Safety
2
The following presentation used the resources
listed below.
TAFE Module NBB02 OHS OTEN Publication
Hazards at work The graphics have been copied
from the above publications, various safety sites
on the www the DEET site, Workcover and Worksafe
sites around Australia.
Any queries or problems should be sent to Henry
Kirwan Teacher of Metal Fabrication
Welding Mount Druitt TAFE Ph 92086319 Email
henry.kirwan_at_tafensw.edu.au
3
Occupational Health and Safety
4
OHS Legislation
5
OHS
SOP's
Enterprise policies, procedures and legislative
requirements
Brief History of Present OHS Legislation
  • In June 1981 a commission of Inquiry for the NSW
    Government into the effectiveness of existing
    OHS legislation recommended that the Act
  • 1. Apply to all Workplaces
  • 2. Apply to all Employees
  • 3. Promote workplace improvements
  • 4. Provide a framework for replacing old
    prescriptive legislation with simpler
    legislation.

6
OHS
Enterprise policies, procedures and legislative
requirements
Brief History of Present OHS Legislation
A new act was introduced in 1983.This act became
known as the NSW Occupational Health Safety
Act 1983 On September 1st 2001 this act was
replaced by the NSW Occupational health and
Safety Act 2000
7
OHS
Enterprise policies, procedures and legislative
requirements
The OHS act aims to
  • 1. Ensure the health, safety and welfare of
    employees
  • 2. Protect other people, at the workplace,
    visitors etc
  • 3. Promote a working environment for employees
    which is adapted to their physical
    psychological needs.
  • 4. Ensures use of Codes of Practice, Standards
    and joint consultation to improve workplace
    health and safety
  • 5. Review all other associated legislation so
    that it may be progressively updated and included
    in the OHS Act

