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Hydrogen Sulfide

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Hydrogen Sulfide Death and injury from H2S exposure is unnecessary Hazards & Characteristics THE PRINCIPAL HAZARD IS DEATH BY INHALATION! When the amount of gas ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hydrogen Sulfide


1
Hydrogen Sulfide
  • Death and injury from H2S exposure is unnecessary

2
Hazards Characteristics
  • THE PRINCIPAL HAZARD IS DEATH BY INHALATION!
  • When the amount of gas absorbed into the blood
    stream exceeds that which is readily oxidized,
    systemic poisoning results, with a general action
    to the nervous system
  • Labored respirations occur shortly and
    respiratory paralysis will follow immediately at
    higher concentration.
  • Death will occur from asphyxiation unless the
    exposed person is removed immediately to fresh
    air, and breathing stimulated by artificial
    respiration.

3
  • Other levels of exposure may cause the following
    symptoms individually or in combinations
  • Headache- Dizziness- Excitement
  • Nausea- Coughing- Drowsiness
  • Disorientation- Confusion
  • Dryness and sensation of pain in the nose, throat
    and chest
  • Detection of H2S, solely by smell, is highly
    dangerous as the sense of smell is rapidly
    paralyzed by the gas.

4
Characteristics
  • Extremely toxic, ranking second to Hydrogen
    Cyanide and five (5) to six (6) times more toxic
    than Carbon Monoxide.
  • Colorless
  • Offensive Odor, often described as that of rotten
    eggs.
  • Heavier than air- vapor density (specific
    gravity) 1.189 (Air 1.00_at_ 60 F)
    vapors may travel considerable distance to a
    source of ignition and flashback.
  • Readily dispersed by wind or air currents
  • Flammability - Forms an explosive mixture with
    air concentration between 4.3 to 46 by volume.
  • Auto-ignition point of 500 F Cigarettes burn
    at 1400 F

5
  • Burns with a blue flame and produces Sulfur
    Dioxide (S02), which is less hazardous than H2S,
    but very irritating to the eyes and lungs, and
    can cause serious injury. Chemical pneumonia can
    develop in a few hours.
  • Soluble in water and liquid hydrocarbons.
  • Produces irritation to the eyes, throat, and
    respiratory system.
  • Permissible exposure limit (PEL) (OSHA) Threshold
    Limit Value (TLV)- Maximum of 8 hours exposure
    without respiratory equipment- 10 PPM
  • Corrosive to all electrochemical metals
  • Boiling Point (-79F)
  • Melting Point (-117F)

6
Toxicity
7
  • Permissible Limit / Threshold Limit-
    Concentration at which it is believed that all
    workers may be repeatedly exposed day after day
    without adverse effects.
  • Hazardous Limit- Concentration that will cause
    death with short term exposure.
  • STEL Short Term Exposure Limit- 15 PPM for a
    duration of no longer than 15 minutes.

8
Physical Effects
  • Remember
  • 1 10,000 Parts Per Million
    (PPM)
  • Concentration
    Physical Effects
  • Present () PPM Grains/100 std ft 3(1)
  • 0.000002 0.02 0.0013
    Odor Threshold
  • 0.000005 0.05 0.0031
    Obvious and unpleasant odor
  • 0.001 10 0.625
    Safe for 8 hours exposure
  • Wear Respiratory Protection
    More Than 15 PPM
  • 0.01 100 6.48
    Kills smell in 3 to 15 minutes

  • may sting eyes and throat
  • 0.02 200 12.96
    Kills smell shortly stings

  • eyes and throat

9
  • Concentration Physical
    Effects
  • Present () PPM Grains/100 std ft 3(1)
  • 0.05 500 32.96
    Dizziness, breathing ceases in a few

  • minutes needs prompt artificial

  • respiration
  • 0.07 700 45.36
    Unconscious quickly death will result

  • if not rescued promptly
  • 0.1 1000 64.8
    Unconscious at once followed by

  • death within minutes.

  • C A U T I O N
  • Hydrogen Sulfide is a colorless and
    transparent gas and is flammable.
  • It is heavier than air and may accumulate in
    low places.
  • 1) At 15.00 psia and 60F.

10
Detection
  • Knowing the limitations of your detection devices
    can save your
  • life. When testing, always be prepared for a high
    concentration
  • of gas.
  • C A U T I O
    N
  • Do not rely on your nose to detect
    H2S
  • Following is some common detection devices
  • LEAD ACETATE, AMPULES OR COATED STRIPS these
  • change colors in the presence of H2S. The Color
    change
  • indicates the concentration. For use in low
    concentrations of
  • gas. They should be used as alternate method of
    detection.