8
OHS
SOP's
Enterprise policies, procedures and legislative
requirements
OHS Regulations
Regulations have been made under the principal
Acts governing OHS in each state and territory
and the Commonwealth. Regulations deal with
specific issues relevant to OHS in greater
detail than they are dealt in the Act itself.
For example issues such as 1. Manual
handling 2. First aid 3. Accident
notification 4. Asbestos etc can be covered by
enactment of Regulations
9
OHS
SOP's
Enterprise policies, procedures and legislative
requirements
Standards
Standards are advisory or technical documents
which set out the minimum acceptable levels of
performance or quality in relation to a specific
hazard, work process, industry or product.There
are two main sources of standards relevant to
OHS in Australia. They are 1. Worksafe
Australia a national body working towards
Australia wide uniformity in OHS through
consultation. 2. Standards Australia, a private
organisation which sets standards in consultation
with overseas standard bodies and relevant
Australian working parties.
10
OHS
SOP's
Enterprise policies, procedures and legislative
requirements
Codes of Practice
Codes of Practice are produced by Worksafe
Australia or the various states and territories.
They are documents which provide advice to
employers on how they can achieve the minimum
acceptable level of performance set in Standards
or in Regulations. Standards do not have the
force of legislation unless they are specifically
called up in legislation. Codes of Practice can,
however, be used in court by the state and OHS
authorities as evidence that an organisation is
not meeting minimum requirements for OHS.
11
OHS
SOP's
Enterprise policies, procedures and legislative
requirements
Responsibilities for OHS (Employers)
Protection of Employees. 1. Provide safe plant,
equipment and system of work and maintain it
properly. 2. Substances in the workplace are
safely used, handled, stored and
transported. 3. Adequate safe access and exits
are maintained. 4. Training and supervision given
to ensure employees can perform their duties
safely.
12
OHS
Enterprise policies, procedures and legislative
requirements
Responsibilities for OHS (Employers)
Protection of Employees. 5. Look after the health
and safety of visitors. 6. Provide and maintain a
safe and healthy work environment. 7. Provide
information to employees about any plant,
equipment or substances used in the
workplace. Information such as a. precautions
and conditions needed for their safe
use. b. Potential health and safety problems
arising from their use. c. The results of any
research carried out on substances.
13
OHS
Enterprise policies, procedures and legislative
requirements
Responsibilities for OHS (Employees)
All Employees have the right to safe and healthy
workplace and to be protected from behaviour by
others which may endanger them. Employees have
two main OHS responsibilities placed on them.
These are to 1. Take reasonable care in relation
to the health and safety of other people at
their place of work.. 2. Cooperate with the
employer and others with responsibilities under
OHS legislation in their efforts to provide a
safe and healthy workplace.
14
OHS
Enterprise policies, procedures and legislative
requirements
Responsibilities for OHS (Employees)
These responsibilities mean that employees should
not 1. Behave in a way that someone could be
injured (e.g. throw tools, threaten someone
with a high pressure hose etc) 2. Refuse to
follow work practices designed for their
protection and protection of others (e.g.
refuse to wear hearing protectors, follow SOPs
etc) 3. Intentionally or recklessly interfere
with or misuse anything provided in the
interests of OHS and welfare (e.g. remove
machine guards, modify equipment without
permission etc) 4. Permanently disengage the stop
button on a piece of machinery or equipment.
15
OHS
Enterprise policies, procedures and legislative
requirements
OHS Committees
OHS legislation provides for two mechanisms for
consultation. OHS committee and health and
safety representatives. It also provides for the
training of committee members and health and
safety representatives. Committees are generally
composed of both nominated employer
representatives and elected employee
representatives.
16
OHS
Enterprise policies, procedures and legislative
requirements
Functions of an OHS Committees
1. Conducting workplace inspections on a regular
basis and after accidents or dangerous
occurrences.
2. Providing advice on solutions to OHS problems
3. Accompanying the inspector during any
inspection by a government authority.
4. Reviewing OHS information such as Material
Data Safety Sheets and injury and illness
statistics..
17
OHS
Enterprise policies, procedures and legislative
requirements
Functions of an OHS Committees
5. Providing advice on OHS policies and
programmes.
6. Consulting on the health and safety aspects of
proposed changes to the workplace.
7. Recommending OHS training.
18
OHS
Remember SAFETY is the responsibility of both
Employees and Employers. It requires cooperation
and ongoing communication between both parties to
ensure a safe and healthy workplace.
19
OHS
Workplace Hazards
20
OHS
Safe practices in the workplace
Types of Workplace Hazards
There a Six major Workplace Hazards. 1. Physical 2
. Chemical 3. Ergonomic 4. Radiation 5. Psychologi
cal 6. Biological
21
OHS
Types of Workplace Hazards
Physical 1. Noise 2. Vibration 3. Lighting 4. Heat
or cold 5. Fire, explosion 6. Dust 7. Confined
spaces
22
OHS
Types of Workplace Hazards
Chemical 1. Gases 2. Dusts 3. Fumes 4. Vapours 5.
Liquids
23
OHS
Types of Workplace Hazards
Ergonomic 1. Tool design 2. Equipment
design 3. Task design 4. Handling 5. Work station
location
24
OHS
Types of Workplace Hazards
Radiation 1. Infra Red 2. Ultra
violet 3. Lasers 4. X Rays 5. Gamma
rays 6. Microwaves
Radiation
25
OHS
Types of Workplace Hazards
Psychological 1. Shiftwork 2. Workload 3. Dealing
with the public 4. Harassment 5. Discrimination 6.
Threats 7. Low level of constant noise
26
OHS
Types of Workplace Hazards
Biological 1. Infections 2. Bacteria 3. Viruses,
hepatitis etc,
27
OHS
All work sites have hazards associated with them,
these are hazards that you will need to be aware
of
Moving machinery
Confined spaces
High noise levels
Conveyors
Heat
Robots
Chemicals
Fumes
28
OHS
Workplace Hazards
The following is general information that relates
to engineering workshops including workshops on
TAFE premises. The principles also apply to most
workplaces including building sites.
Safety First This term is in common use to
describe an attitude of mind which should control
all personal actions, conscious and subconscious.
The objective is to prevent an accident to
oneself or to others in the work place.
Some people readily acquire safety habits some do
not.
29
OHS
Workplace Hazards
If an Individual is the basic cause of accidents,
the attitude of that person towards work and
fellow employees must be examined. Accidents can
be caused by the following behavior
Recklessness (foolhardiness) Selfishness Indiffe
rence Laziness Nervousness and
excitability Impatience Ignorance of safe
practices Temper Willful intent to damage or
injure Deliberate failure to understand
instructions
30
OHS
Workplace Hazards
Conditions that may help prevent accidents and
reduce injury are
An Adequately lit workshop An orderly and tidy
workshop Being mentally alert at all times A
knowledge of First Aid Correct personal
protective clothing (PPE) Not wearing jewellery
around moving machinery or electricity
Think Safety
31
OHS
Workplace Hazards
In the workshop
Do not skylark or distract others. Never take
part in practical jokes. (Some jokes have led to
fatalities) Do not walk on loosely stacked
material Do not stand or walk under overhead
loads. Do not approach scaffolding on which
people are working Beware of slippery
surfaces. Use the handrails provided when using
stairways.
32
OHS
Workplace Hazards
Machine Operations
Do not remove guards from machine when using
them. Have electrical control gear inspected by
authorised persons Familiarise yourself with the
emergency stop button an any machine Do not wear
gloves unless the process requires it. Safety
shields should be fitted to all abrasive
wheels Abrasive wheel should be maintained in a
true condition . Do not stand in front on an
abrasive wheel when turning it on. Do not use
cotton waste to grip material when grinding. Do
not exert pressure on the side of an abrasive
wheel.
33
OHS
Workplace Hazards
Hand Tools
Use hand tools for the purpose that they were
intended for. Remove loose or damaged handles and
replace them. Never hold a screwdriver in one
hand and material in the other when using
it. Remove all mushroom heads from chisel and
punches before using them. Do not use loosely
fitting spanners. Check that pliers are insulated
before working on electrical connections. . When
using a knife always cut away from
yourself Ensure that work is secure in a vice
before working on it.
34
OHS
Workplace Hazards
General Hints
Switch off machines before oiling or making minor
adjustments. Size up any load before lifting. Do
not overestimate your personal strength. Do not
overload hand trucks, fasten load and check
travel lane is clear. Check cotton waste before
using it. It may contain metal shavings or
oil. Check all machinery before using it, the
previous operator may not have left in a good
condition. Do not adjust or repair any electrical
equipment that you are not trained for.. Know the
location and type of fire extinguishers in your
workplace.
35
OHS
House Keeping
36
OHS
In order to minimise or eliminate hazards, good
Housekeeping is essential.
Good House Keeping Means 1. Fewer
accidents 2. Better moral 3. People stay at the
company longer 4. Less damage to
materials 5. Working more efficiently 6. Less
risk of fire/explosion 7. Work is less tiresome
37
OHS
Housekeeping
Good House Keeping Means 8. Better work
methods 9. Pride in the organisation 10. Staff
get on well together
38
OHS
Housekeeping
Good House Keeping can be maintained by 1.
Regular housekeeping inspections 2. Problems
listed, 3. Solutions to problems discussed
before implementation of new procedures
39
OHS
Housekeeping
To Maintain General Cleanliness and Hygiene 1.
Keep pathways clear 2. Keep floors clean of oil
grease etc 3. Remove dust and fibres as safely as
possible 4. Rubbish bins to be emptied
regularly 5. Dispose of trade waste
correctly 6. Store items in their proper
containers
40
OHS
Housekeeping
To Maintain General Cleanliness and Hygiene 7.
Keep change rooms clean 8. Toilets and washrooms
to be maintained 9. Warning notices to be
appropriately placed 10. Keep notice boards up to
date 11. First aid kits to be stocked
regularly 12. Up date safety posters on a regular
basis.
Smoking is only permitted in designated areas.
41
OHS
PPE Personal Protective Equipment
42
OHS
Personal Protective clothing (PPE)
When a hazard has been identified and all the
various levels of control have been looked at
without finding a way to eliminate or control the
hazard, the last line of protection is the use of
Personal Protective Equipment. PPE, in the form
of clothing or equipment, is often the only
possible means of control (especially in a field
situation). It can be a solution to a temporary
hazard and an interim measure until more
effective controls can be put in place
43
OHS
Personal Protective clothing (PPE)
PPE should be used to protect the following parts
and body functions of the body.
1. Skin
2. Head
3. Body
4. Hearing
5. Feet
6. Breathing
8. Hands
7. Eyes
44
OHS
Personal Protective clothing (PPE)
The following PPE is compulsory in the factory
Overalls or trousers, long sleeved shirts.
Industrial quality
45
OHS
Personal Protective clothing (PPE)
The following PPE is to be worn when carrying out
specific tasks.
Wet weather gear for outside work as required
Approved Welding shield/goggles for welding and
cutting
Approved Breathing apparatus for cleaning and
spraying
Waterproof gloves, aprons, face shields for
washing down
46
OHS
Confined Spaces
47
OHS
Confined Spaces
There may be times when you will be required to
work in what may be termed a confined space.
Numerous deaths have occurred throughout industry
from employees working in confined spaces. Also
concern is that people attempting to rescue
others from confined spaces have succumbed to the
hazards themselves.
48
Confined Spaces
OHS
The Occupational Health and Safety Regulation
2001, Part 4.3 Division 9, clause 68 states
An Employer must ensure that no person enters a
confined space or that work is not carried out
inside or on the outside of a confined space
if (a) There is a risk to the health and safety
of a person entering, occupying or working on
the surface of the confined space, or (b) there
is a risk of fire or explosion, and the risk
has not been controlled as required by this
Regulation
49
OHS
Confined Spaces
A confined space is a space of any volume which
Is not intended as a regular workplace
Has restricted means of exit and entry
May have inadequate ventilation and/or an
atmosphere which is either contaminated or oxygen
deficient
Is at atmospheric pressure during occupancy
50
OHS
Confined Spaces
Examples of confined spaces include
Storage tanks, boilers, silos
Access pits, pipes, tunnels, shafts
Open topped spaces of more than 1,5m in depth
51
OHS
Confined Spaces
Hazards of confined spaces usually include
Where oxygen has been replaced by another gas
Presence of harmful contaminants such as
hydrogen, carbon monoxide etc
Corrosive or noxious liquids or solids
Electricity or other hazards
Possibility of fire or explosion from explosive
mixtures
Absence of emergency assistance
Inadequately trained or equipped assistants
52
OHS
Confined Spaces
In addition, working in confined spaces exposes
operators to other hazards such as
Noise
Excessive temperature variation
Radiation
Slips
Trips
Falls
53
OHS
Confined Spaces
Working in a confined space.
Obtain permission before entering (Work Permit)
Have an assistant outside to observe and raise
alarm if required.
Supply ventilation by forced draught
Gas cylinders and welding equipment to be kept
outside
Electrical tools and lighting (32 Volt maximum)
54
Confined Spaces
OHS
30 May 1997 Safety Alert On LP Gas Cylinders The
Acting General Manager of WorkCover, Mr John
Horder, today warned that all LP Gas cylinders
should be secured and not kept in confined
spaces. Mr Horder said "Without prejudicing
WorkCover's investigations into today's tragedy,
I have been advised to warn tradespeople
particularly that they should not carry the
cylinders in tool boxes. "The valves on these
cylinders can become loose as a result of jarring
and the smallest spark, even from opening a door,
can ignite the leaking gas and in an enclosed
space such as a van, it turns into a lethal bomb.
"People should ensure the valves are off, the
cylinders are upright, are secured and are not in
a confined space and that there are no leaks."