11
  • HAND OPERATED TUBE DETECTORS
  • This type of detector incorporates a pump, color
    metric detector
  • tube, and a scale that will give a reading of
    H2S. The pump
  • draws air to be tested through the detector tube
    to react with
  • lead acetate coated silica gel granules. Presence
    and amount
  • of gas on the tube are shown by the length of
    color change on
  • the tube. Read the scale to determine
    concentration. Special
  • tubes may be used for SO2 detection and
    measurement. For
  • your protection, it is advised that you take
    frequent reading with
  • this type of detector.

12
  • PERSONAL ELECTRONIC MONITORS
  • The units are usually hand held or belt mounted,
    and measure
  • the H2S concentration at the sensor head
    continuously.
  • Monitors give an audible alarm, some readout, at
    the present
  • level of H2S.
  • FIXED MONITOR SYSTEMS
  • Monitors H2S concentration continuously at
    various locations
  • where sensor heads are placed. Alarms are
    activated when
  • concentration reaches set levels. Excessive
    exposure to water
  • and acetylene gas can set off some systems.
  • TUTWILER METHOD
  • Chemical analysis for determining H2S
    concentrations. The test
  • can be run on very low and high concentrations,
    and is
  • extremely accurate and recommended by various
    state
  • regulatory agencies.

13
Protection
  • There are three categories of breathing equipment
    you will find
  • on location.
  • Escape Unit (an air capsule)
  • Work Unit (air line with a escape bottle)
  • 3. Rescue Unit (30 minutes which can also be
    used for work)
  • BEYOND 15 PPM OF H2S, ALWAYS WEAR YOUR
  • BREATHING EQUIPMENT!
  • Escape Unit are located near work stations. They
    have a
  • small, self contained air supply and are designed
    to give you
  • enough air to reach a safe area in the event of
    an emergency.

14
  • Work Units allow you to work for an extended
    period of time in
  • an H2S or poison environment. They have an air
    line from a
  • supplied breathing air source. The unit also has
    an auxiliary
  • self-contained air supply (bottle) for escape.
  • Rescue Units provide a self contained (30
    minutes) supply of
  • air usually carried on your back. The weight is
    about 35 pounds.
  • DO NOT COUNT ON A FULL 30 MINUTES since time will
    vary
  • with breathing and work. Audible alarms warn when
    air supply
  • is low and you have 5 to 7 minutes of air left.
    Rescue units may
  • also be used as work units.
  • Read the instruction for care, use, maintenance
    and operation
  • of the 30 minute units on location.

15
  • C A U T I O N
  • Facial hair- glasses- absence of dentures- could
    cause an
  • improper face seal. Your future and the future of
    your family
  • may depend on it. Contact lenses should not be
    worn in
  • contaminated atmospheres with supplied air
    respirators.
  • Your breathing equipment will protect you only
    when you use it
  • properly. You must care for it, maintain it, and
    insure you can
  • get a good seal at all times. All breathing
    equipment, the
  • escape unit, the work unit, and the rescue unit
    all use grade
  • D or E breathing air.

16
Emergency Rescue
  • Put on your proper respiratory equipment.
  • Move the victim to fresh air at onceUp Wind or
    Cross Wind.
  • If the victim is unconscious and breathing has
    stopped. Apply mouth to mouth ventilation
    immediately and continue until normal breathing
    is restored.
  • After reviving the victim NEVER LEAVE HIM ALONE.
  • Make sure the victim is seen by a physician for
    possible underlying condition.
  • R E M E M E
    B E R
  • Cool headed action in a rescue is critical. It is
    the ONLY HOPE
  • for the victim, and is the only hope for YOU, the
    rescuer, as
  • well. YOU CAN NOT RESCUE HIM/HER IF YOU ARE NOT
  • PREPARED!

17
First Aid Artificial Respiration
  • R E M E M B E R
  • Artificial respiration must always be started as
    rapidly as
  • possible because the average person may die in
    six (6) minutes
  • or less if his/her oxygen supply is cut off. It
    is often impossible
  • to tell exactly when a person has stopped
    breathing. He/she
  • may be very near death when you first discover
    them.
  • ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION
  • (mouth to
    mouth)
  • Place the victim on his back. If a foreign matter
    is visible in the
  • victims mouth wipe it out with your finger.
    Place the palm of
  • one hand on the forehead and 2 fingers on the
    bony part of the
  • chin. Lift the chin to open the airway.