55
OHS
Permit to Work
Before work can begin in a confined space or area
it is the employees responsibility to apply for
an Entry Permit. This permit will be issued by a
designated officer or supervisor.
56
OHS
Permit to Work
The Occupational Health and Safety Regulation
2001, Part 4.3 Division 9, Clause 72 states
(1) An employer must ensure that no person enters
or works in or on a confined space unless
authorised by an entry permit given by the
employer. This permit must be in writing
57
OHS
Safety Signs
58
OHS
Safety Signs
Throughout the workshop you will observe various
Safety Signs and Posters. Safety Signs are
covered by AS1319.
59
OHS
Safety Signs
Signs are designated according to use, they can
be
Mandatory Signs
Warning Signs
Prohibition Signs
Fire Signs
General Information Signs
Danger Signs
60
OHS
Safety Signs
Mandatory Signs
These signs use Symbols or Pictograms, depicted
in white on a blue background. These signs
specify that an instruction must be carried out.
61
OHS
Safety Signs
Warning Signs
These signs use a black symbol on a yellow
background. These signs are to warn of a hazard
that is not likely to be life threatening.
62
OHS
Safety Signs
Prohibition Signs
These signs use a Red annulus and slash. A black
action symbol is used to indicate what is
prohibited.
63
OHS
Safety Signs
Fire Signs
Advise the location of fire alarms and fire
fighting equipment. White symbol on red
background..
64
OHS
Safety Signs
General Information Signs
Not covered by AS1319, but are used to
communicate information of a general nature and
often relate to housekeeping or company practices.
65
OHS
Safety Signs
Danger Signs
These are a warning when the hazard is likely to
be life threatening. The word DANGER is placed
inside a red ellipse.
66
OHS
Isolation and Tagging Procedures
67
OHS
Isolation and Tagging Procedures
All work on mechanical installations and
equipment should be undertaken with the power
(Mechanical or Electrical) isolated from the
plant being worked on. Isolation means turning
off the machine, the circuit or apparatus to be
worked on. By ensuring there is no power to the
plant, the operator, or person carrying out
repairs should no suffer an injury.
68
OHS
Isolation and Tagging Procedures
To isolate plant, a number of important
procedures need to be implemented including
tagging systems, lock-out systems and special
operating procedures.
The personal Danger Tag is used for tagging
electrical and non-electrical equipment. It is
attached to the means of isolation to prevent
unauthorised or inadvertent operation of the
equipment being repaired or installed.
69
OHS
Isolation and Tagging Procedures
The Occupational Health and Safety Regulation
2001, Part 5.4 Division 3, Clause 136 states
(1) An employer must ensure that
(a) If access to plant is required for the
purpose of maintenance, cleaning or repair, the
plant is stopped and one or more of the following
measures is used so as to control risks to health
and safety
Lockout or isolation devices
Danger tags
Permit to work systems
70
OHS
Isolation and Tagging Procedures
Removal of Tags
A Danger Tag may only be removed by the person
whose signature is in the tag.
Procedure Check that all equipment is safe to be
engaged. Notify all personnel that the equipment
will be engaged, including the area
supervisor. Remove isolating lock and personal
danger tag. Do NOT remove any other persons lock
or tag Do NOT operate any equipment while a
danger tag is in place.
71
OHS
Isolation and Tagging Procedures
Removal of Tags
If the person who placed the Danger Tag is away,
only supervisors or other authorised people can
remove the Danger Tag. But first they must
Acquaint themselves with the reasons for the tag
being attached
Carry out all necessary inspections and tests on
the circuits/equipment.
Ensure that the equipment may be operated without
danger to people or equipment.
Ensure that all persons associated with the work
are informed of their actions.
72
OHS
OUT OF SERVICE Tags
OUT OF SERVICE TAGS are used to advise that a
piece of equipment is out of service. It may be
to protect the equipment from damage or advise
that it has been isolated.
To ensure that it cannot be used, the tag should
be applied to the main isolator of the equipment
and be applied prior to any DANGER TAGS
Only the PERSON in charge of the equipment at the
time the TAG is to be removed may remove the TAG
73
OHS
OUT OF SERVICE Tags
74
OHS
OUT OF SERVICE Tags
To use the OUT OF SERVICE TAG- complete every
section on the TAG
Reason for the TAG
Date of the TAG being placed
Name of the person placing the TAG
Signature of the person placing the TAG
Once the job is complete and all SAFETY TAGS have
been removed, the person in charge of the
equipment at that time removes the TAG
75
OHS
OUT OF SERVICE Tags
76
OHS
CAUTION Tags
Caution Tags are used to advise that equipment
has been modified or in need of maintenance.
It is a two (2) sided tag. Only one side is used
at a time and a line is drawn through the other
side to show the information has been updated.
Equipment may be used with a caution tag in place
so long as the precautions on the tag are
followed.
77
OHS
CAUTION Tags
78
OHS
CAUTION Tags
To use the CAUTION TAG complete every section ON
ONE SIDE OF THE TAG.
Defect
Precautions to be taken
Signature of the person placing the Tag
Date the Tag was placed
Name of the person placing the Tag
If necessary, raise a maintenance requisition to
ensure that the equipment is repaired.
The Tag may only be removed once the maintenance
is complete or modification understood.
79
OHS
CAUTION Tags
Linisher spindle No 2 not running true.
80
OHS
Primary Isolation
The danger Tag and/or Lock-Out Isolation
procedure must be used to isolate all equipment.
Notify the operator that work is to be carried
out.
Identify the isolation points
Turn isolating switch/valve to the off (closed)
position.
Attach padlock and personal danger tag.
Ensure that it is easily seen by any person
attempting to start the equipment.
Retain the padlock key.
81
OHS
Primary Isolation
Primary Isolation MUST be carried out before work
is commenced on any equipment that could be
dangerous e.g.
Electrical Equipment.
Machinery
Pipelines
Remember Only you can remove your personal
Danger Tag or Lock
82
OHS
Risk Management
83
Risk Management
OHS
Hazards Identification Reporting
Hazard identification and assessment can be
improved through hazard and incident reporting.
Analysis of accident reports allows
identification of problem areas by looking at the
illness and injury types and rates occurring in
the workplace.
Accidents are defined as events which result in
death, injury, illness or property damage or
which could have resulted in any of the above.
The word accident is often used to describe near
misses. Near misses are better described as
near hits
84
Risk Management
OHS
Components of Hazards Identification
A register of all plant and equipment should be
maintained
Develop a task list
Analysis all available information about the
plant or task
Organise regular workplace inspections
85
Risk Management
OHS
Risk Assessment
A risk is the outcome of a hazard
A Risk assessment must assess risks arising from
Systems of work associated with plant/task where
a hazard was identified
The layout and condition of the work environment
where the plant/task is to be used/performed
The capability, skills, experience of the operator
86
Risk Management
OHS
Risk Assessment
Undertaking Risk Assessment
Produce a list of all tasks
For each task, identify the Hazard/Risk
relationship
The capability, skills, experience of the operator
For each risk establish
A Risk probability (very likely, likely, unlikely)
Risk consequence, life threatening, lost time etc
Prioritise the risk (high, medium, low)
87
Risk Management
OHS
Risk Assessment
Documenting Risk Assessment
Documents to be kept should include
Any documents related to hazard identification
Any documents related to risk assessment
Keeping Risk Assessment Records
Risk assessment records are legal documents and
should be kept for at least 10 years.
88
OHS
Emergency Evacuation Procedures
89
OHS
Emergency and evacuation procedures
Evacuation is a most important way of saving
lives in an emergency since it removes the people
from the threat. The main reasons for evacuation
are in the case of fire, chemical hazards or bomb
threats. It is important to remember that
widespread smoke is also a serious hazard and
sufficient reason for evacuation.
All organisations should have evacuation
procedures as part of their emergency management
strategy.
90
OHS
Fires and Extinguishers
One of the most feared emergencies is fire
because of the speed with which it can start and
travel and the devastation which it can cause.
Fire is the rapid combustion of materials
accompanied by the release of large amounts of
energy in the form of heat and light. It is also
accompanied by smoke and other toxic substances
which in themselves can be lethal.
Most people who die in fires die from the effects
of smoke inhalation rather than from heat of
flames
91
OHS
Fires and Extinguishers
Fires are divided into four different classes.
Class A. Involving solid materials, e.g. timber,
paper etc.
Class B. Involving liquids, e.g. petrol oil,
cooking fat etc.
Class C. Involving flammable gases, e.g.
acetylene, propane.
Class D. Special category, magnesium, aluminum
etc.
92
OHS
Fires and Extinguishers
Fires need 3 elements to start. The elements
must also be in the correct proportions for the
fire to start. Heat to reach ignition
point Oxygen, without which combustion cannot
occur. Fuel
93
OHS
Fires and Extinguishers
Examples of causes of workplace fires
Electrical malfunctions in machinery
Incorrect storage of incompatible materials
Friction
Dust or vapor reaching reaching explosive
concentrations
Smoking in areas where flammable material is
stored
Failure to extinguish cigarettes before
disposing of them
Welding or flame cutting in an area with
flammable materials
94
OHS
Fires and Extinguishers
Extinguishers
Extinguishers are colour coded according to their
contents and purpose. They are usually placed
near exits and near where they would be used.
It is important to use the right type of
extinguisher on a fire. If the wrong type is
used it may spread the fire.
You should find out what type and locations of
fire extinguishers in your workplace.
95
OHS
Fires and Extinguishers
Wood Paper and Plastic fires. For fires involving
ordinary combustibles, the best extinguisher is
water.
Electrical Fires Electrical fires should be
fought using a dry chemical powder. Carbon
Dioxide is often used. Never use water on an
electrical fire.
Liquid Fires Flammable liquids should be fought
with foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide
extinguishers. Do not use water on flammable
liquid fires as it will only cause the fire to
spread.
96
OHS
Fires and Extinguishers
Extinguishers should be properly maintained and
must always be recharged after use.
If you use an extinguisher, make sure your
supervisor or workplace committee is advised so
that bit can be recharged.
97
OHS
Fighting a fire.
All employees should be aware of the companys
procedures for reporting and dealing with
fires. Ask your supervisor to explain them to
you. Knowing these may save you life or the
lives of your workmates.
In most workplaces, the FIRE response (fight,
inform, return, evacuate) is a suitable way for
employees to react to a fire. It needs to be
sensibly applied not to risk lives unnecessarily.
Lives are more important than property.
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OHS
Fighting a fire.
Fight If the fire is small and it is safe to do
so, attempt to fight the fire. If the fire is
too big to fight safely, go to the next step.
Inform Report the fire. Inform the
person/organisation nominated in your emergency
procedures. This could be the switchboard, 000
emergency number of area supervisor.
Return If safe to do so, and the fire was not
put out in the first place, return to the area
and attempt to contain the fire if possible.
Evacuate If the fire has not been contained,
evacuate the workplace in an orderly manner
according to the companys evacuation procedures.
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OHS
Emergencies at work.
Emergencies are unplanned critical events that
could cause serious injury, illness, death and
property damage, sometimes on a large scale.
Workplace emergencies include
Chemical spills
Fires
Medical causalities from accidents, chemical
spills etc
Bomb scares
Explosions
External dangerous occurrences (e.g. a toxic gas
leak from a tanker accident
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OHS
Ladders
Ladders are commonly used within workplaces and
numerous accidents arise from incorrect use.
Ladders should be used for gaining height in
preference to furniture or boxes which are easily
overbalanced.
This is very important where electricity is used.
All metal ladders and wooden ladders with wire
reinforcement must not be used where there is any
chance of them coming into contact with live
electrical parts.
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OHS
Ladders
Selecting a Ladder
  • Ladders should
  • Be used at a slope of no greater than 41
  • Extend a metre above the surface to be reached
    (if an extension ladder)
  • Not require a person to stand higher than a
    metre or three steps (rungs) from the top of the
    ladder. (If a step ladder)

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OHS
Ladders
Checking a Ladder
Before a ladder is used, ensure that is is free
of
Loose steps or rungs
Slippery steps or rungs
Cracks or splits in side rails (stiles)
Loosened nails, screws, bolts, straps or hinges.
Damaged or missing ties
Defective fittings, ropes, pulleys etc
Looseness or excessive play.
Do not use damaged or defective ladders. Danger
tag damaged ladders
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OHS
Ladders
Storage of Ladders (some important point to
remember)
Store in a cool well ventilated area out of the
weather
Store in a horizontal position and support to
prevent sagging
Ladders over 5m should be carried by 2 people
Do not carry tools in you hand when on a ladder
Do not use a ladder in windy conditions
Ladders should be tied at the top and bottom to
prevent slipping
When ascending and descending use both hands
Do not use damaged or defective ladders. Danger
tag damaged ladders
Do not leave ladders unattended
104
OHS
Manual Handling
What is Manual Handling
Defined as any activity requiring the use of
force exerted by a person to lift, lower, push,
pull, carry or otherwise move, hold or restrain
any animate or inanimate object.
Where are Manual Handling Hazards Found
Most activities contain manual handling
components In the office, packing unpacking a
photo copier In a factory, stacking racks or
pallets On a construction site, carrying bricks,
pushing a barrow.
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OHS
Manual Handling
The Effects of Manual Handling
In 1981, the National Health and Medical Research
Council reported that Back pain is the greatest
single cause of time loss attributed to work in
Australian industry. The onset of symptoms often
bears no relation to a particular incident. It
is frequently recurrent and the consequences of
repeated and cumulative accidental and postural
stresses encountered not only at work but also in
the home, in recreation and in travel.
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OHS
Manual Handling
Activities which may lead to back injury are
Lifting and carrying loads
Carrying, stacking, pushing, pulling, rolling,
sliding, wheeling loads.
Operating levers and other mechanical devices
Maintaining an unbalanced posture while
performing these tasks.
The majority of back injuries occur from lifting
and carrying and may cause permanent disability
to the spine and interveretebral discs.
Over-exertion can lead to hernia, joint injuries,
fractures or spinal injury.
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OHS
Manual Handling
Correct lifting involves six basic principles
1. Plan the Lift
Assess whether the load needs to be moved
Assess the load (size, shape and weight)
Where it is going to be placed? Check that there
are no obstructions
Assess whether mechanical or human assistance is
required
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OHS
Manual Handling
Correct lifting involves six basic principles
2. Work out the best way to lift the object
Maintain balance
Keep feet apart and in a comfortable position
Avoid any unnecessary bending, twisting and
reaching
Minimise lower back bending
Achieve lift smoothly and without jerkiness
Bend knees preferably at as large an angle as
possible, but not a right angle.
Maintain normal curvature of the spine.
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OHS
Manual Handling
Correct lifting involves six basic principles
3. Get a Secure Grip
The whole hand should be used to ensure a firm
grip
4. Pull the Load in Close to the Body
It is important when lifting to have the centre
of gravity of the load as close to the abdomen
(near the pelvis) to prevent excessive stress on
the back and to use the strongest muscles of the
arms to hold the load.
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OHS
Manual Handling
Correct lifting involves six basic principles
5. Alternate Heavy Handling Tasks with Lighter
Work
Jobs should be designed to prevent putting heavy
stress on the same muscles. During the work
shift, heavier handling tasks should be
alternated with lighter tasks to allow the
muscles recover.
6. Team Lifting
To share the load lifting partners should be
similar in height and build and be trained in
team lifting techniques. The lift should be
planned and a person nominated as a team leader
to coordinate the lift.
111
OHS
Chemical hazards
What are Chemical Hazards
Hazardous substances and dangerous goods are all
substances used or produced at work which have
potential to harm the health and/or safety of
workers, visitors or the community. They can be
gases, liquids, solids, fumes, dusts, fibres or
vapours, and they can be pure substances or
mixtures. They can be either manufactured or
naturally occurring substances.
112
OHS
Chemical hazards
Classes of Dangerous Goods
Class 1 Explosives Class 2 Gases Class 21
Flammable gases Class 22 Non flammable
gases Class 23 Poisonous gases Class 3
Flammable liquids
113
OHS
Chemical hazards
Classes of Dangerous Goods
Class 4 Flammable solids Class 41 Flammable
Class 42 Spontaneously combustible Class
43 Emits flammable gases when wet Class 5
Oxidising Substances Class 51 Oxidising
agents Class 52 Organic peroxides
114
OHS
Chemical hazards
Classes of Dangerous Goods
Class 6 Poisonous and infective
substances Class 61 Poisonous Class 62
Store away from foodstuffs Class 63
Infectious Class 7 Radioactive substances Class
8 Corrosives Class 9 Miscellaneous dangerous
substances
115
OHS
Material Safety Data Sheets
What is a MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheets (often called MSDS)
are information sheets which are prepared and
supplied by the manufacturer or supplier of a
substance. The intention is to provide
information to users of that substance about its
properties and uses, health effects, precautions
for use, safe handling, emergency procedures and
other factors related to the health and safe use
of those substances.
How can they be obtained.
Ask the supplier or manufacturer to send one out.
Manufacturers and suppliers often employ
technical people who can also help with further
information or explanations
116
OHS
Noise
The Insidious Threat
Noise is one of the most significant industrial
hazards. Worksafe Australia reports that noise
induced hearing loss is the most frequent
occurring compensable disease.
Workplace noise costs industry approx 35 million
per year nationally. This figure does not include
the cost to organisations of such things as
increased staff turnover and absenteeism, lowered
performance and possible contribution to
accidents if, for example, warning signs are not
heard. It also does not include the personal
cost to individuals and families. All up the
cost is approx 70 million per year.
117
OHS
Noise
What is Noise?
Noise can be defined as any unwanted or damaging
sound in the environment. Noise varies from
nuisance noise ( that which stops an employee
from comfortably using the telephone) to loud
industrial noise that can damage hearing.
Most sound, including workplace noise, is
composed of a number of different frequencies.
Machine noise, however, is usually made up of one
or more dominant frequencies. Fore example, an
electricity transformer mostly emits low
frequency sound which is heard as a deep hum
while something like a band saw produces high
frequency noise.
118
OHS
Noise
What is Noise?
Noise can be continuous or impulsive. Continuous
noise is produced by, for example, continuously
running plant, while impulsive noise occurs in
bursts such as a sudden release of steam or
sudden metal contact as with hammers. Both type
of noise can be damaging to your hearing.
The human ear can detect a huge range of sound
pressures and has a wide frequency response. In
most people this ranges from 15Hz at the lower
end to 16,000 Hz at the upper end. The ear does
not hear all frequencies with equal sensitivity
it is most sensitive to the middle frequencies.
The noise pressure level from the lowest and the
highest must be very high if it is to be heard..
119
OHS
Noise
The Ear
  • The ear is divided into 3 sections
  • The Outer ear, pinna, ear canal, and eardrum
  • The Middle ear, 3 bones, malleus (hammer), incus
    (anvil), stapes (stirrup)
  • Inner ear, cochlea and semicircular canals.