18
  • Maintain the chin lift- Look, Listen, and Feel
    for breathing. If no
  • breathing pinch the victims nose closed, take a
    deep breath.
  • Seal your mouth over the victims and give two
    (2) slow full
  • breaths.
  • Check for a pulse at the victims neck (carotid
    pulse) if there is a
  • pulse but no breathing then you need to keep
    breathing for the
  • person.
  • You should provide at least one breath every five
    (5) seconds,
  • or twelve (12) per minute. If the victims airway
    is clear, only
  • moderate resistance will be felt.

19
  • Watch the victims chest, when you see it rise,
    stop blowing.
  • Raise your mouth and turn your head and listen
    for exhalation.
  • Watch the victims chest to see if it falls. When
    the victims
  • exhalation is finished, repeat the cycle. As the
    victim attempts
  • to breathe, coordinate your breathing with
    his/hers. After
  • reviving the victim watch closely and treat for
    shock.
  • NEVER LEAVE THE VICTIM ALONE, and have someone
    else
  • contact the EMS. Make sure he is evaluated by a
    physician for
  • any underlying conditions.

20
  • Effects on Metal
  • Hydrogen Sulfide is very corrosive to all
    electrochemical series
  • metals. It can also cause hydrogen embrittlement
    to steel pipe
  • having a tensile strength of 95,000 psi or more.
  • Blistering and pitting are two other signs of
    corrosion that can
  • indicate the presence of H2S.
  • Metal components used in H2S areas should be
    those
  • manufactured to resist Sulfide Stress Cracking
    (SSC). SSC is a
  • corrosive action causing unsuitable metals to
    crack under
  • normal operation.
  • API and NACE have set down the requirements of
    the metal to
  • be used in H2S service.

21
Location Safety
  • WARNING NO SMOKING signs should be
    strategically
  • located around the rig location. The following
    locations are
  • appropriate In the dog house, on the floor,
    around the
  • substructure, lower landing of all stairs to the
    rig floor, mud pits,
  • shale shacker. Designated smoking area should be
    set up on
  • all locations.
  • Poison Gas signs should be placed at strategic
    points on the
  • location, such as entrance to location, lower
    landing of all
  • stairs to the rig floor, and all areas around the
    substance.

22
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23
  • BUDDY SYSTEM- When H2S reaches high
    concentration
  • workers should team together and work in pairs
    (Buddy
  • System). The system is effective only if workers
    stay together
  • and are watching for early signs of H2S
    poisoning. When more
  • than 300 ppm, the Buddy System must be used.
  • LANYARDS SAFETY BELTS- if the distance between
  • buddies must extend more than an arms length, a
    lifeline
  • should be secured between them. The lifeline
    should be at
  • least a 400 lbs test, soft, fire resistant rope.
    Also, in high risk
  • areas such as inside vessels, tanks, or in a
    cellar, workers
  • should have a life line.

24
  • CASCADE SYSTEM- is a supplied breathing air
    system usually
  • consisting of 300 cu. ft. compressed air bottles
    interconnected
  • to provide breathing air to the workers. The
    system is set up
  • with a regulator to reduce the air pressure going
    to the work
  • area. From a cascade system low pressure hose(s)
    connect to
  • manifold(s) into which each worker can connect
    the hose line
  • for his work-escape unit (breathing equipment).
  • BRIEFING AREAS- Each drilling and work over
    location usually
  • provides at least 2 briefing areas. Briefing
    areas should be
  • located on opposite sides of the location in
    order for one area to
  • be upwind at all times. The upwind briefing area
    is the
  • protection center in the event of an H2S
    emergency. All
  • personnel should report to this location in an
    H2S emergency.

25
  • WINDSOCKS-STREAMERS- Wind will disperse H2S very
  • rapidly. Windsocks or streamers should be
    installed around the
  • location for determining prevailing wind and
    present wind
  • direction. All Personnel On Location Should
    Develop Wind
  • Direction Consciousness.
  • BUG BLOWERS- Large blowers or fans may be used to
  • disperse H2S vapors. In calm and extremely light
    winds, bug
  • blowers are effective in reducing H2S
    concentration in the work
  • area. Bug Blowers should be non spark, explosive
    proof type.
  • FLARE GUN- In the event of an H2S gas release,
    and after all
  • measures to shut in the well or repair the source
    of release
  • have failed, and the public is in danger, then
    the flare gun could
  • be used to ignite the source of H2S. Also, in the
    event of failure
  • of the flare pilot light, the flare gun could be
    used.

26
Dont let H2S get you down
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