Exposure to noise can cause loss of hearing
through damage to the inner ear, the bones of the
middle ear or the eardrum. Hearing loss can
develop gradually over a period of years or can
be instantaneous if the intensity of the noise is
sufficiently severe.
120
OHS
Noise
Measuring Noise Levels
The human ear can detect a large range of sound
pressure levels varying from 0dB (the threshold
of hearing) to 130dB (the threshold of pain) and
beyond. Note Noise levels over 130dB can cause
immediate and permanent damage to hearing.
121
OHS
Noise
Measuring Noise Levels
Sound waves travelling through the air create
minute fluctuations of pressure which are called
sound pressure. The amount of pressure is
interpreted by the ear as the level of sound or
noise. Sound (acoustic) pressure levels are
measured according to a logarithmic scale called
the decibel (dB) scale. Because it is a
logarithmic scale, a doubling of sound pressure
levels results in an increase of 3dB. For
example, a noise level of 90dB has double the
intensity of noise of 87dB
122
OHS
Noise
Measuring Noise Levels
Daily Noise Dose
  • Employees daily exposure to to noise
  • Calculated on noise level and length of exposure
  • Daily noise dose of one (1) is traditionally
    defined as equivalent to 90dB (A) over a period
    of 8 hours. This is the maximum noise exposure
    level currently allowed in some states.

123
OHS
Noise
Measuring Noise Levels
Where is noise found.
  • Moving mechanical parts
  • Compressed air, gases, steam
  • Motors
  • Metals colliding
  • Friction between materials.

124
OHS
Noise
Workplaces Most Significantly affected by Noise
  • Manufacturing, metal products
  • Mining
  • Shipbuilding
  • Transport other than road travel
  • High Production shops.

Even office workers are exposed to noise,
photocopiers, air conditioning, phones etc.
125
OHS
Noise
Some of the Occupations Most effected by Noise
  • Fitter machinists
  • Boilermakers, Sheet metal workers,
  • Plant operators
  • Process workers
  • Aeronautical mechanics/engineers.

126
OHS
Noise
The Effects of Noise
  • Hearing loss
  • Tinnitus (ringing or buzzing in the ears)
  • Loss of communication skills
  • Unable to hear warning signals
  • Stress
  • Reduction in concentration
  • Reduction in work performance

Cochlea in a bad condition
Cochlea in a good condition
127
OHS
Noise
The Effects of Noise
Employees who work in a noisy workplace also need
to be aware of noise sources outside of the
workplace. Loud music venues, noisy household
equipment, lawnmowers, power tools etc, hobbies
that involve the use of noisy equipment. These
can contribute to the overall daily noise dose.
128
OHS
Noise
Protection from Noise
State and Territory legislation sets out the
maximum noise levels to which employees may be
exposed. These exposure levels aim to protect
the hearing of employees. Even lower levels of
noise can be a problem, especially when they are
loud enough to interfere with work that demands
high levels of concentration, mental alertness or
essential communications.
129
Legislated Noise Exposure Levels by State or
Territory
130
Recommended Maximum Noise Levels
131
OHS
Noise
How to tell if there is a Noise Problem in the
Work Place
  • Difficult to use telephone or hear it ring.
  • Difficult to hear warning signals
  • Its necessary to raise your voice to have a
    conversation
  • Complaints about the noise levels in the workshop.

132
OHS
Noise
If there is noise in the workplace then
protection is needed, it can be provided by
  • Redesigning plant or equipment to reduce noise
    levels.
  • Isolation of noisy plant or equipment
  • Installation of soundproofing or dampening.
  • Rotation of employees between different
    machines/processes so they are not in the noisy
    area all the time.
  • Provide Personal Protective Equipment, ear plugs
    or ear muffs.

133
OHS
Vibration
Vibration is the rapid oscillating (backward and
forward) movement of an object. The energy of
the vibration can be transmitted into the body
through direct contact with the vibrating object.
  • Vibration is found in all forms of equipment and
    transport, in buildings, in and around industrial
    plant and in power tools. In fact, virtually
    everything that is composed of moving parts
    vibrates to some extent. So the problem is
    common to most industries.

134
OHS
Vibration
Whole body vibration typically occurs when
vibration enters the body through a seat or the
floor. Hand arm vibration affects those who use
vibrating hand held equipment or tools or who
operate vibrating controls.
  • Example of equipment that can cause vibration
  • Chain saws
  • Angle grinders
  • Stamping equipment
  • Chipping tools
  • Pneumatic drills

135
OHS
Vibration
The Effects of Vibration
  • There is insufficient information about what is
    deemed to be a safe level of exposure to
    vibration.
  • The risk of health effects from vibration varies
    depending on
  • The frequency of the vibration
  • Whether the whole body or part is exposed
  • The length of exposure
  • The ambient temperature. Hand arm vibration
    exposure in a cold environment is more risky than
    at room temperature.

136
OHS
Vibration
Hand Arm Vibration
Vibration Induced White Finger. ?One or more
fingers become white when exposed to
cold ?Tingling or loss of sensation in the finger
develops ?Fingers become swollen, stiff and
painful during attacks. ?Light touch can be lost,
making fine work and picking up small objects
difficult. ?The ability to distinguish between
hot and cold is lost in the affected fingers
137
OHS
Vibration
Hand Arm Vibration
Vibration Induced White Finger. ?Pain and cold
sensation are felt between attacks ?Grip strength
becomes weaker ?White finger attacks increase in
frequency until the also occur in warm
weather. The disease which is caused by damage to
blood circulation in the fingers, generally takes
several years to develop. There is no cure for
vibration induced white finger.
138
OHS
Vibration
Whole Body Vibration
Health effects. ?Degenerative disease of back and
damage to spinal ligaments and tendons. ?Abdominal
pain, digestive problems, urinary
problems. ?Problems with balance, vision,
sleeplessness and dizziness. ?With very low
frequencies 0.1 0.6 Hz motion sickness may
occur. There is also some evidence that vibration
may cause miscarriage for pregnant women.
139
OHS
Vibration
Protection From Vibration
Hand Arm Vibration Use minimum hand grip needed
to control tool. Avoid continuous exposure, take
regular breaks, e.g. 10 min per hour. Hold tool
away from body if possible Maintain a good
cutting edge on the tool Stay warm, cold speeds
the development of white finger. Well fitting
gloves can be helpful. Gloves that are too tight
or too loose can actually worsen the risk
140
OHS
Vibration
Protection From Vibration
Whole Body Vibration Maintain good posture and
fitness. Use any vibration-damping devices
provided (e.g mats, seat liner ). Take regular
breaks so as to limit the time spent on the
vibrating surface Maintain plant, equipment or
vehicles to keep vibration to a minimum.
141
OHS
Extremes of temperature
Hot Work and Workplaces
In Australia hot work and hot workplaces are
common, especially in the summer. They are any
set of conditions which create heat stress in
employees. The heat can be from hot work
processes, hot climatic conditions, heavy work in
moderately hot conditions and work where
occlusive clothing must be worn.
142
OHS
Extremes of temperature
Hot Work and Workplaces
Factors which contribute to heat stress are those
which produce heat and/or affect the bodys
ability to disperse excess heat and maintain
normal body temperature They Include
Work Rate, The heavier the work the greater the
heat. Air temperature, High temperatures make it
difficult for the body to dissipate
heat. Humidity, High humidity means lower sweat
evaporation, less cooling. Air Flow, High air
flow aids the body in cooling down Clothing,
Heavy clothing can trap heat and lead to
overheating.
143
OHS
Extremes of temperature
Where can Hot Workplaces be Found
Foundries, smelters and metal works. Glass works
and in the ceramic industries (ovens and
kilns) Mines. Coke ovens Firefighting Outdoor
work in hot weather Heavy work in warm weather.
144
OHS
Extremes of temperature
Ill Health Due to Heat Stress
Mild heat illness, weak, dizzy Fainting, loss of
blood to the brain Heat Exhaustion, collapse,
dehydration, salt loss, system overload Heat
stroke, Irritability, confusion, convulsions,
high body temperature Salt deficiency, Lethargy,
weakness, muscle cramps Prickly heat, Red rash,
itchy or prickly. Psychological effects,
irritability, decreased efficiency, decreased
mental functions
145
OHS
Extremes of temperature
Protection From Heat Induced Injuries
Acclimatisation, work slowly until your body
adjusts to the temperature Drinks, drink cool
non-alcoholic drinks at frequent
intervals Medical Check Ups, have regular medical
checks. Breaks, take regular rest
breaks. Clothing, wear appropriate clothing, e.g
loose cotton Symptoms, report any symptoms of ill
health immediately
146
OHS
Extremes of temperature
Cold Workplaces
Cold workplaces are not as significant an issue
in Australia, with our relatively warm climate,
as they are in other parts of the world. However
they are still an issue for outdoor workers in
some parts of the country and in some
industries. Cold workplaces are difficult to
define since there is more than one factor
involved in the amount of chill experienced. The
three main factors affecting heat loss from the
body leading to cold injuries are Temperature Win
d (air speed) Moisture
147
OHS
Extremes of temperature
Cold Workplaces
The lower the temperature and the greater the
wind speed, the greater the risk is. If a worker
gets wet, especially if they are immersed in
water, loss of heat is accelerated dramatically.
The risk to the whole body chilling (hypothermia)
does not generally occur above 10C. However, in
very cold winds, it can occur in temperatures as
high as 18C. Localised effects such as
frostbite require temperatures below freezing.
148
OHS
Extremes of temperature
Who can be exposed to cold workplaces
Fishermen Divers Outdoor workers in
wintertime Refrigerated warehouse workers Gas and
Oil workers (Bass Strait)
149
OHS
Extremes of temperature
Ill Health Due to Cold
Hypothermia - generalised cooling of the whole
body Frostbite - localised freezing of skin
tissue, amputation may be required Immersion foot
and trench foot - Numbness, swelling,
gangrene Chilblains Inflamed swellings or sores
on hands or feet. Frostnip Skin on face or
fingers can turn white when exposed to cold
winds. Chapped skin Chapping results from cold,
dry conditions, causing dry sore, flaking skin
and cracking, especially to lips.
150
OHS
Extremes of temperature
Protection From Cold Induced Injuries
Acclimatisation, work slowly until your body
adjusts to the temperature Drinks, drink warm
non-alcoholic drinks at frequent
intervals Medical Check Ups, have regular medical
checks. Breaks, take regular rest
breaks. Clothing, adequate clothing , clean and
dry, multiple layered. Do Not Work Alone
151
OHS
Psychological Stress
Stress is the outcome of the demands made on us
by the environment, work, home and all aspects of
our lives. The demands and situations which can
create stress are commonly referred to as
stressors.
Some stress is very beneficial and, indeed,
essential, making life challenging, busy,
fulfilled and enjoyable. Without this positive
stress life would lack stimulation and be very
monotonous.
152
OHS
153
OHS
Where is Stress Found
Stress can be found in every workplace, all the
time, across all industries and all types of
work. Sometimes stresses placed on employees
become excessive and cause problems, although it
is often a combination of stressors that cause
the problems rather than on stressor on its own.
Workplace stressors can be divided into three
main groups
The nature of the work The tools and technology
used to do it The orginasational, social and
physical work environment.
154
OHS
Examples of work situations from all three
categories which can contribute to problematic
stress include
Boredom .e.g repetitive tasks, watching gauges,
lights etc Workloads Deadlines Violent
occurrences Poor conditions, dusty or noisy work
areas Fear of job loss Lack of job
satisfaction Poor personal relationships with
workmates or supervisors
155
OHS
What are the effects of Stress. Some
Psychological symptoms
Lack of caring about things you would normally
care about. Irritability Lack of
concentration Forgetfulness Depression Nervousness
Difficulty relaxing Resentment
156
OHS
What are the effects of Stress. Some Physical
Symptoms
Poor immune system, easily catching colds
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